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Chapter 1 : Introduction to Part I

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Introduction to Part I, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This is an introductory chapter to immunology. The immune system is a collection of organs and vessels in the body involved in producing and delivering the cells and molecules that protect from infections. Immunology is the study of the immune system and its products and mechanisms of defense. Innate defense mechanisms against foreign invaders include mechanical barriers, secreted products, and inflammatory cells. Innate resistance is present at all times in normal individuals. Its effectiveness may be modulated by physiological conditions. The adaptive immune system is quiescent until it is stimulated by a specific infection or vaccination (immunizing event). Agents that stimulate the adaptive system of immunity are recognized as foreign by the immune system and are called immunogens or antigens. The adaptive system is capable of exquisitely distinguishing among different microorganisms and significantly alters its intensity and response time upon reexposure. There are two major arms of the immune response: humoral and cellular. Humoral immunity is mediated by soluble protein molecules known as antibodies. Cellular immunity is mediated by specifically sensitized white blood cells known as lymphocytes. The hallmark of an inflammatory response is the passage of proteins, fluid, and cells from the blood into focal areas in tissues. The term immunopathology is a misnomer: “immune” means protection or exemption from; “pathology” is the study of disease. Thus, immunopathology literally means the study of the protection from disease, but in usage it actually means the study of how immune mechanisms cause diseases.

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
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Figures

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Figure 1.1

Innate immunity. Innate defenses against infectious agents include skin and mucous membrane barriers and secretions that are bacteriostatic or remove foreign agents by washing them away. GI, gastrointestinal; UG, urogenital.

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Acute inflammatory response to infection. Infectious organisms release chemicals or initiate tissue damage that produces products that are chemotactic for (attract) inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and cause constriction of vascular endothelial cells. This results in passage of fluid from the blood into the tissue (edema) and/or infiltration of tissue with inflammatory cells. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may ingest and kill the infecting organisms or may release proteolytic enzymes into tissue, causing necrosis and formation of pus. Antibody serves to enhance this response and direct the inflammatory cells by reacting with the infecting organisms and activating bloodborne inflammatory mediators brought into the tissue during edema formation. These mediators react with cell surface receptors on the inflammatory cells and enhance the ability of the cells to ingest (phagocytose) and destroy the organisms.

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
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References

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1. Abbas, A. K.,, A. H. Lightman,, and J. S. Pober. 1997. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
2. Feron, D. T.,, and R. M. Locksley. 1996. The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science 272:5055.
3. Goldsby, R. A.,, T. J. Kindt,, and B. A. Osborne. 2000. Kuby’s Immunology, 4th ed. W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, N.Y..
4. Janeway, C. (ed.). 1998. Seminars in Immunology, vol. 10, issue 5. Interfaces between Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Academic Press Ltd., London, England.
5. Janeway, C. A.,, P. Travers,, M. Walport,, and J. D. Capra. 1999. Immunobiology: the Immune System in Health and Disease, 4th ed. Elsevier Garland Publishers, New York, N.Y..
6. Lamont, J. T. 1992. Mucus: the front line of intestinal mucosal defense. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 664:190201.
7. Majno, G. 1975. The Healing Hand. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (This history of inflammation and pathology is essential reading for all graduate and medical students.).
8. Paul, W. E. (ed.). 1999. Fundamental Immunology, 4th ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa..
9. Rich, R. R. (ed.). 1996. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. The C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo.
10. Roitt, I. J. Brostoff, and D. Male. 1998. Immunology, 5th ed. The C. V. Mosby Co., London, England.
11. Roitt, I. M.,, and P. J. Delves (ed.). 1992. Encyclopedia of Immunology. Academic Press, London, England.
12. Stites, D. P.,, A. I. Terr,, and T. G. Parslow. 1997. Medical Immunology, 9th ed. Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Conn.

Tables

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Table 1.1

Comparison of innate and adaptive (acquired) immunity

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.2

Two major arms of immunity

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.3

Functional abilities of the adaptive immune system

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.4

Four cardinal signs of acute inflammation according to Celsus (25 ) a

Citation: Sell S. 2001. Introduction to Part I, p 3-9. In Immunology, Immunopathology, and Immunity, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818012.ch1

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