1887

Chapter 1 : General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818036/9781555811792_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818036/9781555811792_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

Bacteria take relentlessly from their environments, but they do so selectively, because the chemical composition of a bacterium differs markedly from that of its environment. Carbon is what we often think of as the building block of life. The genetic tape, DNA or RNA, is carbon based, as are the cell membrane; the catalysts, or enzymes and the energy storage molecules, such as ATP. The carbon cycle on Earth is largely dependent on microbiological processes, and biodegradation constitutes one-half of the carbon cycle. At the fundamental level, biodegradation and biocatalysis are inextricably linked by the biotransformation reactions and the enzymes catalyzing the reactions. Naphthalene dioxygenase is prototypical of an important class of aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases which initiate the biotransformation of thousands of naturally occurring and industrial hydrocarbons. The reaction with naphthalene and dioxygen yields -1,2-dihydroxydihydronaphthalene. This is thought of as a biodegradation reaction, as it typically initiates the metabolism of naphthalene and related compounds to produce carbon dioxide, cell carbon, and chemical energy captured as ATP. Nitrile hydratase enzyme has been studied for its role in biodegradation of the nitrile-containing herbicide bromoxynil.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis, p 1-5. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
0.5583268
0.5583268
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

Biodegradative and biocatalytic reactions catalyzed by the same enzyme. Naphthalene dioxygenase transforms naphthalene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for biodegradation, and indole is oxidized to the commercial blue-jean dye indigo.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis, p 1-5. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Nitrile hydratase catalyzes biodegradation of the herbicide bromoxynil and biotransformation of the feedstock acrylonitrile to yield the commodity chemical acrylamide.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis, p 1-5. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818036.chap1
1. Hoffmann, R.,, and V. Torrence. 1993. Chemistry Imagined: Reflections on Science. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
2. Ingraham, J. L.,, O. Maaloe,, and F. C. Neidhardt. 1983. Growth of the Bacterial Cell. Sinhauer Publishers, Sunderland, Mass.
3. Vokounova, M.,, O. Vacek,, and F. Kunc. 1992. Degradation of the herbicide bromoxynil in Pseudomonas putida. Folia Microbiol. 37:122127.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.1

Average elemental compositions

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. General Concepts in Biodegradation and Biocatalysis, p 1-5. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error