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Chapter 10 : Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation

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Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Certain large-scale fermentation processes persisted for some time, but after World War II, there was a tremendous rise in the size and influence of the commodity chemical industry. The industry has increasingly looked into alternatives, and slowly but surely, biotechnology is making inroads into commodity chemical production. For specialty chemical production, many different microorganisms are used, for example, sp. for antibiotics and sp. for amino acids. For many years the herbicide was marketed as the racemate, (R,S)- dichloroprop. The (S)-isomer is inactive as a herbicide. As a result, application of the racemate imposed an additional and unnecessary burden on the environment for the biodegradation of the herbicide. In the South Dakota field test, it was decided to implement several treatments. The statistical software used to deal with the large variations was MacAnova, a package developed at the University of Minnesota. The goal of this statistical treatment was to attain a final atrazine level in the treated soils of 2,000 ppm or lower. This study demonstrated that a combination of laboratory pretesting, innovative technology, and regulatory agency-industry cooperation can result in the management of an accidental spill. In the past, applications of biodegradation and biocatalysis for chemical manufacture, even while using similar enzymes, have been carried out by different practitioners. This is changing as industry seeks cleaner practices and strives for greater competitiveness.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Organic Chemicals
0.5682171
Lactic Acid Fermentation
0.4449088
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
0.41692388
0.5682171
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1

Plants are renewable sources of carbon, which can be transformed by microbes and their enzymes to produce many industrially useful compounds.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.2
Figure 10.2

Commercial compounds produced by combined microbial-transformation and organic-synthesis steps. Chiral compounds are shown in green.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3
Figure 10.3

Enzymatic chiral dehalogenation of racemic 2-chloropropionic acid, leaving (S)-2-chloropropionic acid for synthesis of + )-dichloroprop, a commercial herbicide now sold as a pure enantiomer.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.4
Figure 10.4

Biocatalytic route using glucose for production of indigo by recombinant E.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.5
Figure 10.5

Microbial biotechnology will increasingly be used to recycle waste compounds within factories to simultaneously reduce environmental pollution and increase profits.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.6
Figure 10.6

Recycling of a side product of chemical manufacturing into the production process. The product, epichlorohydrin, is widely used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and other important industrial compounds.

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.7
Figure 10.7

Site of a herbicide spill in the upper midwestern United States which was treated with recombinant E. coli expressing atrazine chlorohydrolase. (Top) The soil containing spilled atrazine was separated by earth-moving equipment into different soil mixtures for four different treatments. After separation, the same earthmoving equipment was used to mix phosphate fertilizer and recombinant bacteria homogeneously throughout the soil. (Bottom) The different soil treatments were contained in wooden boxes lined with water-impermeable plastic and covered with wood, with the top raised to allow air to enter but prevent potential rain washout of the herbicide. (By permission of L. Strong.)

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 10.1

Percentages of ethanol produced biologically in the United States during the 20th century

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.2

Commodity chemicals potentially derivable from glucose or other renewable feedstocks by microbial transformations

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 10.3

History of human use of indigo

Citation: Wackett L, Hershberger C. 2001. Microbial Biotechnology: Chemical Production and Bioremediation, p 171-190. In Biocatalysis and Biodegration. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818036.ch10

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