Chapter 11 : The Global Epidemiology of Multiresistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

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This chapter reviews the epidemiological features of the global dissemination of multiresistant serovar typhimurium DT104, discusses the possible origins of this clone, hypothesizes about the possible mechanisms by which rapid global dissemination and displacement of other clones may have occurred, and discusses possible means of control. The clonal nature of mr-DT104 is well established by the genetics of antimicrobial resistance and by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Nosocomial salmonellosis associated with nontyphoidal salmonellae occurs in some developing countries. Four hypothetical models are discussed with respect to their ability to explain the ecological characteristics typical of the agent. These models include: model 1: the enlarged niche hypothesis, model 2: the dissemination fitness hypothesis, model 3: the chance dissemination event hypothesis and model 4: the selection focus hypothesis. To date, the discussion of control efforts for mr-DT104 and similar clones has been limited primarily to debates on the use of antimicrobials in livestock, notably subtherapeutic antimicrobials. The epidemiology of multiresistant serovar Typhimurium is not confined by national borders but is global in nature, as well illustrated by mr-DT104. The available evidence indicates that these efforts should center on selection foci, such as calf-raising operations, which serve as reservoirs of serovar Typhimurium and as sites for clonal competition among epidemic multiresistant strains.

Citation: Hancock D, Gay J, Rice D, Davis M, Gay C, Besser T. 2000. The Global Epidemiology of Multiresistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104, p 217-243. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch11

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Table 1

Year of first known isolations, by species and country, of serovar Typhimurium with resistance pattern ACSSuT and phage type 104

Citation: Hancock D, Gay J, Rice D, Davis M, Gay C, Besser T. 2000. The Global Epidemiology of Multiresistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104, p 217-243. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch11

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