1887

Chapter 3 : Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818050/9781555812010_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818050/9781555812010_Chap03-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter deals with the history of agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biological warfare directed toward animal agriculture, specifically horses, cattle (both beef and dairy), swine, sheep, goats, and poultry. A recent investigative report concludes that it was an ambitious and well-planned program, conducted on three continents, but that the success of the attacks was questionable. In a very recent excellent investigative report on the introduction of rabbit calicivirus disease into New Zealand, Steve Goldstein offers a serious, thorough review of agroterrorism and biological crimes. The animal pathogens and the species affected that are most often mentioned as being the most important as potential agroterrorism attack agents are, for cattle, foot-and-mouth disease virus and rinderpest virus; for swine, foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, and African swine fever virus; and for poultry, avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. With U.S. government funding and attention focused on countering biological weapons targeted at humans, agencies and groups are just now becoming aware of the threat posed by agroterrorism and biological warfare directed against the nation's animals and crops. The current laws that authorize investigations of potential terrorism rest on assumptions that may be misaligned for preventing and punishing agroterrorism. The biocrimal acts and the consequent economic impact clearly demonstrate that agriculture can be the target of an economically devastating terrorist or criminal attack.

Citation: Wilson T, Logan-Henfrey L, Weller R, Kellman B. 2000. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture, p 23-57. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
0.6522976
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
0.5218381
African swine fever virus
0.5052188
0.6522976
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818050.chap3
1.Agricultural Research Service. 1961. A leader's guide to agriculture's defense against biological warfare and other outbreaks. ARS Special Report ARS 22-75. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
2. Alibek, K.,, and S. Handelman. 1999. Biohazard. Random House, New York, N.Y.
3. Amass, S. F.,, and L. K. Clark. 1999. Biosecurity consideration for pork production units. Swine Health Prod. 7:217228.
4.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1999. Regional Emergency Animal Disease Eradication Organization (READEO). Manual Emergency Program. APHIS. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
5.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1999. National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS). Part III. The U.S. Pork Industry 1990-1995. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. October 1997.
6.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1998. NAHMS. Part IV. Changes in the U.S. beef cow-calf industry, 1993-1997. May 1998. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
7.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1998. The threat of biological terrorism to U.S. agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
8.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1996. NAHMS. Part II. Changes in the U.S. dairy industry; 1991-1996. Sept. 1996. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
9.Animaland Plant Health Inspection Service. 1996. NAHMS. Information sheet: biosecurity practices on US dairy farms. May 1996. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
10.Animaland Plant Health Inspection Service. 1993. NAHMS. Dairy herd management practices focusing on preweaned heifers. July 1993. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
11.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1993. NAHMS. Biosecurity measures in dairy herds. March 1993. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
12.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1992. NAHMS. Highlights of the national swine survey. March 1992. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
13.Anonymous. 1999. National symposium on medical and public health response to bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:1602.
14.Anonymous. 1999. Chemical and biological warfare. In South Africa Truth and Reconciliation Commission, vol. 2. Grove's Dictionaries Inc., Capetown, Rebublic of South Africa.
15.Anonymous. 1997. Review of public health and biological terrorism. JAMA 278:347446.
16.Anonymous. The biological and chemical warfare threat, p. 154. U.S. Government Document.
17. Barnaby, W. 1997. The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare. Bath Press, London, United Kingdom.
18. Barton, R. 1998. The application of the UNSCOM experience to international biological arms control. United National Special Commission. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 24:219233.
19. Bowman, Q. P.,, and J. M. Arnoldi. 1999. Management of animal health emergencies in North America: prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epizoot. 18:76103.
20.British Medical Association. 1999. Biotechnology Weapons and Humanity. Harwood Academic Publishers, Australia.
21. Brown, C. C., and B. D. Slenning. 1996. Impact and risk of foreign animal disease. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 208:10381040.
22. Bryden, J. 1989. Deadly Allies. McClelland & Steward Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
23. Cams, W. S.. 1998. Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: the Illicit Use of Biological Agents in the 20th Century (September 1998 revision). Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University, Washington, D.C.
24. Caudle, L. C., 1997. The biological warfare threat, p. 451466. In N. R. Zajtchuk, and R. S. Bellamy, (ed.), F. R. Sidell,, E. T. Takafuji,, and D. R. Franz (special ed.), Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of Surgeon General, Border Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.
25. Chalk, P. 1999. The Political Terrorist Threat to Agriculture and Livestock. RAND Corporation. DRR-2187-OSD. National Defense Research Institute, Washington, D.C.
26. Christopher, G. W.,, T. J. Cieslak,, J. A. Pavlin,, and E. M. EitzenJr.. 1997. Biological warfare: a historical perceptive. JAMA 278:412417.
27. Cole, L. A. 1997. The Eleventh Plague: the Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, N.Y.
28. Davies, J. C. A. 1985. A major epidemic of anthrax in Zimbabwe: the experience at the Beatrice Road Infections Hospital, Harare. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 31:176180.
29.Department of Agriculture. 1998. Office of Inspector General 5-year summary of investigative activity. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
30.Department of Defense. 1999. Biological threat to livestock. Foot and mouth diseaseùa foreign threat to U.S. livestock. Film Production no. P6566. U.S. Army Materiel Command. Fort Derrick Productions, Frederick, Md.
31.Department of Defense. 1999. Livestock as military targets. Film, production no. 4903. U.S. Army Materiel Command. Fort Derrick Productions, Frederick, Md.
32.Department of State. 1999. Patterns of global terrorism. Department of State Publication 10610, April 1999. Department of State, Washington, D.C.
33. Douglas, J. D.Jr.,, and N. C. Livingstone. 1987. America the Vulnerable: the Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Lexington Books, D. Cheath and Co., Lexington, Mass.
34. Ekboir, J. M. 1999. Potential Impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in California. Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, Davis.
35. Falkenrath, R. A.,, R. D. Newman,, and B. A. Thayer. 1998. America's Achilles Heel. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
36.FederalBureauofInvestigation. 1997. Terrorism in the United States. Counterterrorism Threat Assessment and Warning Unit, National Security Division, U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, D.C.
37. Fothergill, D. L. 1961. Biology warfare and its effects on foods. J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 38:249252.
38. Forbes, R. N.,, R. L. Sanson,, and R. S. Morris. 1994. Application of subjective methods to the determination of the likelihood and consequences of the entry of foot-and-mouth disease in New Zealand. N. Z. Vet. J. 42:8188.
39. Frazier, T. W.,, and D. C. Richardson. 1999. Food and Agriculture Security. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 894:1233.
40. Gillespie, J. R. 2000. The underlying interrelated issues of biosecurity. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 24:622623.
41. Goldstein, S.. 2000. Rabbit response: rabbit hemorrhagic virus New Zealand. 13 February 2000, p. 816,22,23. Philadelphia Enquirer, Philadelphia, Pa.
42. Goldstein, S.. 1999. U.S. could face new terror tact: Ag warfare, p. 1. 22 June 1999. Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia, Pa.
43. Gordon, J. C.,, and S. B. Nielsen. 1986. Biological terrorism: a direct threat to our livestock industry. Mil. Med. 151:357363.
44. Gorman, S. 1999. Bioterrorism down on the farm. Be afraid, be moderately afraid. Special Report. Natl. J. 31:812813.
45. Hale, M. W.,, and R. V. L. Walker. 1946. Rinderpest. XIII. The production of rinderpest vaccine from an attenuated strain of virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 7:199211.
46. Hall, S. D. 1999. U.S. Food Vulnerability to Intentional Contamination (Bioterrorism): History, Perspectives and Prevention. M.S. thesis, University of Texas-Houston Health Science School of Public Health, Houston, Tex.
47. Harris, S. H.. 1994. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1934r-45, and the American Coverup. Routledge, London, United Kingdom.
48. Hugh-Jones, M. 1992. Wickham Steed and German biological warfare research. Intelligence Natl. Security 7:379402.
49. Huxsoll, D. L.,, W. C. Patrick III,, and C. D. Parrott. 1987. Veterinary services in biological disasters. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 190:714722.
50. Kadlec, R. P.,, A. P. Zelicoff,, and A. M. Vrtis. 1997. Biological weapons control: prospects and implications for the future. JAMA 278:351356.
51. Kadlec, R. P., 1995. B. R. Schneider, and L. E. Grinter (ed.), Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare, p. 251266. Air University Press, Battlefield of the Future. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.
52. Kobuch, W. E.,, J. Davis,, K. Fleischer,, M. Isaacson,, and P. C. B. Turnbull. 1990. Clinical and epidemiological study of 621 patients with anthrax in Western Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax. Salisbury Med. Bull. 68(Suppl.):3438.
53. Lawrence, J. A.,, C. M. Foggin,, and R. A. I. Norval. 1980. The effects of the war on the control of diseases of livestock in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). Vet. Rec. 107:8285.
54. Laquer, W. 1999. The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
55. Lederberg, J. 1999. Introduction, In J. Lederberg (ed.), Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
56. Leitenberg, M. 1971. The problems of chemical and biological warfare. Stockholm Int. Peace Res. Inst. 1:214230.
57.Livestock Conservation Institute. 1999. Animal Health Emergency Management update: vet to the rescue of animal health in Oregon. Livestock Conservation Institute summer/fall newsletter.
58. MacKereth, G. 1997. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)--the New Zealand experience. Foreign Animal Disease Training Course, Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, New York, N.Y.
59. Mangold, T.,, and J. Goldberg. 1999. Plague Wars: a True Story of Biological Warfare. St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y.
60. McCauley, E. H.,, J. C. NewJr.,, W. B. Sundquist,, N. A. Aulaqi,, and W. M. Miller. 1979. A Study of the Potential Economic Impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in the United States. University of Minnesota, under a cooperative agreement with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
61. Meuwissen, M. P. H.,, S. H. Horst,, R. B. M. Huirue,, and A. A. Dijkhuizen. 1999. A model to estimate the financial consequences of classical swine fever outbreaks: principles and outbreaks. Prev. Vet. Med. 42:249270.
62. Murray, G.,, and P. M. Thornber. 1999. Management of animal health emergencies. OIE Revue Sci. Tech. 18:1287.
63. Nass, M.. 1992. Anthrax epizootic in Zimbabwe, 1978-1980: due to deliberate spread? A new etiology. PSR Q. 2:198209.
64.National Academy of Sciences. 1999. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response. Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
65. Neher, N.J. 1996. Food Terrorism: The Need for a Coordinated Response. The Wisconsin Experience, Agricultural Resource Management Division, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wis.
66. Noah, D.,, A. L. Sobel,, S. M. Ostroff,, and J. A. Kildew. 1998. Biological warfare training: infectious disease outbreak differentiate criteria. Mil. Med. 163:198201.
67.Office of the Inspector General, USDA. 1998. Five-year summary of investigative activity. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
68. Preston, R. 1998. The bioweaponeers. The New Yorker, March 9, p. 5265.
69. Preston, R. 1997. The Cobra Event. Random House, New York, N.Y.
70. Probst, P. S. 1999. Terrorism overview. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 894:154158.
71. Pugh, A. O.,, and J. C. A. Davies. 1990. Human anthrax in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax. Salisbury Med. Bull. 68:3233.
72. Purver, R. 1995. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: the Threat According to the Open Literature. Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Canadian Security Intelligence Agency, Ottawa, Canada.
73. Regis, E. 1999. The Biology of Doom: the History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project. Henry Holt and Company, New York, N.Y.
74. Rimmington, A. 1999. Anti-Livestock and Anti-Crop Offensive Biological Warfare Programs in Russia and the Newly Independent Republic. Center for Russian and Eastern European Studies, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
75. Roberts, B. (ed.). 1997. Terrorism with Chemical and Biological Weapons: Collaborative Risks and Responses. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, Alexandria, Va.
76. Robertson, A. G.,, and L. J. Robertson. 1995. From ASPS to allegations: biological warfare in history. Mil. Med. 160:369373.
77. Rodgers, P.,, S. Whitby,, and M. Dando. 1999. Biological warfare against crops. Sci. Am. 280:7075.
78. Simon, J. D. 1997. Biological terrorism: preparing to meet the threat. JAMA 278:428430.
79. Simon, J. D. 1994. The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
80. Stalheim, O. H. V. 1987. Veterinary services in emergencies: food safety and inspection. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 190:723732.
81. Stern, J. 1999. The prospect of domestic bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:517522.
82. Todd, F. A. 1952. Biological warfare against our livestock. N. Am. Vet. 33:689691.
83. Tucker, J.,, and J. Pate. 2000. Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear Database. Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, Calif
84. Tucker, J. 1999. Historical trends related to bioterrorism: an empirical analysis. Emerg. Infect Dis. 5:498504.
85. Wheelis, M.,. 1999. Biological sabotage in World War I, p. 3562. In E. Geissler, and J. E. van Courtland Moon (ed.), Biological and Toxic Weapons: Research Development, and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945. International and Peace Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
86. Yang, P. C.,, R. M. Chu,, W. B. Chung,, and H. T. Sung. 1999. Epidemiological characteristics and financial costs of the 1997 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Taiwan. Vet. Rec. 145:731734.
87. Zajtchuk, R.,, F. R. Sidell,, E. T., Takafuji,, and D. R. Franz. 1997. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare, p. 451466. In Textbook of Military Medicine, Part I: Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty. Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.
88. Zilinskas, R. 1999. Cuban allegations of biological warfare by the United States: assessing the evidence. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 25:173227.
89. Zilinskas, R. A. 1998. Verifying compliance to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Crit Rev. Microbiol. 24:195218.
90. Zilinskas, R. A. 1997. Iraq's biological weapons: the past as future? JAMA 278:418424.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Incidences in which animals were targets for biological terrorism (BT), biological crime (BC), or biological warfare (BW) during the last century

Citation: Wilson T, Logan-Henfrey L, Weller R, Kellman B. 2000. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture, p 23-57. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch3
Generic image for table
Table 2

Animal and plant pathogens currently being considered by the Ad Hoc Group of State Parties to the BWC

Citation: Wilson T, Logan-Henfrey L, Weller R, Kellman B. 2000. Agroterrorism, Biological Crimes, and Biological Warfare Targeting Animal Agriculture, p 23-57. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch3

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error