1887

Chapter 9 : Leptospirosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Leptospirosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818050/9781555812010_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818050/9781555812010_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

In livestock, the main sources of economic loss caused by leptospirosis include abortions, stillbirths, birth of weak neonates, animal deaths, loss of milk production, and costs of veterinary care, treatment, and vaccines. Animals that have been exposed to or infected with are not eligible for import or export because of the risk of transmission of the disease. Perhaps the most confusing facet of leptospirosis is the classification and nomenclature of the causative agent. Bacteriologists recognized early on that there were clinically and epidemiologically distinct types of leptospirosis. Clinicians recognized that there were different types of leptospirosis and that it was important to identify the type of leptospire, and therefore the likely animal reservoir, to control outbreaks of leptospirosis in their patients. In addition, investigators often study one particular serovar in one particular host (often not the natural host), and it is difficult to compare results between studies. However, several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed to be important in the development of leptospirosis, including bacterial motility and adhesion, bacterial toxins, persistence of infection, and immune-mediated tissue damage. LPS is postulated to be important in the development of the endothelial damage and platelet aggregation that lead to thrombocytopenia in acute leptospirosis. The difficulties in recognition and diagnosis of this infectious disease are legendary, and the availability of quality diagnostic support is crucial. Physicians, veterinarians, and public health authorities must work closely together to recognize, document, and control this important zoonotic disease.

Citation: Bolin C. 2000. Leptospirosis, p 185-200. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Outer Membrane Proteins
0.5068493
Infectious Diseases
0.41041774
Zoonotic Diseases
0.40969092
0.5068493
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818050.chap9
1. Adin, C. A.,, and L. D. Cowgill. 2000. Treatment and outcome of dogs with leptospirosis: 36 cases (1990-1998). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 216:371375.
2.Anonymous. 1997. Outbreak of leptospirosis among white-water rafters—Costa Rica, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:577579.
3. Ballard, S. A.,, M. Williams,, B. Adler,, and S. Faine. 1986. Interactions of virulent and avirulent leptospires with primary cultures of renal epithelial cells. J. Med. Microbiol. 21:5967.
4. Banfi, H.,, M. Cinco,, M. Bellini,, and M. R. Sorano. 1982. The role of antibodies and serum complement in the interaction between macrophages and leptospires. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128:813816.
5. Barnett, J.,, D. Barnett,, C. Bolin,, T. Summers,, E. Wagar,, N. Cheville,, R. Hartskeerl,, and D. Haake. 1999. Expression and distribution of leptospiral outer membrane components during renal infection of hamsters. Infect. Immun. 67:853861.
6. Birnbaum, N.,, S. C. Barr,, S. A. Center,, T. Schermerhorn,, J. F. Randolph,, and K. W. Simpson. 1998. Naturally acquired leptospirosis in 36 dogs: serological and clinicopathological features. J. Small Anim. Pract. 39:231236.
7. Bolin, C. A. 1996. Diagnosis of leptospirosis: a reemerging disease of companion animals. Semin. Vet. Med. Surg. (Small Anim.) 11:166171.
8. Bolin, C. A.,, and J. F. Prescott,. 1999. Leptospirosis, p. 352357. In J. L. Howard, and R. A. Smith (ed.), Current Veterinary Therapy: Food Animal Practice 4. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pa.
9. Bolin, C. A.,, A. B. Thiermann,, A. L. Handsaker,, and J. W. Foley. 1989. Effect of vaccination with a pentavalent leptospiral vaccine on Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis infection of pregnant cattle. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:161165.
10. Brem, S.,, H. Gerhards,, B. Wollanke,, P. Meyer,, and H. Kopp. 1998. Intraokularer Lep-tospirennachweis bei 4 Pferden mit recidiviertender Uveitis (ERU). [Intraocular leptospi-ra isolation in 4 horses suffering from equine recurrent uveitis (ERU)]. Berl. Münch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 111:415417.
11. Brenner, D. J.,, A. F. Kaufmann,, K. R. Sulzer,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, F. C. Rogers,, and R. S. Weyant. 1999. Further determination of DNA relatedness between serogroups and serovars in the family Leptospiraceae with a proposal for Leptospira alexanderi sp. nov. and four new Leptospira genomospecies. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:839858.
12. Cinco, M.,, E. Banfi,, and M. R. Soranzo. 1981. Studies on the interaction between macrophages and leptospires. J. Gen. Microbiol. 124:409413.
13. Cole, J.,, L. Sangsteer,, C. Sulzer,, A. Pursell,, and H. Ellinghausen. 1982. Infections with Encephalitizoon cuniculi and Leptospira interrogans, serovars grippotyphosa and ballum, in a kennel of Foxhounds. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 180:435437.
14. Dikken, H.,, and E. Kmety,. 1978. Serological typing methods of leptospires, p. 260295. In T. Bergan, and R. Norris (ed.), Methods in Microbiology, vol. 11. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
15. Dózsa, L., E Kemenes, and T. Szent-Iványi. 1960. Susceptibility of the red blood cells of ruminants with a four-chambered stomach (Pecora) to the haemotoxin of pathogenic leptospires. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 10:3544.
16. Ellis, W. A.,, J. A. Cassells,, and J. Doyle. 1986. Genital leptospirosis in bulls. Vet. Rec. 118:333.
17. Ellis, W. A.,, P. J. McParland,, D. G. Bryson,, and J. A. Cassells. 1986. Boars as carriers of leptospires of the Australis serogroup on farms with an abortion problem. Vet. Rec. 118:563.
18. Ellis, W. A.,, J. G. Songer,, J. Montgomery,, and J. A. Cassells. 1986. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the genital and urinary tracts of non-pregnant cattle. Vet. Rec. 118:1113.
19. Faine, S. 1964. Reticuloendothelial phagocytosis of virulent leptospires. Am. J. Vet. Res. 25:830835.
20. Faine, S. 1957. Virulence in Leptospira. I. Reactions of guinea-pigs to experimental infection with Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38:17.
21. Faine, S. 1957. Virulence in Leptospira. II. The growth in vivo of virulent Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 38:814.
22. Faine, S.,, B. Adler,, C. Bolin,, and P. Perolat. 1999. Leptospira and Leptospirosis, 2nd ed. Medisci Press, Melbourne, Australia.
23. Faine, S.,, A. Shahar,, and M. Aronson. 1964. Phagocytosis and its significance in leptospiral infection. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 42:579588.
24. Greenberg, E. P.,, and E. Canale-Parola. 1977. Relationship between cell coiling and motility of spirochetes in viscous environments. J. Bacteriol. 131:960969.
25. Haake, D. A.,, E. M. Walker,, D. R. Blanco,, C. A. Bolin,, J. N. Miller,, and M. A. Lovett. 1991. Changes in the surface of Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa during in vitro cultivation. Infect. Immun. 59:11311140.
26. Harkin, K.,, and C. L. Gartrell. 1996. Canine leptospirosis in New Jersey and Michigan: 17 cases (1990-1995). J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 32:495501.
27. Harrington, D. D.,, and S. D. Sleight. 1966. Leptospira pomona in tissue culture: preliminary study. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:249256.
28. Ido, Y.,, R. Hoki,, H. Ito,, and H. Wani. 1917. The rat as a carrier of Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae, the causative agent of Weil's disease (spirochaetosis icterohaemorrhagica). J. Exp. Med. 26:341353.
29. Isogai, E.,, H. Isogai,, N. Fujii,, and K. Oguma. 1990. Biological effects of leptospiral lipopolysaccharide on mouse B, T and NK cells. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 52:923930.
30. Isogai, E.,, H. Isogai,, N. Fujii,, and K. Oguma. 1990. Macrophage activation by leptospiral lipopolysaccharide. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 273:200208.
31. Ito, T.,, and R. Yanagawa. 1987. Leptospiral attachment to extracellular matrix of mouse fibroblast (L929) cells. Vet. Microbiol. 15:8996.
32. Kaneko, R.,, and S. Morihana. 1921. Untersuchungen über die Identität der Spirochaeta icterohaemorrhagiae (Inada und Ito) und der Spirochaeta icterogenes (Uhlenhuth und Fromme) und über das Verhalten der Spirochaeta hebdomadis, des Erregers des Siebentag-fiebers ("Nanukayami"), gegenüber der Spirochaeta icterogenes. Z. Immunitätsforsch. Exp. Ther. I Orig. 31:201221.
33. Kasarov, L. B. 1970. Degradation of the erythrocyte phospholipids and haemolysis of the erythrocytes of different animal species by Leptospirae. J. Med. Microbiol. 3:2937.
34. Kefford, B.,, and K. C. Marshall. 1984. Adhesion of Leptospira at a solid-liquid interface: a model. Arch. Microbiol. 138:8488.
35. Knight, L. L.,, N. G. Miller,, and R. J. White. 1973. Cytotoxic factor in the blood and plasma of animals during leptospirosis. Infect. Immun. 8:401405.
36. Leonard, F. C.,, R. J. Quinn,, W. A. Ellis,, and K. O'Farrell. 1993. Association between cessation of leptospiruria in cattle and urinary antibody levels. Res. Vet. Sci. 55:195202.
37. Marshall, R. B. 1976. The route of entry of leptospires into the kidney tubule. J. Med. Microbiol. 9:149152.
38. Marshall, R. B. 1974. Ultrastructural changes in renal tubules of sheep following experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans serotype pomona. J. Med. Microbiol. 7:505508.
39. Merien, F.,, G. Baranton, and R Perolat. 1997. Invasion of Vero cells and induction of apoptosis in macrophages by pathogenic Leptospira interrogans are correlated with virulence. Infect. Immun. 65:729738.
40. Merien, F.,, J. Truccolo,, Y. Rougier,, G. Baranton,, and P. Perolat. 1998. In vivo apoptosis of hepatocytes in guinea pigs infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrha-giae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 169:95102.
41. Miller, R. E.,, N. G. Miller,, and R. J. White. 1966. Growth of Leptospira pomona and its effect on various tissue culture systems. J. Bacteriol. 92:502509.
42. Morter, R. L.,, R. D. Williams,, H. Bolte,, and M. J. Freeman. 1969. Equine leptospirosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 155:439442.
43. Parma, A. E.,, S. I. Cerone,, and S. A. Sansinanea. 1992. Biochemical analysis by SDS-PAGE and western blotting of the antigenic relationship between Leptospira and equine ocular tissues. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 33:179185.
44. Parma, A. E.,, C. G. Santisteban,, J. S. Villalba,, and R. A. Bowden. 1985. Experimental demonstration of an antigenic relationship between Leptospira and equine cornea. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 10:215224.
45. Parma, A. E.,, M. E. Sanz,, P. M. Lucchesi,, J. Mazzonelli,, and M. A. Petruccelli. 1997. Detection of an antigenic protein of Leptospira interrogans which shares epitopes with the equine cornea and lens. Vet. J. 153:7579.
46. Perolat, P.,, F. Grimont,, B. Regnault,, P. A. D. Grimont,, E. Fournie,, H. Thevenet,, and G. Baranton. 1990. rRNA gene restriction patterns of leptospira: a molecular typing system. Res. Microbiol. 141:159171.
47. Perolat, P.,, I. Lecuyer,, D. Postic,, and G. Baranton. 1993. Diversity of ribosomal DNA fingerprints of Leptospira serovars provides a database for subtyping and species assignation. Res. Microbiol. 144:515.
48. Rentko, V. T.,, N. Clark,, L. A. Ross,, and S. H. Schelling. 1992. Canine leptospirosis: a retrospective study of 17 cases. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 6:235244.
49. Rose, G. W.,, W. C. Eveland,, and H. C. Ellinghausen. 1966. Mechanisms of tissue cell penetration by Leptospira pomona: active penetration studies in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res. 27:14611471.
50. Segers, R. P.,, J. A. van Gestel,, G. J. van Eys,, B. A. van der Zeijst,, and W. Gaastra. 1992. Presence of putative sphingomyelinase genes among members of the family Leptospiraceae. Infect. Immun. 60:17071710.
51. Segers, R. P. A. M. 1991. Thesis. Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
52. Segers, R. P. A. M.,, A. van der Drift,, A. de Nijs,, P. Corcione,, B. A. van der Zeijst,, and W. Gaastra. 1990. Molecular analysis of a sphingomyelinase C gene from Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. Infect. Immun. 58:21772185.
53. Stalheim, O. H. V. 1967. A toxic factor in Leptospira pomona. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 126:412415.
54. Terpstra, W. J.,, H. Korver,, G. J. Schoone,, J. van Leeuwen,, C. E. Schönemann,, S. de Jonge-Aglibut,, and A. H. J. Kolk. 1987. Comparative classification of leptospira serovars of the Pomona group by monoclonal antibodies and restriction-endonuclease analysis. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. Ser. A 266:412421.
55. Thiemann, A. B.,, A. L. Handsaker,, S. L. Moseley,, and B. Kingscote. 1985. New method for classification of leptospiral isolates belonging to serogroup pomona by restriction endonuclease analysis: serovar kennewicki. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:585587.
56. Thiermann, A. B.,, and R. LeFebvre,. 1989. Restriction endonuclease analysis and other molecular techniques in identification and classification of Leptospira and other pathogens of veterinary importance, p. 145183. In B. Swaminathan, and G. Prakash (ed.), Nucleic Acids and Monoclonal Antibodies Probes. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
57. Thomas, D. D.,, and L. M. Higbie. 1990. In vitro association of leptospires with host cells. Infect. Immun. 58:581585.
58. Thompson, J. C. 1986. Morphological changes in red blood cells of calves caused by Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona. J. Comp. Pathol. 96:512527.
59. Thompson, J. C.,, and B. W. Manktelow. 1986. Pathogenesis and red blood cell destruction in haemoglobinaemic leptospirosis. J. Comp. Pathol. 96:529540.
60. Trevejo, R. T.,. Epidemiology Working Group—Ministry of Health Ecuador, Epidemiology Working Group—CDC, and C. A. Bolin. 1998. Epidemic leptospirosis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage—Nicaragua, 1995. J. Infect. Dis. 178:14571463.
61. van den Ingh, T. S.,, and E. G. Hartman. 1986. Pathology of acute Leptospira interrogans serotype icterohaemorrhagiae infection in the Syrian hamster. Vet. Microbiol. 12:367376.
62. Vinh, T.,, B. Adler,, and S. Faine. 1986. Glycolipoprotein cytotoxin from Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132:111123.
63. Vinh, T.,, B. Adler,, and S. Faine. 1982. The role of macrophages in the protection of mice against leptospirosis: in vitro and in vivo studies. Pathology 14:463468.
64. Vinh, T.,, S. Faine,, and B. Adler. 1984. Adhesion of leptospires to mouse fibroblasts (L929) and its enhancement by specific antibody. J. Med. Microbiol. 18:7385.
65. Weil, A. 1886. Ueber eine eigenthümliche, mit Milztumor, Icterus und Nephritis einhergehende, acute Infectionskrankheit. Deutsche Arch. Klin. Med. 39:209.
66.Wisconsin Outbreak Investigation Team,Wisconsin Department of Health; Illinois Outbreak Investigation Team, Springfield Department of Health and Illinois Department of Public Health; Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; Zoonotic Diseases Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; and Meningitis and Special Pathogens Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, and EIS officers, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among athletes participating in triathlons—Illinois and Wisconsin, 1998. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 47:676.
67. Wollanke, B.,, H. Gerhards,, S. Brem,, H. Kopp,, and P. Meyer. 1998. Intraokulare und Serumantikorpertiter gegen Leptospiren bei 150 wegen equiner rezidivierender Uveitis (ERU) vitrektomierten Pferden. Berl. Münch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 111:134139.
68. Yam, P. A.,, N. G. Miller,, and R. J. White. 1970. A leptospiral factor producing a cyto-pathic effect on L cells. J. Infect. Dis. 122:310317.
69. Zaki, S. R.,, and W. J. Shieh. 1996. Leptospirosis associated with outbreak of acute febrile illness and pulmonary haemorrhage, Nicaragua, 1995. Lancet 347:535536.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Old and new names and the most common maintenance hosts of the pathogenic leptospires that are common in the United States and Canada

Citation: Bolin C. 2000. Leptospirosis, p 185-200. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2

Most common serovars isolated from livestock and companion animal species

Citation: Bolin C. 2000. Leptospirosis, p 185-200. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3

Causes of tissue damage in acute and chronic leptospirosis

Citation: Bolin C. 2000. Leptospirosis, p 185-200. In Brown C, Bolin C (ed), Emerging Diseases of Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818050.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error