1887

Chapter 9 : Prosthetic Joint Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Prosthetic Joint Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818067/9781555811778_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818067/9781555811778_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Prosthetic joint implantation is among the most remarkable advances in surgery and medicine to occur during the last three decades. Five hundred seventy-eight cases of total hip and total knee prosthetic arthroplasty infections seen at the Mayo Clinic between 1992 and 1997 were classified as definite infections according to a strict case definition. The clinical presentation of prosthetic joint infection is highly variable, ranging from the syndrome of acute septic arthritis with the sudden onset of joint pain, erythema, swelling, fever, and systemic symptoms to a syndrome of indolent loosening and chronic pain, which is difficult to distinguish from aseptic loosening on the basis of symptoms and clinical examination alone. This chapter discusses the utility of various diagnostic tests used to diagnose prosthetic joint infection. For patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty, pathological examination of intraoperative frozen sections is useful in selected cases to detect infection. Antimicrobial therapy without concomitant surgical intervention is not considered standard therapy for prosthetic joint infection. The oral antibiotic used for chronic suppression should be chosen based on susceptibility test results, long-term tolerability, and cost. Antimicrobial prophylaxis has been utilized traditionally in operative procedures that have a high rate of postoperative wound infection, when foreign materials must be implanted, or in operative procedures in which the wound infection rate is low but the development of a wound infection would result in a catastrophic event.

Citation: Steckelberg J, Osmon D. 2000. Prosthetic Joint Infections, p 173-209. In Waldvogel F, Bisno A (ed), Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818067.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Positron Emission Tomography
0.4078189
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
0.40699837
0.4078189
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Infected total hip arthroplasty with four draining sinus tracts.

Citation: Steckelberg J, Osmon D. 2000. Prosthetic Joint Infections, p 173-209. In Waldvogel F, Bisno A (ed), Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818067.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Plain radiograph of an infected TKA illustrating lucency at the bone-cement interface of both the femoral and tibial components.

Citation: Steckelberg J, Osmon D. 2000. Prosthetic Joint Infections, p 173-209. In Waldvogel F, Bisno A (ed), Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818067.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Technetium-99 bone scan and indium-labelled leukocyte scan demonstrating uptake around both components of the infected TKA shown in Fig. 2 .

Citation: Steckelberg J, Osmon D. 2000. Prosthetic Joint Infections, p 173-209. In Waldvogel F, Bisno A (ed), Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818067.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818067.chap9
1. Acurio, M. T.,, and R. J. Friedman. 1992. Hip arthroplasty in patients with sickle-cell haemoglobinopathy. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 74-B:367371.
2. Agarwal, S.,, S. K. Kadhi,, and R. J. Rooney. 1991. Brucellosis complicating bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 267:179181.
3. Ahlberg, A.,, A. S. Carlsson,, and L. Lindberg. 1978. Hematogenous infection in total joint replacement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 137:6975.
4. Ahlgren, S. A.,, G. Gudmundsson,, and E. Bartholdsson. 1990. Function after removal of a septic total hip prosthesis. Acta Orthop. Scand. 51:541545.
5. Ahnfeit, L.,, P. Herberts,, H. Malchau,, and G. B. Andersson. 1990. Prognosis of total hip replacement. A Swedish multicenter study of 4, 664 revisions. Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl. 238:126.
6. Ainscow, D. A.,, and R. A. Denham. 1984. The risk of haematogenous infection in total joint replacements. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 66-B:580582.
7. Allerberger, F.,, M. J. Kasten,, F. R. d. Cockerill,, M. Krismer,, and M. P. Dierich. 1992. Listeria monocytogenes infection in prosthetic joints. Int. Orthop. 16:237239.
8.American Society for Gastroenterology. 1995. Antibiotic prophylaxis for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointest. Endosc. 42:630635.
9.American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. 1992. Practice parameters for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis or infected prosthesis during colon and rectal surgery. Dis. Colon Rectum 35:277.
10.Anonymous. 1997. Advisory statement. Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacements. American Dental Association; American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 128:10041008.
11.Anonymous. 1997. Interim guidelines for prevention and control of staphylococcal infection associated with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:626635.
12.Anonymous. 1995. Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance. Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 44:113.
13.Anonymous. 1997. Reduced susceptibility of staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin-Japan, 1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:624626.
14.Anonymous. 1997. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin-United States, 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:765766.
14a.. Anonymous. 1999. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Med. Lett. 41:7579.
15. Athanasou, N. A.,, R. Pandey,, R. deSteiger,, D. Crook,, and P. M. Smith. 1995. Diagnosis of infection by frozen section during revision arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 77-B:2833.
16. Atkins, B.,, N. Athanasou,, J. Deeks,, D. Crook,, H. Simpson,, T. Peto,, P. McLardy-Smith,, and A. Berendt. 1998. Prospective evaluation of criteria for microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection at revision arthroplasty. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:29322939.
17. Austin, K. S.,, N. N. Testa,, R. K. Luntz,, J. B. Greene,, and S. Smiles. 1992. Aspergillus infection of total knee arthroplasty presenting as a popliteal cyst. Case report and review of the literature. J. Arthroplasty 7:311314.
18. Backe, H. A. J.,, D. A. Wolff,, and R. E. Windsor. 1996. Total knee replacement infection after 2-stage reimplantation: results of subsequent 2-stage reimplantation. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 331:125131.
19. Barrack, R. L.,, R. W. Jennings,, M. W. Wolfe,, and A. J. Bertot. 1997. The Coventry Award. The value of preoperative aspiration before total knee revision. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 345:816.
20. Beachey, E. H. (ed.). 1980. Bacterial Adherence: Receptors and Recognition, Series B. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
21. Bengston, S.,, K. Knutson,, and L. Lidgren. 1989. Treatment of infected knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 245:173178.
22. Bengtson, S. 1993. Prosthetic osteomyelitis with special reference to the knee: risks, treatment and costs. Ann. Med. 25:523529.
23. Bengtson, S.,, G. Blomgren,, K. Knutson,, A. Wigren,, and L. Lidgren. 1987. Hematogenous infection after knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. Scand. 58:529534.
24. Bengtson, S.,, K. Knutson,, and L. Lidgren. 1986. Revision of infected knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. Scand. 57:489489.
25. Berbari, E.,, A. Haussen,, M. Duffy,, J. Steckelberg,, and D. Osmon. 1998. Prosthetic joint infection due to mycobacterium tuberculosis: a case series and review of the literature. Am. J. Orthop. 27:219227.
26. Berbari, E. F.,, A. D. Hanssen,, M. C. Duffy,, J. M. Steckelberg,, D. M. Ilstrup,, W. S. Harmsen,, and D. R. Osmon. 1998. Risk factors for prosthetic joint infection: case-control study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 12471254.
27. Berry, D. J.,, H. P. Chandler,, and D. T. Reilly. 1991. The use of bone allografts in two-stage reconstruction after failure of hip replacements due to infection. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 73-A:14601468.
28. Betts, F.,, T. Wright,, E. A. Salvati,, A. Boskey,, and M. Bansal. 1992. Cobalt-alloy metal debris in periarticular tissues from total hip revision arthroplasties. Metal contents and associated histologic findings. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 276:7582.
29. Bittar, E. S.,, and W. Petty. 1982. Girdlestone arthroplasty for infected total hip arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 170:8387.
30. Bliss, D. G.,, and G. G. McBride. 1985. Infected total knee arthroplasties. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 199: 207214.
31. Blomgren, G. 1981. Hematogenous infection of total joint replacement. An experimental study in the rabbit. Acta Orthop. Scand. Suppl. 187:164.
32. Blomgren, G.,, and U. Lindgren. 1980. The susceptibility of total joint replacement to hematogenous infection in the early postoperative period: an experimental study in the rabbit. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 151:308312.
33. Boelaert, J. R.,, Y. A. De Baere,, M. A. Geernaert,, C. A. Godard,, and H. W. Van Landuyt. 1991. The use of mupirocin ointment to prevent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremias in haemodialysis patients: an analysis of cost-effectiveness. J. Hosp. Infect. 19(Suppl B):4146.
34. Bohler, M.,, and M. Salzer. 1991. Girdlestone's modified resection arthroplasty. Orthopedics 14:661661.
35. Booth, J. E.,, J. A. Jacobson,, J. A. Kurrus,, and T. W. Edwards. 1979. Infection of prosthetic arthroplasty by Mycobacterium fortuitum. Two case reports. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 61-A:300302.
36. Booth, R. E., Jr.,, and P. A. Lotke. 1989. The results of spacer block technique in revision of infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 248:5760.
37. Borden, L. S.,, and P. F. Gearen. 1987. Infected total knee arthroplasty. A protocol for management. J. Arthrop. 2:2736.
38. Bose, W. J.,, P. F. Gearen,, J. C. Randall,, and W. Petty. 1995. Long-term outcome of 42 knees with chronic infection after total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 319:285296.
39. Bourne, R. B.,, G. A. Hunter,, C. H. Rorabeck,, and J. J. Macnab. 1984. A six-year follow-up of infected total hip replacements managed by Girdlestone's arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 66-B:340343.
40. Boutin, R.,, J. Brossman,, D. Sartoris,, D. Reilly,, and D. Resnick. 1998. Update on imaging of orthopedic infections. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 29:4146.
41. Brandt, C.,, W. Sistrunk,, M. Duffy,, A. Hanssen,, J. Steckelberg,, D. Ilstrup,, and D. Osmon. 1997. Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection treated with debridement and prosthesis retention. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:914919.
42. Brandt, C. M.,, M. C. T. Duffy,, E. F. Berbari,, A. D. Hanssen,, J. M. Steckelberg,, and D. R. Osmon. 1999. Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection treated with prosthesis removal and delayed reimplantation arthroplasty. Mayo Clin. Proc. 74:553558.
43. Brause, B. D., 1989. Infected orthopedic prostheses, p. 111127. In A. L. Bisno, and F. A. Waldvogel (ed.), Infections Associated with Indwelling Medical Devices, 1st ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
44. Brause, B. D. 1982. Infected total knee replacement. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 13:245249.
45. Brennan, P. J.,, and M. Pia DeGirolamo. 1991. Musculoskeletal infections in immunocompromised hosts. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 22:389399.
46. Brodersen, M. P.,, R. H. Fitzgerald, Jr.,, L. F. Peterson,, M. B. Coventry,, and R. S. Bryan. 1979. Arthrodesis of the knee following failed total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 61-A:181185.
47. Brouqui, P.,, M. C. Rousseau,, A. Stein,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult 1995. Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected orthopedic prostheses with ceftazidime-ciprofloxacin antibiotic combination. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:24232425.
48. Bryan, C. S.,, S. L. Morgan,, R. J. Caton,, and E. M. Lunceford, Jr. 1988. Cefazolin versus cefamandole for prophylaxis during total joint arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 228:117122.
49. Buchholz, H. W.,, R. A. Elson,, and K. Heinert. 1984. Antibiotic-loaded acrylic cement: current concepts. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 190:96108.
50. Buchholz, H. W.,, and H. Engelbrecht 1970. Depot effects of various antibiotics mixed with Palacos resins. Chirurgia 41:511515.
51. Buechel, F. 1990. Primary exchange revision arthroplasty using antibiotic-impregnated cement for infected total knee replacement. Orthop. Rev. XLX(Suppl.):8387.
52. Burger, R. R.,, T. Bäsch,, and C. N. Hopson. 1991. Implant salvage in infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 273:105112.
53. Campbell, A.,, R. H. Fitzgerald,, W. D. Fisher,, and D. L. Hamblen. 1978. Girdlestone pseudoarthrosis for failed total hip replacement. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 60-B:441442.
54. Canner, G. C.,, M. E. Steinberg,, R. B. Heppenstall,, and R. Balderston. 1984. The infected hip after total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 66-A:13931399.
55. Carlsson, A. K.,, L. Lidgren,, and L. Lindberg. 1977. Prophylactic antibiotics against early and late deep infections after total hip replacements. Acta Orthop. Scand. 48:405410.
56. Carlsson Carlsson, A. S.,, G. Josefsson,, and L. Lindberg. 1978. Revision with gentamicin-impregnated cement for deep infections in total hip arthroplasties. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 60-A:10591064.
57. Castellanos, J.,, X. Flores,, M. Llusa,, C. Chiriboga,, and A. Navarro. 1998. The Girdlestone pseudarthrosis in the treatment of infected hip replacements. Int. Orthop. 22:178181.
58. Charnley, J. 1972. Postoperative infection after total hip replacement with special reference to air contamination in the operating room. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 87:167187.
59. Chazerain, P.,, N. Desplaces,, P. Mamoudy,, P. Leonard,, and J. M. Ziza. 1993. Prosthetic total knee infection with a bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strain after BCG therapy for bladder cancer. J. Rheumatol. 20:21712172.
60. Cherney, D. L.,, and H. C. Amstutz. 1983. Total hip replacement in the previously septic hip. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 65-A:12561265.
61. Chik, K. K.,, M. A. Magee,, W. J. Brace,, R. J. Higgs,, M. G. Thomas,, K. C. Allman,, and H. Van der Wall. 1996. Tc-99m stannous colloid-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in the evaluation of the painful arthroplasty. Clin. Nucl. Med. 21:838843.
62. Chimento, G. F.,, S. Finger,, and R. L. Barrack. 1996. Gram stain detection of infection during revision arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 78-B:838839.
63. Classen, D. C.,, R. S. Evans,, S. L. Pestotnik,, S. D. Horn,, R. L. Menlove,, and J. P. Burke. 1992. The timing of prophylactic administration of antibiotics and the risk of surgical wound infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:281286.
64. Clegg, J. 1977. The results of the pseudoarthrosis after removal of an infected total hip prosthesis. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 59-B:298301.
65. Cobb, T. K.,, and R. D. Beckenbaugh. 1996. Biaxial total wrist arthroplasty. J. Hand Surg. 21A:10111021.
66. Cockerill, F. 1998. Conventional and genetic laboratory tests used to guide antimicrobial therapy. Mayo Clin. Proc. 73:10071021.
67. Connor, P. M.,, and B. F. Morrey. 1998. Total elbow arthroplasty in patients who have juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 80:678688.
68. Coventry, M. B. 1975. Treatment of infections occurring in total hip surgery. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 6: 9911003.
69. Crichton, P. B.,, L. A. Anderson,, G. Phillips,, P. G. Davey,, and D. I. Rowley. 1995. Subspecies discrimination of staphylococci from revision arthroplasties by ribotyping. J. Hosp. Infect. 30:139147.
70. Crockarell, J. R.,, A. D. Hanssen,, D. R. Osmon,, and B. F. Morrey. 1998. Treatment of infection with debridement and retention of the components following hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 80-A:13061313.
71. Cuckler, J. M.,, A. M. Star,, A. Alavi,, and R. B. Noto. 1991. Diagnosis and management of the infected total joint arthroplasty. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 22:512530.
72. Dajani, A. S.,, K. A. Taubert,, W. Wilson,, A. F. Bolger,, A. Bayer,, P. Ferrieri,, M. H. Gewitz,, S. T. Shulman,, N. Soraya,, J. W. Newberger,, C. Hutto,, T. J. Pallasch,, T. W. Gage,, M. E. Levison,, G. Peter,, and G. J. Zuccaro. 1997. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: recommendations by the American Heart Association. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:14481458.
73. Dankert, J.,, A. H. Hogt,, and J. Feijen. 1986. Biomedical polymers: bacterial adhesion, colonization and infection. Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 2:219301.
74. de Laat, E. A.,, J. J. van der List,, J. R. van Horn,, and T. J. Slooff. 1991. Girdlestone's pseudarthrosis after removal of a total hip prosthesis; a retrospective study of 40 patients. Acta Orthop. Belg. 57:109113.
75. Deacon, J.,, A. Pagliaro,, S. Zelicof,, and H. Horowitz. 1996. Current concepts review: prophylactic use of antibiotics for procedures after total joint replacement. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 78-A:17551769.
76. Dougherty, S. H.,, and R. L. Simmons. 1982. Infections in bionic man: the pathobiology of infections in prosthetic devices. Part II. Curr. Probl. Surg. 19:265319.
77. Drancourt, M.,, A. Stein,, J. Argenson,, R. Roiron,, P. Groulier,, and D. Raoult 1997. Oral treatment of staphylococcus spp. infected orthopaedic implants with fusidic acid or ofloxacin in combination with rifampicin. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39:235240.
78. Drancourt, M.,, A. Stein,, J. N. Argenson,, A. Zannier,, G. Curvale,, and D. Raoult 1993. Oral rifampin plus ofloxacin for treatment of Staphylococcus-infected orthopedic implants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:12141218.
79. Drinker, H.,, T. A. Potter,, R. H. Turner,, and W. H. Thomas. 1979. Arthrodesis for failed total knee arthroplasty. Orthop. Trans. 3:302.
80. Duncan, C. P. 1994. Optimizing the outcome in primary hip replacement: continued excellence despite continual change. Instruct. Course Lect. 43:297298.
81. Duus, B. R.,, M. Boeckstyns,, and C. Stadeager. 1990. The natural course of radionuclide bone scanning in the evaluation of total knee replacement—a 2 year prospective study. Clin. Radiol. 41:341343.
82. Eftekhar, N. S. 1987. Long-term results of cemented total hip arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 225: 207217.
83. Eggelmeijer, F.,, P. Petit,, and B. A. Dijkmans. 1992. Total knee arthroplasty infection due to Gemella haemolysans. Br. J. Rheumatol. 31:6769.
84. Ellingsen, D. E.,, and J. A. Rand. 1994. Intramedullary arthrodesis of the knee after failed total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 76-A:870877.
85. Elson, R. 1994. One-stage exchange in the treatment of the infected total hip arthroplasty. Semin. Arthroplasty 5:137141.
86. Ericson, C.,, L. Lidgren,, and L. Lindberg. 1973. Cloxacillin in the prophylaxis of postoperative infections of the hip. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 55-A:808813.
87. Espehaug, B.,, L. B. Engesaeter,, S. E. Vollset,, L. I. Havelin,, and N. Langeland. 1997. Antibiotic prophylaxis in total hip arthroplasty. Review of 10, 905 cemented total hip replacements reported to Norwegian arthroplasty register, 1987 to 1995. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 79-B:590595.
88. Evrard, J.,, F. Doyon,, J. F. Acar,, J. C. Salord,, F. Mazas,, and R. Flamant. 1988. Two-day cefamandole versus five-day cephazolin prophylaxis in 965 total hip replacements. Report of a multicentre double blind randomised trial. Int. Orthop. 12:6973.
89. Falahee, M. H.,, L. S. Matthews,, and H. Kaufer. 1987. Resection arthroplasty as a salvage procedure for a knee with infection after a total arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 69-A:10131021.
90. FehRing, T. K.,, T. F. Calton,, and W. L. Griffin. 1999. Cementless fixation in 2-stage reimplantation for periprosthetic sepsis. J. Arthroplasty 14:175181.
91. FehRing, T. K.,, and J. A. McAlister, Jr. 1994. Frozen histologic section as a guide to sepsis in revision joint arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 304:229237.
92. Feldman, D. S.,, J. H. Lonner,, P. Desai,, and J. D. Zuckerman. 1995. The role of intraoperative frozen sections in revision total joint arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 77-A:18071813.
93. Fishmann, N. O.,, and P. J. Brennan. 1997. Optimizing use of antimicrobial agents: pitfalls and consequences of inappropriate therapy. J. Clin. Outcomes Management 4:2533.
94. Fitzgerald, R. H. , Jr. 1992. Total hip arthroplasty sepsis. Prevention and diagnosis. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 23:259264.
95. Fitzgerald, R. H., Jr.,, D. R. Nolan,, D. M. Dstrup,, R. E. Van Scoy,, J. A. d. Washington,, and M. B. Coventry. 1977. Deep wound sepsis following total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 59-A:847855.
96. Foster, M. R.,, R. B. Heppenstall,, Z. B. Friedenberg,, and W. J. Hozack. 1990. A prospective assessment of nutritional status and complications in patients with fractures of the hip. J. Orthop. Trauma 4:4957.
97. Fowler, V. G., Jr.,, F. M. Nacinovich,, J. A. Alspaugh,, and G. R. Corey. 1998. Prosthetic joint infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:1017.
98. Freeman, M. A.,, R. A. Sudlow,, M. W. Casewell,, and S. S. Radcliff. 1985. The management of infected total knee replacements. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 67-B:764768.
99. Fresard, A.,, C. Guglielminotti,, P. Berthelot,, A. Ros,, F. Farizon,, C. Dauga,, H. Rousset,, and F. Lucht. 1996. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Tropheryma whippelii (Whipple's Bacillus). Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:575576.
100. Garvin, K. L.,, B. G. Evans,, E. A. Salvati,, and B. D. Brause. 1994. Palacos gentamicin for the treatment of deep periprosthetic hip infections. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 298:97105.
101. Garvin, K. L.,, and A. D. Hanssen. 1995. Infection after total hip arthroplasty. Past, present, and future. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 77-A:15761588.
102. Gernaat-van der Sluis, A. J.,, A. M. M. Hoogenboom-Verdegaal,, P. J. Edixhoven,, and N. H. Spies-van Rooijen. 1998. Prophylactic mupirocin could reduce orthopedic wound infections. 1, 044 patients treated with mupirocin compared with 1, 260 historical controls. Acta Orthop. Scand. 69:412414.
103. Gill, G. S.,, and D. M. Mills. 1991. Long-term follow-up evaluation of 1000 consecutive cemented total knee arthroplasties. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 273:6676.
104. Gillespie, W. J. 1990. Infection in total joint replacement. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 4:465484.
105. Goksan, S. B.,, and M. A. Freeman. 1992. One-stage reimplantation for infected total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 74-B:7882.
106. Goldman, R. T.,, G. R. Scuderi,, and J. N. Insall. 1996. 2-stage reimplantation for infected total knee replacement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 331:118124.
107. Gordon, S. M.,, D. H. Culver,, B. P. Simmons,, and W. R. Jarvis. 1990. Risk factors for wound infections after total knee arthroplasty. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131:905916.
108. Goulet, J. A.,, P. M. Pellicci,, B. D. Brause,, and E. M. Salvati. 1988. Prolonged suppression of infection in total hip arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 3:109116.
109. Grauer, J. D.,, H. C. Amstutz,, P. F. O'Carroll,, and F. J. Dorey. 1989. Resection arthroplasty of the hip. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 71-A:669678.
110. Gristina, A. G.,, R. A. Jennings,, P. T. Naylor,, Q. N. Myrvik,, and L. X. Webb. 1989. Comparative in vitro antibiotic resistance of surface colonizing coagulase negative staphylococci. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:813816.
111. Gristina, A. G. 1987. Biomaterial-centered infection microbial adhesion versus tissue integration. Science 237:15881595.
112. Gristina, A. G.,, and J. Kolkin. 1986. Total joint replacement and sepsis. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 65-A:128134.
113. Gristina, A. G.,, P. T. Naylor,, and Q. N. Myrvik. 1991. Mechanisms of musculoskeletal sepsis. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 22:363372.
114. Gristina, A. G.,, G. D. Rovere,, H. Shoji,, and J. F. Nicastro. 1976. An in vitro study of bacterial response to inert and reactive metals and to methyl methacrylate. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 10:273281.
115. Grogan, T. J.,, F. Dorey,, J. Rollins,, and H. C. Amstutz. 1986. Deep sepsis following total knee arthroplasty. Ten-year experience at the University of California at Los Angeles Medical Center. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 68-A:226234.
116. Gruninger, R. P., 1989. Diagnostic microbiology in bone and joint infections, p. 4251. In R. B. Gustilo (ed.), Orthopaedic Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa..
117. Guhlmann, A.,, D. Brecht-Krauss,, G. Suger,, G. Glatting,, J. Kotzerke,, L. Kinzl,, and S. Reske. 1998. Fluorine-18-FDG PET and technetium-99m antigranulocyte antibody scintigraphy in chronic osteomyelitis. J. Nucl. Med. 39:21452152.
118. Gutow, A. P.,, and S. W. Wolfe. 1994. Infection following total elbow arthroplasty. Hand Clin. 10: 521529.
119. Hanssen, A.,, and D. Osmon. The use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents during and after hip arthroplasty, in press.
120. Hanssen, A.,, D. Osmon,, and C. Nelson. 1996. Prevention of deep periprosthetic joint infection. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 78-A:458471.
121. Hanssen, A. D.,, J. A. Rand,, and D. R. Osmon. 1994. Treatment of the infected total knee arthroplasty with insertion of another prosthesis. The effect of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 309:4455.
122. Hanssen, A. D.,, R. T. Trousdale,, and D. R. Osmon. 1995. Patient outcome with reinfection following reimplantation for the infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 321:5567.
123. Harle, A. 1989. Infection management in total hip replacement. Arch. Orthop. Trauma Surg. 108:6371.
124. Harrington, R.,, C. Lewis,, J. Aslanzadeh,, P. Stelmach,, and A. Woolfrey. 1996. Oerskovia xanthineolytica infection of a prosthetic joint: case report and review. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:18211824.
125. Hartman, M. B.,, T. K. Fehring,, L. Jordan,, and H. J. Norton. 1991. Periprosthetic knee sepsis. The role of irrigation and debridement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 273:113118.
126. Hebert, C. K.,, R. E. Williams,, R. S. Levy,, and R. L. Barrack. 1996. Cost of treating an infected total knee replacement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 331:140145.
127. Heck, D.,, A. Rosenberg,, M. Schink-Ascani,, S. Garbus,, and T. Kiewitt. 1995. Use of antibiotic-impregnated cement during hip and knee arthroplasty in the United States. J. Arthroplasty 10:470475.
128. Hill, C.,, R. Flamant,, F. Mazas,, and J. Evrard. 1981. Prophylactic cefazolin versus placebo in total hip replacement. Report of a multicentre double-blind randomised trial. Lancet i:795796.
129. Hirakawa, K.,, B. N. Stulberg,, A. H. Wilde,, T. W. Bauer,, and M. Seek. 1998. Results of 2-stage reimplantation for infected total knee arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 13:2228.
130. Hoeffel, D.,, S. Hinrichs,, and K. Garvin. 1999. Molecular diagnostics for the detection of musculoskeletal infection. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 360:3746.
131. Hofmann, A. A.,, K. R. Kane,, T. K. Tkach,, R. L. Plaster,, and M. P. Camargo. 1995. Treatment of infected total knee arthroplasty using an articulating spacer. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 321:4554.
132. Hofmann, A. A.,, R. W. Wyatt,, A. Daniels,, L. Armstrong,, N. Alazraki,, and A. J. Taylor. 1990. Bone scans after total knee arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients. Cemented versus cementless. Clin. Orthop. 251:183188.
133. Hope, P. G.,, K. G. Kristinsson,, P. Norman,, and R. A. Elson. 1989. Deep infection of cemented total hip arthroplasties caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Bone J. Surg. 71-B:851855.
134. Horowitz, S. M.,, J. M. Lane,, J. C. Otis,, and J. H. Healey. 1991. Prosthetic arthroplasty of the knee after resection of a sarcoma in the proximal end of the tibia. A report of sixteen cases. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 73-A:286293.
135. Hovelius, L.,, and G. Josefsson. 1979. An alternative method for exchange operation of infected arthroplasty. Acta Orthop. Scand. 50:9396.
136. Hudson, I. R. B. 1994. The efficacy of intranasal mupirocin in the prevention of staphylococcal infections: a review of recent experience. J. Hosp. Infect. 27:8198.
137. Hughes, P. W.,, E. A. Salvati,, P. D. Wilson, Jr.,, and E. L. Blumenfeld. 1979. Treatment of subacute sepsis of the hip by antibiotics and joint replacement. Criteria for diagnosis with evaluation of twenty-six cases. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 141:143157.
138. Hunter, G. A. 1979. The results of reinsertion of total hip prosthesis after sepsis. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 61-B:422433.
139. Inman, R. D.,, K. V. Gallegos,, B. D. Brause,, P. B. Redecha,, and C. L. Christian. 1984. Clinical and microbial features of prosthetic joint infection. Am. J. Med. 77:4753.
140. Insall, J.,, W. N. Scott,, and C. S. Ranawat. 1979. The total condylar knee prosthesis: a report of two hundred and twenty cases. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 61-A:173180.
141. Insall, J. N.,, F. M. Thompson,, and B. D. Brause. 1983. Two-stage reimplantation for the salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 65-A:10871098.
142. Isiklar, Z. U.,, G. C. Landon,, and H. S. Tullos. 1994. Amputation after failed total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 299:173178.
143. Jacobs, M. A.,, D. S. Hungerford,, K. A. Krackow,, and D. W. Lennox. 1989. Revision of septic total knee arthrplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 238:159166.
144. James, P. J.,, I. A. Butcher,, E. R. Gardner,, and D. L. Hamblen. 1994. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in infection of hip arthroplasties. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 76-B:725727.
145. Jensen, J. E.,, T. G. Jensen,, T. K. Smith,, D. A. Johnston,, and S. J. Dudrick. 1982. Nutrition in orthopaedics. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 64-A:12631272.
146. Johnson, D. P.,, and G. C. Bannister. 1986. The outcome of infected arthroplasty of the knee. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 68-B:289291.
147. Johnson, G. M.,, D. A. Lee,, W. E. Regelmann,, E. D. Gray,, G. Peters,, and P. G. Quie. 1986. Interference with granulocyte function by Staphylococcus epidermidis slime. Infect. Immun. 54:1320.
148. Johnson, J. A.,, M. J. Christie,, M. P. Sandler,, P. F. Parks, Jr.,, L. Homra,, and J. J. Kaye. 1988. Detection of occult infection following total joint arthroplasty using sequential technetium-99m HDP bone scintigraphy and indium-111 WBC imaging. J. Nucl. Med. 29:13471353.
149. Josefsson, G.,, G. Gudmundsson,, L. Kolmert,, and S. Wijkstrom. 1990. Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotics versus gentamicin bone cement in total hip arthroplasty. A five-year survey of 1688 hips. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 253:173178.
150. Josefsson, G.,, and L. Kolmert. 1993. Prophylaxis with systematic antibiotics versus gentamicin bone cement in total hip arthroplasty. A ten-year survey of 1, 688 hips. Clin. Orthop. 292:210214.
151. Josefsson, G.,, L. Lindberg,, and B. Wiklander. 1981. Systemic antibiotics and gentamicin-containing bone cement in the prophylaxis of post-operative infections in total hip arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 159:194200.
152. Jupiter, J. B.,, A. W. Karchmer,, J. D. Lowell,, and W. H. Harris. 1981. Total hip arthroplasty in the treatment of adult hips with current or quiescent sepsis. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 63-A:194200.
153. Kantor, G. S.,, J. A. Osterkamp,, L. D. Dorr,, D. Fischer,, J. Perry,, and J. P. Conaty. 1986. Resection arthroplasty following infected total hip replacement arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 1:8389.
154. Kantor, S. G.,, R. Schneider,, J. N. Insall,, and M. W. Becker. 1990. Radionuclide imaging of asymptomatic versus symptomatic total knee arthroplasties. Clin. Orthop. 260:118123.
155. Karchmer, A. W. 1998. Salvage of infected orthopedic devices. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:714716.
156. Kaufer, H.,, and L. S. Matthews. 1986. Resection arthroplasty: an alternative to arthrodesis for salvage of the infected total knee arthroplasty. Instr. Course Led. 35:283289.
157. King, A. D.,, A. M. Peters,, A. W. Stuttle,, and J. P. Lavender. 1990. Imaging of bone infection with labelled white blood cells: role of contemporaneous bone marrow imaging. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. 17:148151.
158. Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.,, J. W. Mouton,, E. P. F. Ijzerman,, C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, A. W. P. M. Maat,, J. H. T. Wagenvoort, and H. A. Verbrugh. 1995. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus as a major risk factor for wound infections after cardiac surgery. J. Infect. Dis. 171:216219.
159. Knutson, K.,, L. Hovelius,, A. Lindstrand,, and L. Lidgren. 1984. Arthrodesis after failed knee arthroplasty. A nationwide multicenter investigation of 91 cases. Clin. Orthop. Related Res. 191:202211.
160. Knutson, K.,, A. Lindstrand,, and L. Lidgren. 1985. Arthrodesis for failed knee arthroplasty. A report of 20 cases. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 67-B:4752.
161. Kofoed, H.,, and T. S. Sorensen. 1998. Ankle arthroplasty for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: prospective long-term study of cemented replacements. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 80-B:328332.
162. Lachiewicz, P. F.,, A. E. Inglis,, J. N. Insall,, T. P. Sculco,, M. W. Hilgartner,, and J. B. Bussel. 1985. Total knee arthroplasty in hemophilia. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 67-A:13611366.
163. Lai, K. A.,, W. J. Shen,, and C. Y. Yang. 1998. Arthrodesis with a short Huckstep nail as a salvage procedure for failed total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 80-A:380388.
164. Lai, K. A.,, W. J. Shen,, C. Y. Yang,, R. M. Lin,, C. J. Lin,, and I. M. Jou. 1996. Two-stage cementless revision THR after infection. 5 recurrences in 40 cases followed 2.5-7 years. Acta Orthop. Scand. 67: 325328.
165. LaPorte, D. M.,, B. J. Waldman,, M. A. Mont,, and D. S. Hungerford. 1999. Infections associated with dental procedures in total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 81-B:5659.
166. Leach, W. J.,, and D. S. Halpin. 1993. Mycobacterium bovis infection of a total hip arthroplasty: a case report. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 75-A:661662.
167. Leigh, D. A.,, J. Griggs,, C. M. Tighe,, H. D. Powell,, J. C. Church,, K. Wise,, G. Channon,, and L. B. Curtis. 1985. Pharmacokinetic study of ceftazidime in bone and serum of patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 16:637642.
168., Deleted in proof.
169. Leunig, M.,, E. Chosa,, M. Speck,, and R. Ganz. 1998. A cement spacer for two-stage revision of infected implants of the hip joint. Int. Orthop. 22:209214.
170. Lidwell, O. M. 1986. Apparent improvement in the outcome of hip or knee-joint replacement operations over the period of a prospective study. J. Hyg. 97:501502.
171. Lidwell, O. M.,, E. J. L. Lowbury,, W. Whyte,, R. Blowers,, S. J. Stanley,, and D. Lowe. 1983. Airborne contamination of wounds in joint replacement operations: the relationship to sepsis rates. J. Hosp. Infect. 4:111131.
172. Lidwell, O. M.,, E. J. L. Lowbury,, W. Whyte,, R. Blowers,, S. J. Stanley,, and D. Lowe. 1982. Effect of ultraclean air in operating rooms on deep sepsis in the joint after total hip or knee replacement: a randomized study. Br. Med. J. 250:99102.
173. Liebergall, M.,, R. Mosheiff,, N. Rand,, A. Peyser,, J. Shaul,, Y. Kahane,, and M. Shapiro. 1995. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare cefazolin and cefonicid for antimicrobial prophylaxis in clean orthopedic surgery. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 31:6264.
174. Lieberman, J. R.,, G. H. Callaway,, E. A. Salvati,, P. M. Pellicci,, and B. D. Brause. 1994. Treatment of the infected total hip arthroplasty with a two-stage reimplantation protocol. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 301: 205212.
175. Lieberman, J. R.,, M. D. Fuchs,, S. B. Haas,, K. L. Garvin,, L. Goldstock,, R. Gupta,, P. M. Pellicci,, and E. A. Salvati. 1995. Hip arthroplasty in patients with chronic renal failure. J. Arthroplasty 10:191195.
176. Lin, R. V. 1992. A perspective on penicillin allergy. Arch. Intern. Med. 152:930937.
177. Lindquist, C.,, and P. Slatis. 1985. Dental bacteremia—a neglected cause of arthroplasty infections? Three hip cases. Acta Orthop. Scand. 56:506508.
178. Little, J. W. 1994. Managing dental patients with joint prostheses. Am. Dent. Assoc. 125:13741378.
179. Little, J. W. 1997. Patients with prosthetic joints: are they at risk when receiving invasive dental procedures? Spec. Care Dent. 17:153160.
180. Lonner, J. H.,, P. Desai,, P. E. Dicesare,, G. Steiner,, and J. D. Zuckerman. 1996. The reliability of analysis of intraoperative frozen sections for identifying active infection during revision hip or knee arthroplasty. J. BoneJt. Surg. 78-A:15531558.
181. Luessenhop, C. P.,, L. D. Higgins,, B. D. Brause,, and C. S. Ranawat. 1996. Multiple prosthetic infections after total joint arthroplasty. Risk factor analysis. J. Arthroplasty 11:862868.
182. Lynch, M.,, M. P. Esser,, P. Shelley,, and B. M. Wroblewski. 1987. Deep infection in Charnley low-friction arthroplasty. Comparison of plain and gentamicin-loaded cement. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 69-B:355360.
183. Lyons, C. W.,, T. H. Berquist,, J. C. Lyons,, J. A. Rand,, and M. L. Brown. 1985. Evaluation of radiographic findings in painful hip arthroplasties. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 195:239251.
184. Mackowiak, P. A.,, S. R. Jones,, and J. W. Smith. 1978. Diagnostic value of sinus tract cultures in chronic osteomyelitis. JAMA 239:27722775.
185. Mader, J. T.,, J. Calhoun,, and J. Cobos. 1997. In vitro evaluation of antibiotic diffusion from antibiotic-impregnated biodegradable beads and polymethylmethacrylate beads. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 415418.
186. Maderazo, E. G.,, S. Judson,, and H. Pasternak. 1988. Late infections of total joint prostheses. A review and recommendations for prevention. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 229:131142.
187. Malizos, K. N.,, C. A. Makris,, and P. N. Soucacos. 1997. Total knee arthroplasties infected by Brucella melitensis: a case report. Am. J. Orthop. 26:283285.
188. Mallory, T. H. 1978. Excision arthroplasty with delayed wound closure for the infected total hip replacement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 137:106111.
189. Mariani, B. D.,, D. S. Martin,, M. J. Levine,, R. E. Booth, Jr.,, and R. S. Tuan. 1996. The Coventry Award. Polymerase chain reaction detection of bacterial infection in total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 331:1122.
190. Mauerhan, D. R.,, C. L. Nelson,, D. L. Smith,, R. H. Fitzgerald, Jr.,, T. G. Slama,, R. W. Petty,, R. E. Jones,, and R. P. Evans. 1994. Prophylaxis against infection in total joint arthroplasty. One day of cefuroxime compared with three days of cefazolin. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 76-A:3945.
191. McDonald, D. J.,, R. H. Fitzgerald, Jr.,, and D. M. Ilstrup. 1989. Two-stage reconstruction of a total hip arthroplasty because of infection. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 71-A:828834.
192. McElwaine, J. P.,, and J. Colville. 1984. Excision arthroplasty for infected total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 66-B:168171.
193. McLaughlin, J. R.,, M. Tierney,, and W. H. Harris. 1994. Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection of hip arthroplasties in an AIDS patient. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 76-B:498499.
194. McQueen, M.,, A. Littlejohn,, and S. P. Hughes. 1987. A comparison of systemic cefuroxime and cefuroxime loaded bone cement in the prevention of early infection after total joint replacement. Int. Orthop. 11:241243.
195. Miley, G. B.,, A. D. J. Serieller,, and R. H. Turner. 1982. Medical and surgical treatment of the septic hip with one-stage revision arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 170:7682.
196. Mirra, J. M.,, R. A. Marder,, and H. C. Amstutz. 1982. The pathology of failed total joint arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 170:175183.
197. Modic, M.,, W. Pflanze,, D. Feiglin,, and G. Belhobek. 1986. Magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infections. Radiol. Clin. N. Am. 24:247258.
198. Mont, M.,, B. Waldman,, C. Banerjee,, I. Pacheco,, and D. Hungerford. 1997. Multiple irrigation, debridement and retention of components in infected total knee arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 12:426433.
199. Morrey, B. F.,, and R. S. Bryan. 1983. Infection after total elbow arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 65-A:330338.
200. Morrey, B. F.,, F. Westholm,, S. Schoifet,, J. A. Rand,, and R. S. Bryan. 1989. Long-term results of various treatment options for infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 248:120128.
201. Morscher, E.,, R. Babst,, and H. Jenny. 1990. Treatment of infected joint arthroplasty. Int. Orthop. 14: 161165.
202. Mulcahy, D. M.,, J. M. O'Byrne,, and G. E. Fenelon. 1996. One stage surgical management of deep infection of total hip arthroplasty. Irish J. Med. Sci. 165:1719.
203. Murray, R. P.,, M. H. Bourne,, and R. H. Fitzgerald, Jr. 1991. Metachronous infections in patients who have had more than one total joint arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 73-A:14691474.
204. Murray, W. R., 1981. Treatment of established deep wound infection after total hip arthroplasty: a report of 65 cases, p. 382398. In R. E. Leach,, F. T. Hoaglund,, and E. J. Riseborough (ed.), Controversies in Orthopaedic Surgery. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa..
205. Murray, W. R. 1984. Use of antibiotic-containing bone cement. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 190:8995.
206. Musher, D.,, and G. Landon. 1991. Joint replacement surgery. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:1368.
207. Myrvik, Q. N.,, W. Wagner,, E. Barth,, P. Wood,, and A. G. Gristina. 1989. Effects of extracellular slime produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis on oxidative responses of rabbit alveolar macrophages. J. Invest. Surg. 2:381389.
208.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 1997. Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Approved Standard. 4th ed. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Villanova, Pa..
209.National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 1998. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Villanova, Pa..
210. Naylor, P. T.,, Q. N. Myrvik,, and A. Gristina. 1990. Antibiotic resistance of biomaterial-adherent coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 261:126133.
211. Nelson, C. L. 1987. The prevention of infection in total joint replacement surgery. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 613618.
212. Nelson, C. L.,, T. G. Green,, R. A. Porter,, and R. D. Warren. 1983. One day versus seven days of preventive antibiotic therapy in orthopedic surgery. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 176:258263.
213. Nelson, J. 1982. Total knee arthroplasty infection: a review of 17 cases. Orthop. Trans. 6:477.
214. Nichols, W. W.,, S. M. Dorrington,, M. P. E. Slack,, and H. L. Walmsley. 1988. Inhibition of tobramycin diffusion by binding to alginate. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:518523.
215. Nijhof, M. W.,, W. J. Oyen,, A. van Kampen,, R. A. Ciaessens,, J. W. van der Meer,, and F. H. Corstens. 1997. Hip and knee arthroplasty infection. In-111-IgG scintigraphy in 102 cases. Acta Orthop. Scand. 68: 332336.
216. Norden, C. W. 1991. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl 10):S842S846.
217. Oni, J. A., , and T. Kangesu. 1991. Yersinia enterocolitica infection of a prosthetic knee joint. Br. J. Clin. Pract. 45:225.
218. Orton, D. W.,, and W. H. Fulcher. 1984. Pasteurella multocida: bilateral septic knee joint prostheses from a distant cat bite. Ann. Emerg. Med. 13:10651067.
219. Osmon, D. R.,, J. M. Steckelberg,, M. P. Wilhelm,, M. R. Keating,, R. C. Walker,, A. D. Hanssen,, and W. R. Wilson,. 1992. Medical management of total knee arthroplasty, p. 377392. In J. A. Rand (ed.), Total Knee Arthroplasty. Raven Press, New York, N.Y..
220. Owen, R. J.,, W. M. Harper,, D. B. Finlay,, and I. P. Belton. 1995. Isotope bone scans in patients with painful knee replacements: do they alter management? Br. J. Radiol. 68:12041207.
221. Pace, T. B.,, K. J. Jeray,, and J. T. Latham, Jr. 1997. Synovial tissue examination by frozen section as an indicator of infection in hip and knee arthroplasty in community hospitals. J. Arthroplasty 12:6469.
222. Padgett, D. E.,, A. Silverman,, F. Sachjowicz,, R. B. Simpson,, A. G. Rosenberg,, and J. O. Galante. 1995. Efficacy of intraoperative cultures obtained during revision total hip arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 10:420426.
223. Pagnano, M. W.,, R. T. Trousdale,, and A. D. Hanssen. 1997. Outcome after reinfection following reimplantation hip arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 338:192204.
224. Palestro, C. J.,, C. K. Kim,, A. J. Swyer,, J. D. Capozzi,, R. W. Solomon,, and S. J. Goldsmith. 1990. Total-hip arthroplasty: periprosthetic indium-111-labeled leukocyte activity and complementary technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging in suspected infection. J. Nucl. Med. 31:19501955.
225. Palestro, C. J.,, A. J. Swyer,, C. K. Kim,, and S. J. Goldsmith. 1991. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging. Radiology 179:645648.
226. Pandey, R.,, E. Drakoulakis,, and N. A. Athanasou. 1999. An assessment of the histological criteria used to diagnose infection in hip revision arthroplasty tissues. J. Clin. Pathol. 52:118123.
227. Panush, R. S.,, and R. W. Petty. 1978. Inhibition of lymphocyte responses by methylmethacrylate. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 134:356363.
228. Papagelopoulos, P. J.,, J. E. Hay,, E. Galanis,, and B. F. Morrey. 1998. Infection around joint replacements in patients who have a renal or liver transplantation. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 80-A:607608.
229. Patton, J. T. 1989. Bone and joint infection. Curr. Opin. Radiol. 1:324330.
230. Perry, C. R.,, R. E. Hulsey,, F. A. Mann,, G. A. Miller,, and R. L. Pearson. 1992. Treatment of acutely infected arthroplasties with incision, drainage, and local antibiotics delivered via an implantable pump. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 281:216223.
231. Petrie, R. S.,, A. D. Hanssen,, D. R. Osmon,, and D. Ilstrup. 1998. Metal-backed patellar component failure in total knee arthroplasty: a possible risk for late infection. Am. J. Orthop. 27:172176.
232. Petty, W. 1978. The effect of methylmethacrylate on bacterial inhibiting properties of normal human serum. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 132:266277.
233. Petty, W. 1978. The effect of methylmethacrylate on Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 60-A:492498.
234. Petty, W.,, R. S. Bryan,, M. B. Coventry,, and L. F. Peterson. 1975. Infection after total knee arthroplasty. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 6:10051014.
235. Petty, W.,, and J. R. Caldwell. 1977. The effect of methylmethacrylate on complement activity. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 128:354359.
236. Petty, W.,, and S. Goldsmith. 1980. Resection arthroplasty following infected total hip arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 62-A:889896.
237. Pollard, J. P.,, S. P. Hughes,, J. E. Scott,, M. J. Evans,, and M. K. Benson. 1979. Antibiotic prophylaxis in total hip replacement. Br. Med. J. 1:707709.
238. Poss, R.,, T. S. Thornhill,, F. C. Ewald,, W. H. Thomas,, N. J. Batte,, and C. B. Sledge. 1984. Factors influencing the incidence and outcome of infection following total joint arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 182:117126.
239. Powers, K. A.,, M. S. Terpenning,, R. A. Voice,, and C. A. Kauffman. 1990. Prosthetic joint infections in the elderly. Am. J. Med. 88:9N13N.
240. Pravda, J.,, and E. Habermann. 1989. Hemophilus parainfluenzae complicating total knee arthroplasty. A case report. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 243:169171.
241. Pring, D. J.,, L. Marks,, and J. C. Angel. 1988. Mobility after amputation for failed knee replacement. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 70-B:770771.
242. Pring, M.,, and D. G. Eckhoff. 1996. Mycobacterium chelonae infection following a total knee arthroplasty. J. Arthroplasty 11:115116.
243. Proctor, R.,, and G. Peters. 1998. Small colony variants in staphylococcal infections: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:419422.
244. Pron, B.,, J. Merckx,, P. Touzet,, A. Ferroni,, C. Poyart,, P. Berche,, and J. L. Gaillard. 1995. Chronic septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in a prosthetic knee joint due to Clostridium difficile. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:599601.
245. Puranen, J.,, P. Kortelainen,, and P. Jalovaara. 1990. Arthrodesis of the knee with intramedullary nail fixation. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 72:433442.
246. Ragni, M. V.,, L. S. Crossett,, and J. H. Herndon. 1995. Postoperative infection following orthopaedic surgery in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs with CD4 counts ?200/mm3. J. Arthroplasty 10:716721.
247. Rand, J. A., 1992. Sepsis following total knee arthroplasty, p. 349376. In J. A. Rand (ed.), Total Knee Arthroplasty. Raven Press, New York, N.Y..
248. Rand, J. A.,, and M. L. Brown. 1990. The value of indium 111 leukocyte scanning in the evaluation of painful or infected total knee arthroplasties. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 259:179182.
249. Rand, J. A., , and R. S. Bryan. 1983. Reimplantation for the salvage of an infected total knee arthroplasty. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 65-A:10811086.
250. Rand, J. A.,, R. S. Bryan,, and E. Y. S. Chao. 1987. Failed total knee arthroplasty treated by arthrodesis of the knee using the Ace-Fisher apparatus. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 69-A:3945.
251. Rand, J. A.,, R. S. Bryan,, B. F. Morrey,, and F. Westholm. 1986. Management of infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 205:7585.
252. Rand, J. A.,, and R. H. Fitzgerald, Jr. 1989. Diagnosis and management of the infected total knee arthroplasty. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 20:201210.
253. Rand, J. A.,, B. F. Morrey,, and R. S. Bryan. 1984. Management of the infected total joint arthroplasty. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 15:491504.
254. Rasmussen, M. R.,, A. T. Bishop,, and M. B. Wood. 1995. Arthrodesis of the knee with a vascularized fibular rotatory graft. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 77-A:751759.
255. Raut, V. V.,, M. S. Orth,, M. C. Orth,, P. D. Siney,, and B. M. Wroblewski. 1996. One stage revision arthroplasty of the hip for deep gram negative infection. Int. Orthop. 20:1214.
256. Raut, V. V.,, P. D. Siney,, and B. M. Wroblewski. 1994. One-stage revision of infected total hip replacements with discharging sinuses. J. Bone Jt. Surg. 76-B:721724.
257. Raut, V. V.,, P. D. Siney,, and B. M. Wroblewski. 1995. One-stage revision of total hip arthroplasty for deep infection. Long-term followup. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 321:202207.
258. Rehav, G.,, A. Simhon,, Y. Mattan,, A. E. Moses,, and T. Sacks. 1995. Infections with chryseomonas luteola (CDC group Ve-1) and flavimonas oryzihabitans (CDC group Ve-2). Medicine 74:8388.
259. Ritter, M. A.,, C. D. Barzilauskas,, P. M. Fans,, and E. M. Keating. 1989. Vancomycin prophylaxis and elective total joint arthroplasty. Orthopedics 12:13331336.
260. Roggenkamp, A.,, A. Sing,, M. Hornef,, U. Brunner,, I. Autenrieth,, and J. Heesemann. 1998. Chronic prosthetic hip infection caused by a small-colony variant of Escherichia coli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 25302534.
261. Rosenberg, A. G.,, B. Haas,, R. Barden,, D. Marquez,, G. C. Landon,, and J. O. Galante. 1988. Salvage of infected total knee arthroplasty. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 226: