1887

Chapter 18 : Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818074/9781555811945_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818074/9781555811945_Chap18-2.gif

Abstract:

Chronic Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is one of the few well-defined examples of human postinfectious autoimmunity in which an infectious episode with an established pathogen—the protozoan parasite —clearly triggers autoimmune phenomena, most of which are related to documented molecular mimicry and organ-specific damage. Unraveling of the relationship by which molecular mimicry between an infectious agent and self-components can trigger organ-specific autoimmunity may lead to reverse strategies for the identification of infectious agents that putatively trigger autoimmune diseases of suspected infectious etiology. Chagas' disease is a conundrum of several clinical syndromes triggered by infection in a group of susceptible individuals. An array of reports of autoreactivity among Chagas' disease patients and experimentally infected animals has been published over the last three decades. Experimental models of dilated cardiomyopathy have been developed with larger outbred animals, like rabbits and dogs. The chapter critically reviews reports on such models, with an emphasis on those that report on molecular mimicry between and host target organs. Taken together, these reports on cardiac myosin autoimmunity in murine models of Chagas' disease suggested the possible relevance of myosin recognition in the pathogenesis of CCC in humans. The study of fine recognition and immune repertoires in diseases in which molecular mimicry is thought to play a role is probably going to become an important focus of research in the near future.

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Chagas' Disease
0.64103246
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.4941613
0.64103246
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Prevalence of immunoglobulin G antibodies cross-reactive with cardiac myosin and B13 protein in sera from CCC patients and ASY individuals (percent positive) (modified from reference ).

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Cross-reactive recognition of cardiac myosin and protein B13 by T-cell clones E205 (black bars) and E2.17 (white bars) derived from heart tissue from a CCC patient (modified from reference ).

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Cross-reactive recognition of cardiac myosin (black bars) and protein B13 (white bars) by T-cell clones obtained from a PBMC T-cell line sensitized with B13 protein. The synthetic peptide p313 (hatched bars) is a negative control (modified from reference ).

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818074.chap18
1. Abel, L. 1999. Reposta imune celular periférica a proteina B13 de T. cruzi: estudo do reconhecimento antigênico e perfil de citocinas. Doctoral thesis. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
2. Abel, L. C.,, J. Kalil,, and E. Cunha-Neto. 1997. Molecular mimicry between cardiac myosin and Trypanosoma cruzi antigen B13: identification of a B13-driven human T cell clone that recognizes cardiac myosin. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 30: 1305 1308.
3. Ablashi, D. V.,, W. Lapps,, M. Kaplan,, J. E. Whitman,, J. R. Richert,, and G. R. Pearson. 1998. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection in multiple sclerosis: a preliminary report. Mult. Scler. 4: 490 496.
4. Acosta, A. M.,, M. Sadigursky,, and C. A. Santos-Buch. 1983. Anti-striated muscle antibody activity produced by Trypanosoma cruzi. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 172: 364 369.
5. Acosta, A. M.,, and C. A. Santos-Buch. 1985. Autoimmune myocarditis induced by Trypanosoma cruzi. Circulation 71: 1255 1261.
6. Akkaraju, S.,, W. Y. Ho,, D. Leong,, K. Canaan,, M. M. Davis,, and C. C. Goodnow. 1997. A range of CD4 T cell tolerance: partial inactivation to organ-specific antigen allows nondestructive thyroiditis or insulitis. Immunity 7: 255 271.
7. Aliberti, J. C.,, M. A. Cardoso,, G. A. Martins,, R. T. Gazzinelli,, L. Q. Vieira,, and J. S. Suva. 1996. Interleukin-12 mediates resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice and is produced by murine macrophages in response to live trypomastigotes. Infect. Immun. 64: 1961 1967.
8. Al-Sabbagh, A.,, C. A. Garcia,, B. M. Diaz-Bardales,, C. Zaccarias,, J. K. Sakurada,, and L. M. Santos. 1998. Evidence for cross-reactivity between antigen derived from Trypanosoma cruzi and myelin basic protein in experimental Chagas disease. Exp. Parasitol. 89: 304 311.
9. Amorim, D. D.,, and N. J. Marin. 1995. Functional alterations of the autonomic nervous system in Chagas' heart disease. Rev. Paulista Med. 113: 772 784.
10. Amorim, D. S. 1985. Chagas' heart disease: experimental models. Heart Vessels Suppl. 1: 236 239.
11. Andrade, Z. A. 1983. Mechanisms of myocardial damage in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Ciba. Found. Symp. 99: 214 233.
12. Andrade, Z. A.,, S. G. Andrade,, and M. Sadigursky. 1987. Enhancement of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi myocarditis in dogs treated with low doses of cyclophosphamide. Am. J. Pathol. 127: 467 473.
13. Andrade, Z. A.,, S. G. Andrade,, M. Sadigursky,, R. J. J. Wenthold,, S. L. Hubert,, and V. J. Ferrans. 1997. The indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease: ultrastructural characterization of cardiac changes in the canine model. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57: 328 336.
14. Andre, I.,, A. Gonzalez,, B. Wang,, J. Katz,, C. Benoist,, and D. Mathis. 1996. Checkpoints in the progression of autoimmune disease: lessons from diabetes models. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 2260 2263.
15. Anez, N.,, H. Carrasco,, H. Parada,, G. Crisante,, A. Rojas,, C. Fuenmayor,, N. Gonzalez,, G. Percoco,, R. Borges,, P. Guevara,, and J. L. Ramirez. 1999. Myocardial parasite persistence in chronic chagasic patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60: 726 732.
16. Bach-Elias, M.,, D. Bahia,, D. C. Teixeira,, and R. M. Cicarelli. 1998. Presence of autoantibodies against small nuclear ribonucleoprotein epitopes in Chagas' patients' sera. Parasitol. Res. 84: 796 799.
17. Barbosa, A. A. Jr.,, and Z. A. Andrade. 1984. Identificacao do Trypanosoma cruzi nos tecidos extracar-diacos de portadores de miocardite cronica chagásica. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 17: 123 126.
18. Barnett, M. L.,, J. M. Kremer,, E. W. St Clair,, D. O. Clegg,, D. Furst,, M. Weisman,, M. J. Fletcher,, S. Chasan-Taber,, E. Finger,, A. Morales,, C. H. Le,, and D. E. Trentham. 1998. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral type II collagen. Results of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 41: 290 297. ( Erratum, 41:938.)
19. Bestetti, R. B.,, and G. Muccillo. 1997. Clinical course of Chagas' heart disease: a comparison with dilated cardiomyopathy. Int. J. Cardiol. 60: 187 193.
20. Bocchi, E. A.,, M. L. Higuchi,, M. L. Vieira,, N. Stolf,, G. Bellotti,, A. Fiorelli,, D. Uip,, A. Jatene,, and F. Pileggi. 1998. Higher incidence of malignant neoplasms after heart transplantation for treatment of chronic Chagas' heart disease. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 17: 399 405.
21. Bonfa, E.,, V. S. Viana,, A. C. Barreto,, N. H. Yoshinari,, and W. Cossermelli. 1993. Autoantibodies in Chagas' disease. An antibody cross-reactive with human and Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal proteins. J. Immunol. 150: 3917 3923.
22. Bonfa, E.,, A. V. Tavares,, M. V. Regenmortei,, W. Cossermelli,, and M. T. Levin. 1992. The importance of one aminoacid substitution in the anti-P response in Chagas' disease. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 87( Suppl): 172.
23. Borda, E.,, J. Pascual,, P. Cossio,, M. De La Vega,, R. Arana,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1984. A circulating IgG in Chagas' disease which binds to beta-adrenoceptors of myocardium and modulates their activity. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 57: 679 686.
24. Brener, Z. 1973. Biology of Trypanosoma cruzi. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 27: 347 382.
25. Britto, C.,, M. A. Cardoso,, C. M. Vanni,, A. Hasslocher-Moreno,, S. S. Xavier,, W. Oelemann,, A. Santoro,, C. Pirmez,, C. M. Morel,, and P. Wincker. 1995. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood samples as a tool for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Parasitology 110: 241 247.
26. Buschiazzo, A.,, O. E. Campetella,, R. A. Macina,, S. Salceda,, A. C. Frasch,, and D. O. Sanchez. 1992. Sequence of the gene for a Trypanosoma cruzi protein antigenic during the chronic phase of human Chagas disease. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 54: 125 128.
27. Caforio, A. L.,, M. Grazzini,, J. M. Mann,, P. J. Keeling,, G. F. Bottazzo,, W. J. McKenna,, and S. Schiaffino. 1992. Identification of alpha- and beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms as major autoantigens in dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 85: 1734 1742.
28. Camargo, M. M.,, I. C. Almeida,, M. E. Pereira,, M. A. Ferguson,, L. R. Travassos,, and R. T. Gazzinel-li. 1997. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like glycoproteins isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes initiate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. J. Immunol. 158: 5890 5901.
29. Cetron, M. S.,, R. Hoff,, S. Kahn,, H. Eisen,, and W. C. Van Voorhis. 1992. Evaluation of recombinant trypomastigote surface antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi in screening sera from a population in rural northeast-em Brazil endemic for Chagas' disease. Acta Trop. 50: 259 266.
30. Chagas, C. 1909. Nova tripanozomiaze humana. Estudos sobre a morfolojia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotripanum cruzi n.gen n. sp, ajente etiolojico de nova entidade morbida do homen. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1: 159 218.
31. Chambo, J. G.,, M. P. Cabeza,, and R. P. Laguens. 1990. Presence of anti- Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in the sera of mice with experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Experientia 46: 977 979.
32. Chiale, P. A.,, M. B. Rosenbaum,, M. V. Elizari,, A. Hjalmarson,, Y. Magnusson,, G. Wallukat,, and J. Hoebeke. 1995. High prevalence of antibodies against beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in patients with primary electrical cardiac abnormalities. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 26: 864 869.
33. Cossio, P. M.,, C. Diez,, A. Szarfman,, E. Kreutzer,, B. Candiolo,, and R. M. Arana. 1974. Chagasic cardiopathy. Demonstration of a serum gamma globulin factor which reacts with endocardium and vascular structures. Circulation 49: 13 21.
34. Cremaschi, G.,, N. W. Zwirner,, G. Gorelik,, E. L. Malchiodi,, M. G. Chiaramonte,, C. A. Fossati,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1995. Modulation of cardiac physiology by an anti- Trypanosoma cruzi monoclonal antibody after interaction with myocardium. FASEB J. 9: 1482 1488.
35. Cunha-Neto, E.,, L. Abel,, L. V. Rizzo,, A. Goldberg,, C. Mady,, B. Ianni,, J. Hammer,, F. Sinigaglia,, and J. Kalil. 1998. Checkpoints for autoimmunity-induced heart tissue damage in human chagas' disease: a multistep process? Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 93( Suppl. I): 40 41.
36. Cunha-Neto, E. 1999. MHC-restricted antigen presentation and recognition: constraints on gene, recombinant and peptide vaccines in humans Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 32: 199 205.
37. Cunha-Neto, E.,, L. C. Abel,, L. V. Rizzo,, A. Goldberg,, C. Mady,, B. Ianni,, J. Hammer,, F. Sinigaglia,, and J. Kalil. 1997. Autoimmunity in human Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy: cytokine production and antigen recognition by T cells. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 92( Suppl. I): 40 41.
38. Cunha-Neto, E.,, V. Coelho,, L. Guilherme,, A. Fiorelli,, N. Stolf,, and J. Kalil. 1996. Autoimmunity in Chagas' disease. Identification of cardiac myosin-B13 Trypanosoma cruzi protein crossreactive T cell clones in heart lesions of a chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy patient. J. Clin. Investig. 98: 1709 1712.
39. Cunha-Neto, E.,, M. Duranti,, A. Gruber,, B. Zingales,, I. DeMessia,, N. Stolf,, G. Bellotti,, M. E. Patar-royo,, F. Pilleggi,, and J. Kalil. 1995. Autoimmunity in Chagas disease cardiopathy: biological relevance of a cardiac myosin-specific epitope crossreactive to an immunodominant Trypanosoma cruzi antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 3541 3545.
40. Cunha-Neto, E.,, R. Moliterno,, V. Coelho,, L. Guilherme,, E. Bocchi,, M. L. Higuchi,, N. Stolf,, F. Pileggi,, L. Steinman,, and J. Kalil. 1994. Restricted heterogeneity of T cell receptor variable alpha chain transcripts in hearts of Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy patients. Parasite Immunol. 16: 171 179.
41. Cunha-Neto, E.,, L. V. Rizzo,, F. Albuquerque,, L. Abel,, L. Guilherme,, E. Bocchi,, F. Bacal,, D. Carrara,, B. Ianni,, C. Mady,, and J. Kalil. 1998. Cytokine production profile of heart-infiltrating T cells in Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 31: 133 137.
42. Cunningham, M. W.,, S. M. Antone,, M. Smart,, R. Liu,, and S. Kosanke. 1997. Molecular analysis of human cardiac myosin-cross-reactive B- and T-cell epitopes of the group A streptococcal M5 protein. Infect. Immun. 65: 3913 3923.
43. de la Vega, M. T.,, G. Damilano,, and C. Diez. 1976. Leukocyte migration inhibition test with heart antigens in American trypanosomiasis. J. Parasitol. 62: 129 130.
44. De Oliveira, S.,, R. C. Pedrosa,, J. H. Nascimento,, A. C. Campos de Carvalho,, and M. O. Masuda. 1997. Sera from chronic chagasic patients with complex cardiac arrhythmias depress electrogenesis and conduction in isolated rabbit hearts. Circulation 96: 2031 2037.
45. dos Santos, R. R.,, M. A. Rossi,, J. L. Laus,, J. S. Silva,, W. Savino,, and J. Mengel. 1992. Anti-CD4 abrogates rejection and reestablishes long-term tolerance to syngeneic newborn hearts grafted in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J. Exp. Med. 175: 29 39.
46. el-Zayadi, A. R.,, O. E. Selim,, H. Hamdy,, H. Dabbous,, A. Ahdy,, and S. A. Moniem. 1998. Association of chronic hepatitis C infection and diabetes mellitus. Trop. Gastroenterol. 19: 141 144.
46a. Faé, K. C.,, S. A. Drigo,, E. Cunha-Neto,, B. Ianni,, C. Mady,, J. Kalil,, and A. C. Goldberg. Role of genetic susceptibility to cardiomyopathy in Chagas' disease. Microbes Infect., in press.
47. Ferrari, I.,, M. J. Levin,, G. Wallukat,, R. Elies,, D. Lebesgue,, P. Chiale,, M. Elizari,, M. Rosenbaum,, and J. Hoebeke. 1995. Molecular mimicry between the immunodominant ribosomal protein P0 of Trypanosoma cruzi and a functional epitope on the human beta 1-adrenergic receptor. J. Exp. Med. 182: 59 65.
48. Frosch, S.,, D. Kuntzlin,, and B. Fleischer. 1997. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi selectively upregulates B7-2 molecules on macrophages and enhances their costimulatory activity. Infect. Immun. 65: 971 977.
49. Gattass, C. R.,, M. T. Lima,, A. F. Nobrega,, M. A. Barcinski,, and A. G. Dos Reis. 1988. Do self-heart-reactive T cells expand in Trypanosoma cruzi-immune hosts? Infect. Immun. 56: 1402 1405.
50. Gazzinelli, R. T.,, A. Talvani,, M. M. Camargo,, H. C. Santiago,, M. A. Oliveira,, L. Q. Vieira,, G. A. Martins,, J. C. Aliberti,, and J. S. Silva. 1998. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 31: 89 104.
51. Gea, S.,, P. Ordonez,, F. Cerban,, D. Iosa,, C. Chizzolini,, and E. Vottero-Cima. 1993. Chagas' disease cardioneuropathy: association of anti- Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-sciatic nerve antibodies. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49: 581 588.
52. Gluckstein, D.,, F. Ciferri,, and J. Ruskin. 1992. Chagas' disease: another cause of cerebral mass in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Med. 92: 429 432.
53. Goin, J. C.,, E. Borda,, C. P. Leiros,, R. Storino,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1994. Identification of antibodies with muscarinic cholinergic activity in human Chagas' disease: pathological implications. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 47: 45 52.
54. Goin, J. C.,, E. Borda,, A. Segovia,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1991. Distribution of antibodies against beta-adrenoceptors in the course of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 197: 186 192.
55. Goin, J. C.,, C. P. Leiros,, E. Borda,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1997. Interaction of human chagasic IgG with the second extracellular loop of the human heart muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: functional and pathological implications. FASEB J. 11: 77 83.
56. Goin, J. C.,, L. C. Perez,, E. Borda,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1994. Modification of cholinergic-mediated cellular transmembrane signals by the interaction of human chagasic IgG with cardiac muscarinic receptors. Neuroimmunomodulation 1: 284 291.
57. Gruber, A.,, and B. Zingales. 1993. Trypanosoma cruzi: characterization of two recombinant antigens with potential application in the diagnosis of Chagas' disease. Exp. Parasitol. 76: 1 12.
58. Guilherme, L.,, E. Cunha-Neto,, V. Coelho,, R. Snitcowsky,, P. M. Pomerantzeff,, R. V. Assis,, F. Pedra,, J. Neumann,, A. Goldberg,, and M. E. Patarroyo. 1995. Human heart-infiltrating T-cell clones from rheumatic heart disease patients recognize both streptococcal and cardiac proteins. Circulation 92: 415 420.
59. Harrington, W. F.,, and M. E. Rodgers. 1984. Myosin. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53: 35 73.
60. Heber-Katz, E.,, and H. Acha-Orbea. 1989. The V region hypothesis: evidence from autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Immunol. Today 10: 164 169.
61. Hernandez-Munain, C.,, J. L. De Diego,, A. Alcina,, and M. Fresno. 1992. A Trypanosoma cruzi membrane protein shares an epitope with a lymphocyte activation antigen and induces crossreactive antibodies. J. Exp. Med. 175: 1473 1482.
62. Higuchi, M. L.,, M. M. Reis,, V. D. Aiello,, L. A. Benvenuti,, P. S. Gutierrez,, G. Bellotti,, and F. Pileggi. 1997. Association of an increase in CD8 + T cells with the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in chronic, human, chagasic myocarditis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56: 485 489.
63. Higuchi, M. L.,, P. S. Gutierrez,, V. D. Aiello,, S. Palomino,, E. Bocchi,, J. Kalil,, G. Bellotti,, and F. Pileggi. 1993. Immunohistochemical characterization of infiltrating cells in human chronic chagasic myocarditis: comparison with myocardial rejection process. Virchows Arch. A. Pathol. Anat. Histopathol. 423: 157 160.
64. Higuchi, M. L.,, M. C. De,, B. A. Pereira,, E. A. Lopes,, N. Stolf,, G. Bellotti,, and F. Pileggi. 1987. The role of active myocarditis in the development of heart failure in chronic Chagas' disease: a study based on endomyocardial biopsies. Clin. Cardiol. 10: 665 670.
65. Hoft, D. F.,, K. S. Kim,, K. Otsu,, D. R. Moser,, W. J. Yost,, J. H. Blumin,, J. E. Donelson,, and L. V. Kirchhoff. 1989. Trypanosoma cruzi expresses diverse repetitive protein antigens. Infect. Immun. 57: 1959 1967.
66. Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz, M.,, G. Said,, G. Milon,, G. Marchal,, and H. Eisen. 1987. L3T4 + T cells able to mediate parasite-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity play a role in the pathology of experimental Chagas' disease. Eur. J. Immunol. 17: 1027 1033.
67. Jahns, R.,, V. Boivin,, C. Siegmund,, G. Inselmann,, M. J. Lohse,, and F. Boege. 1999. Autoantibodies activating human beta 1-adrenergic receptors are associated with reduced cardiac function in chronic heart failure. Circulation 99: 649 654.
68. Jones, E. M.,, D. G. Colley,, S. Tostes,, E. R. Lopes,, C. L. Vnencak-Jones,, and T. L. McCurley. 1993. Amplification of a Trypanosoma cruzi DNA sequence from inflammatory lesions in human chagasic cardiomyopathy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 48: 348 357.
69. Junqueira, J. L.,, P. S. Beraldo,, E. Chapadeiro,, and P. C. Jesus. 1992. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction and neuroganglionitis in a rat model of chronic Chagas' disease. Cardiovasc. Res. 26: 324 329.
70. Kahn, S.,, M. Kahn,, and H. Eisen. 1992. Polyreactive autoantibodies to negatively charged epitopes following Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 22: 3051 3056.
71. Kalil, J.,, and E. Cunha-Neto. 1996. Autoimmunity in Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy: fulfilling the criteria at last? Parasitol. Today 12: 396 399.
72. Kaplan, D.,, I. Ferrari,, P. L. Bergami,, E. Mahler,, G. Levitus,, P. Chiale,, J. Hoebeke,, M. H. Van Regenmortel,, and M. J. Levin. 1997. Antibodies to ribosomal P proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi in Chagas disease possess functional autoreactivity with heart tissue and differ from anti-P autoantibodies in lupus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 10301 10306.
73. Kerner, N.,, P. Liegeard,, M. J. Levin,, and M. Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz. 1991. Trypanosoma cruzi: antibodies to a MAP-like protein in chronic Chagas' disease cross-react with mammalian cytoskeleton. Exp. Parasitol. 73: 451 459.
74. Khoury, E. L.,, C. Diez,, P. M. Cossio,, and R. M. Arana. 1983. Heterophil nature of EVI antibody in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol: 27: 283 288.
75. Kohl, S.,, L. K. Pickering,, L. S. Frankel,, and R. G. Yaeger. 1982. Reactivation of Chagas' disease during therapy of acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 50: 827 828.
76. Laguens, R. P.,, P. C. Meckert,, G. Chambo,, and R. J. Gelpi. 1981. Chronic Chagas disease in the mouse. II. Transfer of the heart disease by means of immunocompetent cells. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 41: 40 43.
77. Laranja, F.,, E. Dias,, G. Nobrega,, and A. Miranda. 1956. Chagas' disease. A clinical, epidemiologic and pathologic study. Circulation 14: 1035.
78. Laucella, S. A.,, H. E. de Titto,, and E. L. Segura. 1996. Epitopes common to Trypanosoma cruzi and mammalian tissues are recognized by sera from Chagas' disease patients: prognosis value in Chagas disease. Acta Trop. 62: 151 162.
79. Laucella, S. A.,, E. Velazquez,, M. Dasso,, and E. de Titto. 1996. Trypanosoma cruzi and mammalian heart cross-reactive antigens. Acta Trop. 61: 223 238.
80. Leiguarda, R.,, A. Roncoroni,, A. L. Taratuto,, L. Jost,, M. Berthier,, M. Nogues,, and H. Freilij. 1990. Acute CNS infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease) in immunosuppressed patients. Neurology 40: 850 851.
81. Leiros, C. P.,, L. Sterin-Borda,, E. S. Borda,, J. C. Goin,, and M. M. Hosey. 1997. Desensitization and sequestration of human m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by autoantibodies from patients with Chagas' disease. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 12989 12993.
82. Levin, M. J.,, E. Mesri,, R. Benarous,, G. Levitus,, A. Schijman,, P. Levy-Yeyati,, P. A. Chiale,, A. M. Ruiz,, A. Kahn,, and M. B. Rosenbaum. 1989. Identification of major Trypanosoma cruzi antigenic determinants in chronic Chagas' heart disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 41: 530 538.
83. Levitus, G.,, M. Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz,, M. H. Van Regenmortel,, and M. J. Levin. 1991. Humoral autoimmune response to ribosomal P proteins in chronic Chagas heart disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 85: 413 417.
84. Liao, L.,, R. Sindhwani,, L. Leinwand,, B. Diamond,, and S. Factor. 1993. Cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chains differ in their induction of myocarditis. Identification of pathogenic epitopes. J. Clin. Investig. 92: 2877 2882.
85. Lopes, E. R.,, E. Chapadeiro,, Z. A. Andrade,, H. O. Almeida,, and A. Rocha. 1981. Pathological anatomy of hearts from asymptomatic Chagas disease patients dying in a violent manner. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 76: 189 197. (In Portuguese.)
86. Lopez, B. P.,, M. P. Cabeza,, D. Kaplan,, G. Levitus,, F. Elias,, F. Quintana,, M. Van Regenmortel,, R. Laguens,, and M. J. Levin. 1997. Immunization with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2beta protein induces changes in the electrocardiogram of immunized mice. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 18: 75 85.
87. Mady, C.,, R. H. Cardoso,, A. C. Barretto,, P. L. da Luz,, G. Bellotti,, and F. Pileggi. 1994. Survival and predictors of survival in patients with congestive heart failure due to Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Circulation 90: 3098 3102.
88. Marin-Neto, J. A.,, G. Bromberg-Marin,, A. Pazin-Filho,, M. V. Simoes,, and B. C. Maciel. 1998. Cardiac autonomic impairment and early myocardial damage involving the right ventricle are independent phenomena in Chagas' disease. Int. J. Cardiol. 65: 261 269.
89. Martin, U. O.,, D. Afchain,, A. de Marteleur,, O. Ledesma,, and A. Capron. 1987. Circulating immune complexes in different developmental stages of Chagas' disease. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 47: 159 162. (In Portuguese).
90. Mason, D. 1998. A very high level of crossreactivity is an essential feature of the T-cell receptor. Immunol. Today 19: 395 404.
91. Masuda, M. O.,, M. Levin,, S. F. De Oliveira,, P. C. Dos Santos Costa,, P. L. Bergami,, N. A. Dos Santos Almeida,, R. C. Pedrosa,, I. Ferrari,, J. Hoebeke,, and A. C. Campos de Carvalho. 1998. Functionally active cardiac antibodies in chronic Chagas' disease are specifically blocked by Trypanosoma cruzi antigens. FASEB J. 12: 1551 1558.
92. McCormick, T. S.,, and E. C. Rowland. 1989. Trypanosoma cruzi: cross-reactive anti-heart autoantibodies produced during infection in mice. Exp. Parasitol. 69: 393 401.
93. McCormick, T. S.,, and E. C. Rowland. 1993. Trypanosoma cruzi: recognition of a 43-kDa muscle glycoprotein by autoantibodies present during murine infection. Exp. Parasitol. 77: 273 281.
94. Mengel, J.,, and R. Ribeiro-dos-Santos. 1998. Autoreactive CD4 + T cells in the pathogenesis of chronic myocarditis found in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 93( Suppl. I): 28 29.
95. Mijares, A.,, L. Verdot,, N. Peineau,, B. Vray,, J. Hoebeke,, and J. Argibay. 1996. Antibodies from Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice recognize the second extracellular loop of the beta 1-adrenergic and M2-muscarinic receptors and regulate calcium channels in isolated cardiomyocytes. Mol. Cell Biochem. 163- 164: 107 112.
96. Milei, J.,, R. Storino,, A. G. Fernandez,, R. Beigelman,, S. Vanzulli,, and V. J. Ferrans. 1992. Endomyocardial biopsies in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. Cardiology 80: 424 437.
97. Mosca, W.,, J. Plaja,, R. Hubsch,, and R. Cedillos. 1985. Longitudinal study of immune response in human Chagas' disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 438 441.
98. Motran, C. C.,, F. M. Cerban,, W. Rivarola,, D. Iosa,, and E. Vottero de Cima. 1998. Trypanosoma cruzi: immune response and functional heart damage induced in mice by the main linear B-cell epitope of parasite ribosomal P proteins. Exp. Parasitol. 88: 223 230.
99. Neu, N.,, S. W. Craig,, N. R. Rose,, F. Alvarez,, and K. W. Beisel. 1987. Coxsackievirus induced myocarditis in mice: cardiac myosin autoantibodies do not cross-react with the virus. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 69: 566 574.
100. Neu, N.,, B. Ploier,, and C. Ofner. 1990. Cardiac myosin-induced myocarditis. Heart autoantibodies are not involved in the induction of the disease. J. Immunol. 145: 4094 4100.
101. Neu, N.,, N. R. Rose,, K. W. Beisel,, A. Herskowitz,, G. Gum-Glass,, and S. W. Craig. 1987. Cardiac myosin induces myocarditis in genetically predisposed mice. J. Immunol. 139: 3630 3636.
102. Nicholson, L. B.,, H. Waldner,, A. M. Carrizosa,, A. Sette,, M. Collins,, and V. K. Kuchroo. 1998. Heteroclitic proliferative responses and changes in cytokine profile induced by altered peptides: implications for autoimmunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 264 269.
103. Nussenblatt, R. B.,, I. Gery,, H. L. Weiner,, F. L. Ferris,, J. Shiloach,, N. Remaley,, C. Perry,, R. R. Caspi,, D. A. Hafler,, C. S. Foster,, and S. M. Whitcup. 1997. Treatment of uveitus by oral administration of retinal antigens: results of a phase I/II randomized masked trial. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123: 583 592.
104. Olivares-Villagomez, D.,, T. L. McCurley,, C. L. Vnencak-Jones,, R. Correa-Oliveira,, D. G. Colley,, and C. E. Carter. 1998. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of three different Trypanosoma cruzi DNA sequences from human chagasic cardiac tissue. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59: 563 570.
105. Pascual, J.,, E. Borda,, and L. Sterin-Borda. 1987. Chagasic IgG modifies the activity of sarcolemmal ATPases through a beta adrenergic mechanism. Life Sci. 40: 313 319.
106. Perry, K.,, and H. Eisen. 1989. Chagas disease: a model for the study of autoimmune diseases. Parasitol. Today 5: 111 115.
107. Petry, K.,, E. Nudelman,, H. Eisen,, and S. Hakomori. 1988. Sulfated lipids represent common antigens on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi and mammalian tissues. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 30: 113 121.
108. Petry, K.,, P. Voisin,, and T. Baltz. 1987. Complex lipids as common antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi, T. dionisii, T. vespertilionis and nervous tissue (astrocytes, neurons). Acta Trop. 44: 381 386.
109. Petry, K.,, P. Voisin,, T. Baltz,, and J. Labouesse. 1987. Epitopes common to trypanosomes [ T. cruzi, T. dionisii and T. vespertilionis (Schizotrypanum)]: astrocytes and neurons. J. Neuroimmunol. 16: 237 252.
110. Reis, D. D.,, E. M. Jones,, S. Tostes,, E. R. Lopes,, E. Chapadeiro,, G. Gazzinelli,, D. G. Colley,, and T. L. McCurley. 1993. Expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens and adhesion molecules in hearts of patients with chronic Chagas' disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 49: 192 200.
111. Reis, D. D.,, E. M. Jones,, S. J. Tostes,, E. R. Lopes,, G. Gazzinelli,, D. G. Colley,, and T. L. McCurley. 1993. Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in chronic chagasic myocardial lesions: presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha+ cells and dominance of granzyme A+, CD8 + lymphocytes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 48: 637 644.
112. Reis, M. M.,, M. D. L. Higuchi,, L. A. Benvenuti,, V. D. Aiello,, P. S. Gutierrez,, G. Bellotti,, and F. Pileggi. 1997. An in situ quantitative immunohistochemical study of cytokines and IL-2R+ in chronic human chagasic myocarditis: correlation with the presence of myocardial Trypanosoma cruzi antigens. Clin. Immunol, Immunopathol. 83: 165 172.
113. Ribeiro dos Santos, R. R.,, J. O. Marquez,, C. C. Von Gal Furtado,, J. C. Ramos de Oiiveira,, A. R. Martins,, and F. Koberle. 1979. Antibodies against neurons in chronic Chagas' disease. Tropenmed. Parasitol. 30: 19 23.
114. Rizzo, L. V.,, E. Cunha-Neto,, and A. R. Teixeira. 1989. Autoimmunity in Chagas' disease: specific inhibition of reactivity of CD4 + T cells against myosin in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect. Immun. 57: 2640 2644.
115. Ruiz, A. M.,, M. Esteva,, M. P. Cabeza,, R. P. Laguens,, and E. L. Segura. 1985. Protective immunity and pathology induced by inoculation of mice with different subcellular fractions of Trypanosoma cruzi. Acta Trop. 42: 299 309.
116. Santos-Buch, C. A.,, A. M. Acosta,, H. J. Zweerink,, M. Sadigursky,, O. F. Andersen,, B. F. von Kreuter,, C. I. Brodskyn,, C. Sadigursky,, and R. J. Cody. 1985. Primary muscle disease: definition of a 25-kDa polypeptide myopathic specific chagas antigen. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 37: 334 350.
117. Santos-Buch, C. A.,, and A. R. Teixeira. 1974. The immunology of experimental Chagas' disease. 3. Rejection of allogeneic heart cells in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 140: 38 53.
118. Silva-Barbosa, S. D.,, V. Cotta-de-Almeida,, I. Riederer,, J. De Meis,, M. Dardenne,, A. Bonomo,, and W. Savino. 1997. Involvement of laminin and its receptor in abrogation of heart graft rejection by autoreactive T cells from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice. J. Immunol. 159: 997 1003.
119. Smith, S. C.,, and P. M. Allen. 1991. Myosin-induced acute myocarditis is a T cell-mediated disease. J. Immunol. 147: 2141 2147.
120. Smith, S. C.,, and P. M. Allen. 1992. Expression of myosin-class II major histocompatibility complexes in the normal myocardium occurs before induction of autoimmune myocarditis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 9131 9135.
121. Snary, D.,, J. E. Flint,, J. N. Wood,, M. T. Scott,, M. D. Chapman,, J. Dodd,, T. M. Jessell,, and M. A. Miles. 1983. A monoclonal antibody with specificity for Trypanosoma cruzi, central and peripheral neurones and glia. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 54: 617 624.
122. Sterin-Borda, L.,, L. C. Perez,, M. Wald,, G. Cremaschi,, and E. Borda. 1988. Antibodies to beta 1 and beta 2 adrenoreceptors in Chagas' disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 74: 349 354.
123. Tarleton, R. L.,, L. Zhang,, and M. O. Downs. 1997. “Autoimmune rejection” of neonatal heart transplants in experimental Chagas disease is a parasite-specific response to infected host tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 3932 3937.
124. Teixeira, A. R.,, and C. A. Santos-Buch. 1975. The immunology of experimental Chagas' disease. II. Delayed hypersensitivity to Trypanosoma cruzi antigens. Immunology 28: 401 410.
125. Teixeira, A. R.,, G. Teixeira,, V. Macedo,, and A. Prata. 1978. Trypanosoma cruzi-sensitized T-lymphocyte mediated 51CR release from human heart cells in Chagas' disease. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 27: 1097 1107.
126. Tekiel, V. S.,, G. A. Mirkin,, and C. S. Gonzalez. 1997. Chagas' disease: reactivity against homologous tissues induced by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology 115: 495 502.
127. Tibbetts, R. S.,, T. S. McCormick,, E. C. Rowland,, S. D. Miller,, and D. M. Engman. 1994. Cardiac antigen-specific autoantibody production is associated with cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice. J. Immunol. 152: 1493 1499.
128. Todd, C. W.,, N. R. Todd,, and A. C. Guimaraes. 1983. Do lymphocytes from chagasic patients respond to heart antigens? Infect. Immun. 40: 832 835.
129. Toledo, B. M.,, N. V. Amato,, E. Mendes,, and I. Mota. 1979. In vitro cellular immunity in Chagas' disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38: 376 380.
130. Torres, C. M. 1929. Patologia de la miocarditis crónica en la enfermedad de Chagas. An.5a Reun. Soc. Argent. Pat. Reg. Norte 2: 902 916.
131. Tostes, J. S.,, E. R. Lopes,, F. E. Pereira,, and E. Chapadeiro. 1994. Human chronic chagasic myocarditis: quantitative study of CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes in inflammatory exudates. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 27: 127 134. (In Portuguese).
132. Van Voorhis, W.,, L. Barrett,, R. Koelling,, and A. G. Farr. 1993. FL-160 proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi are expressed from a multigene family and contain two distinct epitopes that mimic nervous tissues. J. Exp. Med. 178: 681 694.
133. Van Voorhis, W.,, and H. Eisen. 1989. Fl-160. A surface antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi that mimics mammalian nervous tissue. J. Exp. Med. 169: 641 652.
134. Van Voorhis, W.,, L. Schlekewy,, and H. L. Trong. 1991. Molecular mimicry by Trypanosoma cruzi: the F1-160 epitope that mimics mammalian nerve can be mapped to a 12-amino acid peptide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 5993 5997.
135. Vashishtha, V.,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1993. Surface-exposed conserved region of the streptococcal M protein induces autoantibodies cross-reactive with denatured forms of myosin. J. Immunol. 150: 4693 4701.
136. Vazquez, M. C.,, A. Riarte,, M. Pattin, and M. Lauricella. 1993. Chagas' disease can be transmitted through kidney transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 25: 3259 3260.
137. Vazquez, M. C.,, R. Sabbatiello,, R. Schiavelli,, E. Maiolo,, N. Jacob,, M. Pattin,, and A. Rearte. 1996. Chagas disease and transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 28: 3301 3303.
138. Vermelho, A. B.,, M. D. N. de Meirelles,, M. C. Pereira,, G. Pohlentz,, and E. Barreto-Bergter. 1997. Heart muscle cells share common neutral glycosphingolipids with Trypanosoma cruzi. Acta Trop. 64: 131 143.
139. Wood, J. N.,, L. Hudson,, T. M. Jessell,, and M. Yamamoto. 1982. A monoclonal antibody defining antigenic determinants on subpopulations of mammalian neurones and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. Nature 296: 34 38.
140. Zwirner, N. W.,, E. L. Malchiodi,, M. G. Chiaramonte,, and C. A. Fossati. 1994. A lytic monoclonal antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes which recognizes an epitope expressed in tissues affected in Chagas' disease. Infect. Immun. 62: 2483 2489.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Autoreactivity after infection

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 2

Passive transfer of lesions or functional damage with antibodies or T cells from chronically -infected individuals

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 3

Molecular mimicry after infection: human disease

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 4

Molecular mimicry after infection: murine models

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 5

Induction of heart disorders after immunization with antigens

Citation: Cunha-Neto E, Kalil J. 2000. Molecular Mimicry and Chagas' Disease, p 257-274. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch18

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error