1887

Chapter 9 : Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818074/9781555811945_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818074/9781555811945_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Systemic lupus erythematosus often is cited as the classic representative of systemic autoimmunity, in contrast to organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as myasthenia gravis or Graves' disease. Autoantibodies are the unifying feature of lupus autoimmunity. Immunization with peptides is also capable of generating lupus autoimmunity and a clinical illness that closely resembles some forms of human lupus. The peptide immunization model of lupus grew from the immunochemical description of the fine specificity of the autoantigens. The Ro autoantigen is molecularly complicated. The specificity was originally defined as a precipitin line by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and was appreciated to contain both RNA and protein. The spliceosome contains small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) which are common antigenic targets for lupus autoantibodies, commonly called Sm and nRNP. Immunization with the major epitope of Sm D, which contains the glycine-arginine repeat, also produces a diversified response directed against Sm Dl, D2, and D3, as well as other spliceosomal autoantigens. Immunization with Ro peptides has also been carried out with mice. A myriad of additional predictions and molecular relationships must be defined and must be consistent with the possibility that Epstein-Barr virus is importantly involved in the pathogenesis of lupus before it will generally be accepted that Epstein-Barr virus is etiologically relevant to lupus. The animal model of lupus and of B-cell epitope spreading is also likely to teach fundamental lessons about the immune system and of the immunopathology of lupus autoimmunity.

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Herpes simplex virus 1
0.47214508
Herpes simplex virus 2
0.47214508
Herpes simplex virus 1
0.47214508
Herpes simplex virus 2
0.47214508
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
0.40649742
0.47214508
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

B-cell epitope spreading in the naturally arising anti-Sm B/B′ autoantibody response in human lupus. The cartoon shows the progression from binding of the initial structures, consisting of three repeated PPPGMRPP and PPPGMRGP, to a mature humoral response that involves at least nine other peptide-defined epitopes (none of the others of which have a similar primary sequence) ( ). This figure is reproduced with the permission of Munksgaard International Publishing Ltd., Maiden, Mass.

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Development of the anti-Sm B/B′ response in one anti-Sm- and anti-nRNP precip itin-positive patient. This anti-Sm- and anti-nRNP precipitin-positive patient shows an increase in the number of antigenic determinants over time: 1 April 1986 (A), 7 July 1987 (B), 13 January 1988 (C), 8 June 1988 (D), 16 October 1988 (E), and 26 December 1988 (F). The data span a 2-year progression of system lupus erythematosus and exhibit an increase from binding of four groups of octapeptides to 15 separate groups ( ). This figure is reproduced with the permission of Munksgaard International Publishing Ltd., Maiden, Mass.

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Model for peptide-induced lupus autoimmunity. Step 1, a normal animal is immunized with autoantigenic peptide (peptide #1) from a lupus autoantigen (AAg); step 2, this animal develops a normal antipeptide immune response; step 3, some of the B cells (B) which make antipeptide antibody also bind to this peptide on the surface of the lupus autoantigen; alternatively, the component of the antipeptide (Peptide #1) antibody which is also capable of binding to autoantigen binds to the Fc receptors of antigen-presenting cells and monocytes and macrophages bind to the T-cell receptor on T cells (T); step 4, these T cells are capable of providing help to other B cells (B), which then produce autoantibodies which can bind to structures in addition to the immunization peptide on the surface of the autoantigen. This figure is taken from reference . Copyright © 1998 Hogrefe & HuberPublishers. Reproduced with permission.

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Binding of one PPPGIRGP-immunized rabbit serum sample with overlapping octapeptides of the Sm and nRNP proteins which do not contain the immunization peptide. After 20 weeks into the immunization protocol, serum from this one rabbit binds to many different regions of Sm D (A), nRNP 70K (B), nRNP A (C), and nRNP C (D). Preimmunization sera do not bind to any of these octapeptides at a level above the background binding. The background reactivity for these studies is equal to an optical density of <0.200 ( ). A portion of this figure is reproduced with the permission of Munksgaard International Publishing Ltd., Maiden, Mass.

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Binding to select peptides of EBNA-1 and spliceosomal autoantigens. Binding is presented for an average of 10 anti-Sm precipitin-positive patient serum samples (black bars). Binding of sera from an average of 10 healthy controls is also presented (white bars). The proline-rich sequences are presented above, and the glycine-arginine repeat sequences are presented below. (Some data are taken from references and .)

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818074.chap9
1. Anderson, J. R.,, K. G. Gray,, J. S. Beck,, W. U. Buchanan,, and A. J. McElhinney. 1962. Precipitating antibodies in the connective tissue diseases. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 21: 360 369.
1a. Arbuckle, M. R.,, M. Reichlin,, J. B. Harley,, and J. A. James. 1999. Shared early autoantibody recognition events in the development of anti-Sm B/B' in human lupus. Scand. J. Immunol. 50: 447 455.
2. Arbuckle, M. R.,, A. R. Schilling,, J. B. Harley,, and J. A. James. 1998. A limited lupus anti-spliceosomal response targets a cross-reactive proline-rich motif. J. Autoimmun. 11: 1 8.
3. Ben-Chetrit, E.,, E. K. Chan,, K. F. Sullivan,, and E. M. Tan. 1988. A 52-kD protein is a novel component of the SS-A/Ro antigenic particle. J. Exp. Med. 1670: 1560 1571.
4. Ben-Chetrit, E.,, B. J. Gandy,, E. M. Tan,, and K. F. Sullivan. 1989. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding the 60-kD component of the human SS-A/Ro ribonucleoprotein autoantigen. J. Clin. Investig. 83: 1284 1292.
5. Clark, G.,, M. Reichlin,, and T. B. Tomasi. 1969. Characterization of a soluble cytoplasmic antigen reactive with sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Immunol. 102: 117 122.
6. Deshmukh, U. S.,, J. E. Lewis,, F. Gaskin,, C. C Kannapell,, S. T. Waters,, Y. H. Lou,, K. S. Tung,, and S. M. Fu. 1999. Immune responses to Ro60 and its peptides in mice. I. The nature of immunogen and endogenous autoantigen determine the specificities of the induced autoantibodies. J. Exp. Med. 189: 531 540.
7. Deutscher, S. L.,, J. B. Harley,, and J. D. Keene. 1988. Molecular analysis of the 60-kDa human Ro ribonucleoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 9479 9483.
8. Dorner, T.,, R. Chaoui,, E. Feist,, B. Goldner,, K. Yamamoto,, and F. Hiepe. 1995. Significantly increased maternal and fetal lgG autoantibody levels to 52 kD Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) in complete congenital heart block. J. Autoimmun. 8: 675 684.
9. Elkon, K. B.,, E. Bonfa,, and N. Brot. 1992. Antiribosomal antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 18: 377 390.
10. Esquivel, P. S.,, N. R. Rose,, and Y. C. M. Kong. 1976. Induction of autoimmunity in good and poor responder mice with mouse thyroglobulin and lipopolysaccharide. J. Exp. Med. 145: 1250 1263.
11. Evans, A. S.,, N. F. Rothfield,, and J. C. Niederman. 1971. Raised antibody titers to E. B. virus in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet i: 167 168.
12. Farris, A. D.,, L. Brown,, P. Reynolds,, J. B. Harley,, J. A. James,, R. H. Scofield,, J. McCluskey,, and T. P. Gordon. 1999. Induction of autoimmunity by multivalent immunodominant and subdominant T cell determinants of La (SS-B). J. Immunol. 162: 3079 3087.
13. Fatenjad, S.,, M. J. Mamula,, and J. Craft. 1993. Role of intermolecular/intrastructural B- and T-cell determinants in the diversification of autoantibodies to ribonucleoprotein particles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 12010 12014.
14. Fleck, M.,, E. R. Kern,, T. Zhou,, B. Lang,, and J. D. Mountz. 1998. Murine cytomegalovirus induces a Sjogren’s syndrome-like disease in C57BV6- lpr/lpr mice. Arthritis Rheum. 41: 2175 2184.15.
15. Fournel, C.,, L. Chabanne,, C. Caux,, J. R. Faure,, D. Rigal,, J. P. Magnol,, and J. C. Monier. 1992. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. I. A study of 75 cases. Lupus 1: 133 139.
16. Hahn, B. H. 1998. Antibodies to DNA. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 1359 1368.
17. Hardgrave, K. L.,, B. Neas,, R. H. Scofield,, and J. B. Harley. 1993. Antibodies to vesicular stomatitis virus proteins in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and normals. Arthritis Rheum. 36: 962 970.
18. Harley, J. B.,, and J. A. James. 1995. Autoepitopes in lupus. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 126: 509 516.
19. Harley, J. B.,, and J. A. James. 1998. Is there a role for Epstein Barr virus in lupus. Immunologist 6: 79 83.
20. Harley, J. B.,, and J. A. James. 1999. EBV infection may be an environmental risk factor for SLE in children and teenagers. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 1782 1783.
21. Huang, S. C.,, Z. Pan,, B. T. Kurien,, J. A. James,, J. B. Harley,, and R. H. Scofield. 1995. Immunization with vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid protein induces autoantibodies to the 60 kD Ro ribonucleoprotein particle. J. Investig. Med. 43: 151 158.
22. Hubert, B.,, M. Teichner,, C. Fournel,, and J. C. Monier. 1988. Spontaneous familial systemic lupus erythematosus in a canine breeding colony. J. Comp. Pathol. 98: 81 89.
23. Itoh, Y.,, and M. Reichlin. 1992. Autoantibodies to the Ro/SSA autoantigen are conformation dependent. I. Anti-60 kD antibodies are mainly directed to the native protein; anti-52kD antibodies are mainly directed to the denatured protein. Autoimmunity 14: 57 65.
24. James, J. A.,, and J. B. Harley. 1992. Linear epitopes of Sm B/B'. J. Immunol. 46: 2073 2077.
25. James, J. A.,, and J. B. Harley. 1996. Human lupus anti-spliceosome A protein autoantibodies bind contiguous surface structures and segregate into two sequential epitope binding patterns. J. Immunol. 156: 4018 4026.
26. James, J. A.,, and J. B. Harley. 1998. A model of peptide-induced lupus autoimmune B cell epitope spreading is strain specific and is not H-2 restricted in mice. J. Immunol. 160: 502 508.
27. James, J. A.,, and J. B. Harley. 1998. B-cell epitope spreading in autoimmunity. Immunol. Rev. 164: 185 200.
28. James, J. A.,, K. M. Kaufman,, A. D. Farris,, E. Taylor-Albert,, T. J. A. Lehman,, and J. B. Harley. 1997. An increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Clin. Invest. 100: 3019 3026.
29. James, J. A.,, M. J. Mamula,, and J. B. Harley. 1994. Sequential autoantigenic determinants of the small nuclear ribonuclear protein Sm D are shared by human lupus autoantibodies and MRL lpr/lpr antibodies. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 98: 419 426.
30. James, J. A.,, R. H. Scofield,, and J. B. Harley. 1997. Lupus humoral autoimmunity after short peptide immunization. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 815: 124 127.
31. James, J. A.,, T. F. Gross,, R. H. Scofield,, and J. B. Harley. 1995. Immunoglobulin epitope spreading and autoimmune disease after peptide immunization: Sm B/B'-derived PPPGMRPP and PPPGIRGP induce spliceosome autoimmunity. J. Exp. Med. 181: 453 461.
32. Jones, D. R. 1993. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus: new insights and their implications. J. Comp. Pathol. 108: 215 228.
33. Kaliyaperumal, A.,, C. Mohan,, W. Wu,, and S. K. Datta. 1995. Nucleosome peptide epitopes for nephritis-inducing T helper cells of murine lupus. J. Exp. Med. 183: 2459 2469.
34. Kaliyaperumal, A.,, C. Mohan,, W. Wu,, and S. K. Datta. 1996. Nucleosomal peptide epitopes for nephritis-inducing T helper cells of murine lupus. J. Exp. Med. 183: 2459 2469.
35. Keech, C. L.,, T. P. Gordon,, and J. McCluskey. 1996. The immune response to 52-kDa Ro and 60-kDa Ro is linked in experimental autoimmunity. J. Immunol. 157: 3694 3699.
36. Klipple, J. H.,, J. L. Decker,, P. M. Grimley,, A. S. Evans,, and N. F. Rothfield. 1973. Epstein-Barr virus antibody and lymphocyte tubuloreticular structures in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet i: 1057 1058.
37. Lerner, M. R.,, J. A. Boyle,, J. A. Hardin,, and J. A. Steitz. 1981. Two novel classes of small ribonucleoproteins detected by antibodies associated with lupus erythematosus. Science 211: 400 402.
38. Mamula, M. J. 1998. Epitope spreading: the role of the self peptides and autoantigen processing by B lymphocytes. Immunol. Rev. 164: 231 239.
39. Mason, L. J.,, L. M. Timothy,, D. A. Isenberg,, and J. K. Kalsi. 1999. Immunization with a peptide of Sm B/B' results in limited epitope spreading but not autoimmune disease. J. Immunol. 162: 5099 5105.
40. Miranda Carús, M. E.,, M. Boutjdir,, C. E. Tseng,, F. DiDonato,, and J. P. Byon. 1998. Induction of antibodies reactive with SSA/Ro-SSB/La and development of congenital heart block in a murine model. J. Immunol. 161: 5886 5892.
41. Monier, J. C.,, M. Dardenne,, D. Rigal,, O. Costa,, C. Fournel,, and M. Lapras. 1980. Clinical and laboratory features of canine lupus syndromes. Arthritis Rheum. 23: 294 301.
42. Moore, D. J. 1976. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. The disease, clinical manifestations and treatments. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 47: 267 275.
43. Morel, L.,, and E. K. Wakeland. 1998. Susceptibility to lupus nephritis in the NZB/W model system. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 10: 718 725.
44. Peter, J. B.,, and Y. Shoenfeld. 1996. Autoantibodies. Elsevier, New York, N.Y.
45. Peterson, J.,, G. Rhodes,, J. Roudier,, and J. H. Vaughan. 1990. Altered immune response to glycine-alanine-rich sequence of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 33: 993 1000.
46. Pringle, C. R. 1987. Rhabdovirus genetics, p. 167 243. In The Rhabdoviruses. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
47. Putterman, C.,, and B. Diamond. 1998. Immunization with a peptide surrogate for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) induces autoantibody production and renal immunoglobulin deposition. J. Exp. Med. 188: 29 38.
48. Reeves, W. H. 1992. Antibodies to the p70/p80 (Ku) antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 18: 391 414.
49. Reynolds, P.,, T. P. Gordon,, A. W. Purcell,, D. C. Jackson,, and J. McCluskey. 1996. Hierarchical self-tolerance to T cell determinants within the ubiquitous nuclear self-antigen La (SS-B) permits induction of systemic autoimmunity in normal mice. J. Exp. Med. 184: 1857 1870.
50. Rich, M. W. 1996. Drug-induced lupus. The list of culprits grows. Postgrad. Med. 100: 299 302.
51. Rivkin, E.,, M. Velia,, and R. G. Lahita. 1994. A heterogeneous immune response to an Sm D-like epitope by SLE patients. J. Autoimmun. 7: 119 132.
52. Rose, N. R.,, and E. Talor. 1991. Antigen-specific immunoregulation and autoimmune thyroiditis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 636: 306 320.
53. Rothfield, M. F.,, A. S. Evans,, and J. C. Niederman. 1973. Clinical and laboratory aspects of raised virus antibody titers in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 32: 238 245.
54. Sabbatini, A. S.,, S. Bombardieri,, and P. Migliorini. 1993. Autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus bind a shared sequence of Sm D and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1. Eur. J. Immunol. 23: 1146 1152.
55. Satoh, M.,, E. L. Treadwell,, and W. H. Reeves. 1995. Pristane induces high titers of anti-Su and anti-nRNP/Sm autoantibodies in BALB/c mice. Quantitation by antigen capture ELISAs based on monospecific human autoimmune sera. J. Immunol. Methods 182: 51 62.
56. Scofield, R. H.,, A. D. Farris,, A. C. Horsfall,, and J. B. Harley. 1999. Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 199 209.
57. Scofield, R. H.,, and J. B. Harley. 1991. Autoantigenicity of Ro/SSA antigen is related to a nucleocapsid protein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 3343 3347.
58. Scofield, R. H.,, K. M. Kaufman,, U. Baber,, J. A. James,, J. B. Harley,, and B. T. Kurien. 1999. Immunization of mice with human 60-kd Ro peptides results in spreading if the peptides are highly homologous between human and mouse. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 1017 1024.
59. Scofield, R. H.,, W. D. Dickey,, K. W. Jackson,, J. A. James,, and J. B. Harley. 1991. A common autoepitope near the carboxyl terminus of the 60-kD Ro ribonucleoprotein: sequence similarity with a viral protein. J. Clin. Immunol. 11: 378 388.
60. Scofield, R. H.,, W. E. Henry,, B. T. Kurien,, J. A. James,, and J. B. Harley. 1996. Immunization with short peptides from the sequence of the systemic lupus erythematosus-associated 60-kDa Ro autoantigen results in anti-Ro ribonucleoprotein autoimmunity. J. Immunol. 156: 4059 4066.
61. Sculley, D. G.,, T. B. Sculley,, and J. H. Pope. 1986. Reactions of sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and infectious mononucleosis to Epstein-Barr virus-induced polypeptides. J. Gen. Virol. 67: 2253 2258.
62. Seery, J. P.,, E. C. Y. Wang,, V. CatteU,, J. M. Carroll,, M. J. Owen,, and F. M. Watt. 1999. A central role for alpha-beta T cells in the pathogenesis of murine lupus. J. Immunol. 162: 7241 7248.
63. Seery, J. P.,, J. M. Carroll,, V. Cattell,, and F. M. Watt. 1997. Antinuclear autoantibodies and lupus nephritis in transgenic mice expressing interferon gamma in the epidermis. J. Exp. Med. 186: 1451 1459.
64. Singh, R. R.,, V. Kumar,, F. M. Ebling,, S. Southwood,, A. Sette,, E. E. Sercarz,, and B. H. Hahn. 1995. T cell determinants from autoantibodies to DNA can upregulate autoimmunity in murine systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Exp. Med. 181: 2017 2027.
65. Strasser, A.,, S. Whittingham,, D. L. Vaux,, M. L. Bath,, J. M. Adams,, S. Cory,, and A. W. Harris. 1991. Enforced BCL2 expression in B-lymphoid cells prolongs antibody responses and elicits autoimmune disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 8661 8665.
66. Tan, E. M.,, A. S. Cohen,, J. F. Fries,, A. T. Masi,, D. J. McShane,, N. F. Rothfield,, J. G. Schaller,, N. Talal,, and R. J. Winchester. 1982. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 25: 1271 1277.
67. Tsai, Y. T.,, B. L. Chiang,, Y. F. Kao,, and K. H. Hsieh. 1995. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus genome in white blood cells from patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 106: 235 240.
68. Witebsky, E.,, N. R. Rose,, K. Terplan,, J. R. Paine,, and R. W. Egan. 1957. Chronic thyroiditis and autoim-munization. JAMA 164: 1439 1447.
69. Yokochi T.,, A. Yanagawa,, Y. Kimura,, and Y. Mizushima. 1989. High titer of antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus membrane antigen in sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol. 16: 1029 1032.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

The more-common autoantibodies in lupus

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 2

Seroconversion against Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen in sera from young lupus patients and controls

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 3

Seroconversion frequencies in pediatric lupus and controls for IgG binding to cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, and varicella-zoster virus antigens

Citation: Harley J, Hal Scofield R, James J. 2000. Peptide Induction of Systemic Lupus Autoimmunity, p 109-126. In Cunningham M, Fujinami R (ed), Molecular Mimicry, Microbes, and Autoimmunity. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818074.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error