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Chapter 1 : Persistent Bacterial Infections: Commensalism Gone Awry or Adaptive Niche?

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Abstract:

Researchers traditionally divide the biological relationships of equilibrium between coexisting species into three exclusive categories. The category best known to medical bacteriologists is parasitism, the biological state in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed. A second state, symbiosis, describes the situation in which both species derive benefit. The third state is commensalism, in which the host neither benefits nor is harmed. Recently, the spectrum of virulence has been categorized according to the ways in which the host facilitates the pathogenicity of the microbial biota. Ancient human populations typically consisted of small bands of perhaps several hundred individuals who interacted with other bands and tribes for purposes of warfare, commerce, and intermarriage. Researchers have classified the strategies used by the pathogen to circumvent complex host defenses as (i) sequestration, (ii) humoral evasion, and (iii) cellular evasion strategies. Certain persistent bacterial infections are characterized by the presence of a physical barrier between the microbe and the host. Careful analysis of the biology of persistence will permit new insights that can be broadly useful to science and ultimately to clinicians.

Citation: Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S. 2000. Persistent Bacterial Infections: Commensalism Gone Awry or Adaptive Niche?, p 3-10. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch1

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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Cytotoxic T Cell
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Infectious Diseases
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Urinary Tract Infections
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Human Lyme Disease
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent the actions of the innate and acquired immune responses. T h e major immune effectors comprise phagocytic cells, T-cell lineages, complement and other soluble antibacterial factors, and specific antibodies. Bacterial pathogens have evolved means to avoid these mechanisms. Since the immune system works in concert, persistent bacterial pathogens must deploy a variety of host avoidance approaches simultaneously. Examples of the various host avoidance mechanisms are presented in Tables 1 and 2 .

Citation: Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S. 2000. Persistent Bacterial Infections: Commensalism Gone Awry or Adaptive Niche?, p 3-10. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch1
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Bacterial defenses against humoral immunity

Citation: Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S. 2000. Persistent Bacterial Infections: Commensalism Gone Awry or Adaptive Niche?, p 3-10. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Defenses against cell-mediated host mechanisms

Citation: Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S. 2000. Persistent Bacterial Infections: Commensalism Gone Awry or Adaptive Niche?, p 3-10. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch1

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