1887

Chapter 10 : Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap10-2.gif

Abstract:

Superantigens are usually regarded as potent inducers of an overwhelming (unmodulated) immune response that manifests as a rare event, such as toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning. This chapter presents evidence that immune response to superantigens may well trigger or exacerbate autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptomology can often be observed to occur in a relapsing-remitting manner. Superantigen effects are suggested by studies of peripheral and synovial Vβ14 T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus those from controls and of B-cell production of rheumatoid factor upon stimulation with SED. Skin lesion eruptions in guttate psoriasis have been linked with throat infections and increased antibody titers to streptococcal antigens. Initial studies of the infectivity of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) indicated that an intact immune system was required for infection. Antibodies to IL-10 block the protective effects of IL-10 against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Focusing on cell cycle events, the authors have determined the effects of IL-10 on the entry of quiescent CD4 T cells into the cell cycle upon stimulation with the staphylococcal superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The long-term effects of superantigen activation of T cells can include the induction of autoreactive cells, leading to an autoimmune state. Superantigens can also cause relapses into disease in patients with remission.

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Immune Systems
0.5399992
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1
0.52272725
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.46985513
0.5399992
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Differences between conventional antigens and superantigens.

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Modulation of EAE by superantigens with different Vβ specificities. The predicted outcome of the hypothesis proposed is denoted by “EAE” (induction of disease) and “No EAE” (absence of disease). The predicted outcome was confirmed by studies of the development of EAE after administration of either SEA or SEB. (A) In the first group, SEB pretreatment prevented development of EAE following injection of MBP, and while mice administered a second dose of SEB were refractory to development of disease, mice administered SEA exhibited accelerated onset of EAE. (B) In the second group, SEA pretreatment did not prevent EAE. After resolution o f clinical symptoms, administration o f a second dose o f SEA did not reactivate disease. SEB administration, however, did reactivate EAE in the SEA-pretreated mice.

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Model for t h e role of N e f in the pathogenesis of HIV. Soluble N e f released by lysed infected cells binds to H L A - D R o n antigen-presenting cells or is an integral component of the cell membranes of infected T cells. N e f is then presented to uninfected T cells, causing proliferation and activation o f T cells with concomitant cytokine production. Such proliferation results in a cellular reservoir for virus replication. Differentiation of B cells may possibly b e mediated by release of T-cell cytokines.

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Antitumor responses in the absence and presence of superantigens. Limited antitumor responses are elicited by poorly immunogenic tumors even after vaccination with inactivated tumor cells. However, administration of superantigens after vaccination with inactivated tumor cells stimulates amplified antitumor responses, augmenting specific antitumor immunity.

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818104.chap10
1. Abe, J.,, B. L. Kotzin,, K. Jujo,, M. E. Melish,, M. P. Glode,, T. Kohsaka,, and D . Y. M. Leung. 1992. Selective expansion of T cells expressing T cell receptor variable region Vβ2 and Vβ8 in Kawasaki's disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:40664070.
2. Acha-Orbea, H.,, A. N. Shakhov,, L. Scarpellino,, E. Kolb,, V . Muller,, A. Vessaz-Shaw,, R. Fuchs,, K. Blochinger,, P. Rollini,, J. Billote,, M. Sarafidou,, and H. R. MacDonald. 1992. Clonal deletion of Vβl4-bearing T cells in mice transgenic for mouse mammary tumor virus. Nature 350:207211.
3. Bazer, F. W.,, J. L. Vallet,, R. M. Roberts,, D. C. Sharp,, and W. W. Thatcher. 1986. Role of conceptus secretory products in establishment of pregnancy. J. Reprod. Fertil. 76:841850.
4. Bergdoll, M. S., 1985. The staphylococcal enterotoxins—an update, p.247266. In J. Jelaszewics (ed.), The Staphylococci. Gustav Fisher Verlag, New York, N.Y.
5. Brocke, S.,, A. Gaur,, C. Piercy,, A. Gautam,, K. Gijbels,, C. G. Fathman,, and L. Steinman. 1993. Induction of relapsing paralysis in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by bacterial superantigen. Nature 365:642644.
6. Callahan, J. E.,, A. Herman,, J. Kappler,, and P. Marrack. 1990. Stimulation of B110.BR T cells with superantigenic staphylococcal enterotoxins. J. Immunol. 144:24732479.
7. Carlsson, R.,, and H. O. Sjogren. 1985. Kinetics of IL-2 and IFNγ production, expression of IL-2 receptors, and cell proliferation in human mononuclear cells exposed to SEA. Cell. Immunol. 96:175183.
8. Chirmule, N.,, N. Oyaizu,, C. Saxinger,, and S. Pahwa. 1994. Nef protein of HIV-1 has B cell stimulatory activity. AIDS 8:733739.
9. Choi, Y.,, J. W. Kappler,, and P. Marrack. 1992. A superantigen encoded in the open reading frame of the 3' long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus. Nature 350:203207.
10. Cole, B. C.,, and M. M. Griffiths. 1993. Triggering and exacerbation of autoimmune arthritis by the Mycoplasma arthritidis superantigen MAM. Arthritis Rheum. 36:9941002.
11. Conrad, B.,, E. Weldmann,, G. Trucco,, W. A. Rudert,, R. Behboo,, C. Ricordi,, H. Rodriquez-Rilo,, D. Finegold,, and M. Trucco. 1994. Evidence for superantigen involvement in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus aetiology. Nature 371:351355.
12. Conrad, B.,, R. N. Weissmahr,, J. Boni,, R. Arcari,, J. Schupbach,, and B. Mach. 1997. A human endogenous retroviral superantigen as candidate autoimmune gene in type I diabetes. Cell 90:303313.
13. Degre, M. 1974. Influence of exogenous interferon on the peripheral white blood cell count in mice. Int. J. Cancer 14:699703.
14. D'Orazio, J. A.,, and J. Stein-Streilein. 1996. Human natural killer (NK) cells present staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) to T lymphocytes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 104:366373.
15. Dyson, P. J.,, A. M. Knight,, S. Fairchild,, E. Simpson,, and K. Tomonari. 1991. Genes encoding ligands for deletion of Vβ11 T cells cosegregate with mouse mammary tumour virus genomes. Nature 349:531532.
16. Dzuris, J. L.,, T. V. Golovkina,, and S. R. Ross. 1997. Both T and B cells shed infectious mouse mammary tumor virus. J. Virol. 71:60446048.
17. Edelman, A. S.,, and S. Zolla-Pazner. 1989. AIDS: a syndrome of immune dysregulation, dysfunction, and deficiency. FASEB J. 3:2229.
18. Fent, K.,, and G. Zbinden. 1987. Toxicity of interferon and interleukin. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 8:100105.
19. Festenstein, H. 1973. Immunogenetic and biological aspects o f in vitro lymphocyte allotransformation (MLR) in the mouse. Transplant. Rev. 15:6288.
20. Fiorentino, D. F.,, M. W. Bond,, and T. R. Mosmann. 1989. Two types of mouse T helper cell. IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Thl clones. J. Exp. Med. 170:20812095.
21. Frankel, W. N.,, C. Rudy,, J. M. Coffin,, and B. T. Huber. Linkage of Mis genes to endogenous mammary tumor viruses of inbred mice. Nature 349:526528.
22. Fritz, R. B.,, C. H. Chou,, and D. E. McFarlin. 1983. Relapsing murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced by myelin basic protein. J. Immunol. 130:10241026.
23. Golovkina, T. V.,, J. P. Dudley,, and S. R. Ross. 1998. Superantigen activity is needed for mouse mammary tumor virus spread within the mammary gland. J. Immunol. 161:23752382.
24. He, X.,, J. J. Goronzy,, and C. M. Weyand. 1993. The repertoire of rheumatoid factor producing B cells in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 36: 10611069.
25. Held, W.,, H. Acha-Orbea,, H. R. MacDonald,, and G. A. Waanders. 1994. Superantigens and retroviral infection: insights from mouse mammary tumor virus. Immunol. Today 15: 184190.
26. Hofer, M. F.,, R. J. Harbeck,, P. M. Schlievert,, and D. Y. M. Leung. 1999. Staphylococcal toxins augment specific IgE responses by atopic patients exposed to allergen. J. Investig. Dermatol. 112:171176.
27. Hugin, A. W.,, M. S. Vacchio,, and H. C. Morse III. 1991. A virus-encoded "superantigen" in a retro virus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice. Science 252:424427.
28.IFNP Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. 1993. IFNβ-lb is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. I. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 43:655661.
29. Imakawa, K.,, R. V. Anthony,, M. Kezemi,, K. R. Marotti,, H. G. Polites,, and R. M. Roberts. 1987. Interferon-like sequence of ovine trophoblast protein secreted by embryonic trophectoderm. Nature 330:377379.
30. Imberti, L.,, A. Sottini,, A. Bettinardi,, M. Puoti,, and D. Primi. 1991. Selective depletion in HIV infection of T cells that bear specific T cell receptor V beta sequences. Science 254:860862.
31. Johnson, H. M.,, and H. I. Magazine. 1988. Potent mitogenic activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A requires induction of interleukin 2. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 87:8790.
32. Kalman, B.,, F. D. Lublin,, E. Lattime,, J. Joseph,, and R. L. Knobler. 1993. Effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B on T cell receptor Vβ utilization and clinical manifestations of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 45:8388.
33. Kawabe, Y.,, and A. Ochi. 1990. Selective anergy of V beta8+, CD4+ T cells in Staphylococcus enterotoxin B-primed mice. J. Exp. Med. 172: 10651070.
34. Khan, O. A.,, H. Jiang,, P. S. Subramaniam,, H. M. Johnson,, and S. S. Dhib-Jalbut. 1998. Immunomodulating functions of recombinant ovine interferon tau: potential for therapy in multiple sclerosis and autoimmune disorders. Mult. Scler. 4:6369.
35. Kotzin, B. L.,, D. Y. M. Leung,, J. Kappler,, and P. Marrack. 1993. Superantigens and their potential role in human disease. Adv. Immunol. 54:99166.
36. Kraft, M.,, S. Filsinger,, K. L. Kramer,, D. Kabelitz,, G. M. Hansch,, and M. Schoels. 1998. Synovial fibroblasts as target cells for staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced T-cell cytotoxicity. Immunology 93:2025.
37. Kumar, V.,, F. Aziz,, E. Sercarz,, and A. Miller. 1997. Regulatory T cells specific for the same framework 3 region of the Vbeta 8.2 chain are involved in the control of collagen II-induced arthritis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Exp. Med. 185:17251733.
38. Lafon, M.,, and A. Galleli. 1996. Superantigen related to rabies. Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 17:307318.
39. Lafon, M.,, M. Lafarge,, A. Martinez-Arends,, R. Ramirez,, F. Vuiller,, D. Charron,, V. Lotteau,, and D. Scott-Algara. 1992. Evidence for a viral superantigen in humans. Nature 358: 507510.
40. Langford, M. P.,, G. J. Stanton,, and H. M. Johnson. 1978. Biological effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on human peripheral lymphocytes. Infect. Immun. 22:6268.
41. Laurence, J.,, A. S. Hodstev,, and D. N. Posnett. 1992. Superantigen implicated in dependence of HIV-1 replication in T cells on TCR Vβ expression. Nature 358:255258.
42. Lehmann, P. V.,, T. Forsthuber,, A. Miller,, and E. E. Sercarz. 1992. Spreading of T cell autoimmunity to cryptic determinants of an autoantigen. Nature 358:155157.
43. Leung, D. Y.,, J. B. Travers,, R. Giorno,, D. A. Norris,, R. Skinner,, J. Aelion,, L. V. Kazemi ,, M. H. Kim ,, A. E. Trumble,, M. Kotb,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1995. Evidence for a streptococcal superantigen-driven process in acute guttate psoriasis. J. Clin. Investig. 96:21062112.
44. Mahlknecht, U.,, M. Herter,, M. K. Hoffmann,, D. Niethammer,, and G. E. Dannecker. 1996. The toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces anergy in human T cells in vivo. Hum. Immunol. 45:4245.
45. Makida, R.,, M. F. Hofer,, K. Takase,, J. C. Cambier,, and D. Y. Leung. 1996. Bacterial superantigens induce Vβ-specific T cell receptor internalization. Mol. Immunol. 33:891900.
46. Marrack, P.,, and J. Kappler. 1990. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 248:705711.
47. Marrack, P.,, E. Kushnir,, and J. Kappler. 1991. A maternally inherited superantigen encoded by a mammary tumor virus. Nature 349: 524526.
48. Matsumoto, Y.,, and M. Fujiwara. 1993. Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by staphylococcal enterotoxin D. Cell. Immunol. 149:268278.
49. Mollick, J. A.,, R. G. Cook,, and R. R. Rich. 1989. Class II MHC molecules are specific receptors for staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Science 244: 817820.
50. Mujtaba, M. G.,, and H. M. Johnson. 1999. IFNτ inhibits IgE production in a murine model of allergy and in an IgE-producing human myeloma cell line. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 104: 10371044.
51. Mujtaba, M. G.,, J. M. Soos,, and H. M. Johnson. 1997. CD4 T suppressor cells mediate interferon tau protection against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 75:3542.
52. Mujtaba, M. G.,, W. J. Streit,, and H. M. Johnson. 1998. IFN-tau suppresses both the autoreactive humoral and cellular immune responses and induces stable remission in mice with chronic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Cell. Immunol. 186:94102.
53. Nagai, H.,, Y. Takoka,, H. Kamada,, and H. Mori. 1994. The model of arthritis induced by superantigen in mice. Life Sci. 55:PL233PL237.
54. Ohmen, J. D.,, P. F. Barnes,, C. L. Grisso,, B. R. Bloom,, and R. L. Modlin. 1994. Evidence for a superantigen in human tuberculosis. Immunity 1:3543.
55. Paliard, X.,, S. G. West,, J. A. LafFerty,, J. R. Clements,, J. W. Kappler,, P. Marrack,, and B. L. Kotzin. 1991. Evidence for the effects of a superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Science 253:325329.
56. Peavy, D. L.,, W. H. Adler,, and R. T. Smith. 1970. Mitogenic effects of endotoxin and SEB on mouse spleen cells and human lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 105:14531458.
57. Perrin, G. Q.,, H. M. Johnson,, and P. S. Subramaniam. 1999. Mechanism of interleukin-10 inhibition of T-helper cell activation by superantigen at the level of the cell cycle. Blood 93:208216.
58. Pontzer, C. H.,, F. W. Bazer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1991. Antiproliferative activity of a pregnancy recognition hormone, ovine trophoblastprotein-1. Cancer Res. 51:53045307.
59. Pontzer, C. H.,, T. L. Ott,, F. W. Bazer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1994. Structure/function studies with IFN tau: evidence for multiple active sites. J. Interferon Res. 14:133141.
60. Pontzer, C. H.,, B. A. Torres,, J. L. Vallet,, F. W. Bazer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1988. Antiviral activity of the pregnancy recognition hormone ovine trophoblast protein-1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 152:801807.
61. Rebai, N.,, G. Pantaleo,, J. F. Demarest,, C. Ciuril,, H. Soudeyns,, J. W. Adelsberger,, M. Vaccarezza,, R. E. Walker,, R . P. Sekaly,, and A. S. Fauci. 1994. Analysis of the TCR Vβ repertoire in monozygotic twins discordant for HIV. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:15291533.
62. Russell, J. K.,, C. H. Pontzer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1990. The I-Aβb region (65-85) is a binding site for the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 168:696701.
63. Russell, J. K.,, C. H. Pontzer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1991. Both α-helices along the major histocompatibility complex binding cleft are required for staphylococcal enterotoxin A function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:72287232.
64. Schaeffer, H. J.,, and M. J. Weber. 1999. Mitogen-activated protein kinases: specific messages from ubiquitous messengers. Mol. Cell. Biol. 19: 24352444.
65. SchifFenbauer, J.,, H. M. Johnson,, E. Butfiloski,, L. Wegrzyn,, and J. M. Soos. 1993. Staphylococcal enterotoxins reactivate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:85438546.
66. SchifFenbauer, J.,, J. M. Soos,, and H. M. Johnson. 1998. The possible role of bacterial superantigens in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Immunol. Today 19:117120.
67. Schlievert, P. M. 1993. Role of superantigens in human disease. J. Infect. Dis. 167:9971002.
68. Schnittman, S. M.,, and A. C. Fauci. 1994. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an update. Adv. Intern. Med. 39:305355.
69. Schwab, J. H.,, R. R. Brown,, S. K. Anderle,, and P. M. Schlievert. 1993. Superantigen can reactivate bacterial wall-induced arthritis. J. Immunol 150:41514159.
70. Sercarz, E. E.,, P. V. Lehman,, A. Ametani,, G. Benichou,, A. Miller,, and K. Moudgil. 1993. Dominance and crypticity of T cell antigenic determinants. Annu. Rev. Immunol 11:729766.
71. Solem, J. H.,, and J. Lassen. 1971. Reiter's disease following Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 3:8385.
72. Soos, J. M.,, A. C. Hobeika,, E. J. Butfiloski,, J. SchifFenbauer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1995. Accelerated induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in PL/J mice by a non-Vβ8-specific superantigen. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92: 60826086.
73. Soos, J. M.,, and H. M . Johnson. 1995. Type I IFN inhibition of superantigen stimulation: implications for treatment of superantigen associated disease. J. Interferon Res. 15:3945.
74. Soos, J. M.,, M. G. Mujtaba,, P. S. Subramaniam,, W. J. Streit,, and H. M. Johnson. 1997. Oral feeding of interferon T can prevent the acute and relapsing forms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 75:4350.
75. Soos, J. M.,, J. SchifFenbauer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1993. Treatment of PL/J mice with the superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, prevents development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 43:3943.
76. Soos, J. M.,, P. S. Subramanlam,, A. C. Hobeika,, J. SchifFenbauer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1995. The pregnancy recognition hormone, IFN tau, blocks both development and superantigen reactivation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis without associated toxicity. J. Immunol. 155:27472753.
77. Stohl, W.,, J. E. Elliot,, and P. S. Linsley. 1994. Human T cell-dependent B cell differentiation induced by staphylococcal superantigens. J. Immunol. 153:117127.
78. Subramaniam, P. S.,, S. A. Khan,, C. H. Pontzer,, and H. M. Johnson. 1995. Differential recognition of the type I interferon receptor by interferons τ and α is responsible for their disparate cytotoxicities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 1227012274.
79. Sutkowski, N.,, T. Palkama,, C. Ciurli,, R. -P. Sekaly,, D. A. Thorley-Lawson,, and B. T. Huber. 1996. An Epstein-Barr virus-associated superantigen. J. Exp. Med. 184:971980.
80. Tanabe, T.,, B. A. Torres,, P. S. Subramaniam,, and H. M. Johnson. 1997. Vβ activation by HIV Nef protein: detection by a simple amplification procedure. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 230:509513.
81. Torres, B. A.,, T. Tanabe,, and H. M. Johnson. 1996. Characterization of Nef-induced CD4 T cell proliferation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 225:5461.
82. Torres, B. A.,, T. Tanabe,, J. K. Yamamoto,, and H. M. Johnson. 1996. HIV encodes for its own CD4 T cell superantigen mitogen. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 225:672678.
83. Uchiyama, T.,, T. Miyoshi-Akiyama,, H. Kato,, W. Fujimaki,, K. Imanishi,, and X. Yan. 1993. Superantigenic properties of a novel mitogenic substance produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from patients manifesting acute and systemic symptoms. J. Immunol. 151:44074413.
84. Valdimarsson, H.,, B. S. Baker,, I. Jonsdottir,, A. Powles,, and L. Fry. 1995. Psoriasis: a T-cellmediated autoimmune disease induced by streptococcal superantigens? Immunol. Today 16: 145149.
85. Valdimarsson, H.,, H. Sigmundsdottir,, and I. Jonsdottir. 1997. Is psoriasis induced by streptococcal superantigens and maintained by M-protein-specific T cells that cross-react with keratin? Clin. Exp. Immunol. 107 (Suppl. 1):2124.
86. Watanabe-Ohnishi, R.,, J. Aelion,, L. LeGros,, M. A. Tomai,, E. V. Sokurenko,, D. Newton,, J. Takahara,, S. Irino,, S. Rashed,, and M. Kotb. 1994. Characterization of unique human TCR V beta specificities for a family of streptococcal superantigens represented by rheumatogenic serotypes of M protein. J. Immunol. 152: 20662073.
87. Whaley, A. E.,, C. S. Meka,, L. A. Harbison,, J. S. Hunt,, and K. Imakawa. 1994. Identification and cellular localization of unique interferon mRNA from human placenta. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 1086410868.
88. Woodland, D. L.,, M. P. Happ,, K. J. Gollub,, and E. Palmer. 1991. An endogenous retrovirus mediating deletion of αβ T cells? Nature 349: 529530.
89. Zamvil, S. S.,, and L. Steinman. 1990. The T lymphocyte in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 8:579621.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Human diseases associated with bacterial and viral superantigens

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Effect of staphylococcal superantigens on B16F10 melanoma tumor growth

Citation: Torres B, Perrin G, Johnson H, Soos J. 2000. Microbial Superantigens and Immunological Deregulation, p 183-197. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error