Chapter 12 : spp.

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

spp., Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap12-2.gif


The genus spp. consists of highly specialized prokaryotic bacteria that exhibit a unique biphasic developmental cycle that ensures their survival. Along with it is probably the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children and young adults. This agent has been implicated in the development or acceleration of atherosclerosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and recently, it has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well. Recent studies using transmission electron microscopy reveal morphologically atypical chlamydial forms in sites of chronic tissue pathology in vivo, concurrent with reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detection of chlamydial rRNA and mRNA transcripts. Although productive chlamydial infection is the norm, multiple studies suggest the presence of nonculturable persistent chlamydial organisms in host tissues. More importantly, these persistent forms are often found in sites of chronic disease. Several studies report the delayed appearance and prolonged carriage of genital tract strains acquired perinatally. The fact that all species and strains of chlamydiae produce productive infection of appropriate host cells is evidence of their ability to evade phagosome-lysosome fusion. The persistence of chlamydia-specific IgA antibodies has been proposed as a better marker of chronic infections, and of chronic infections as well. Perhaps studies that look at IgA levels in patients with chronic disease in conjunction with immuno-electron microscopy and molecular biological investigations of the patients' tissues would help to confirm both methodologies.

Citation: Darville T. 2000. spp., p 229-261. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Model for the vesicular interactions of the chlamydial inclusion. By 2 h postinfection, in a process that requires early protein synthesis, endocytosed EBs transform the properties of the endocytic vesicles such that they no longer interact with endocytic pathways but begin to intercept sphingolipids from an exocytic pathway. Fluid phase markers or markers for early and later endosomes or lysosomes are not associated with the chlamydial inclusion. Instead, the chlamydial inclusion fuses with a subset o f sphingomyelin-containing vesicles in transit to the plasma membrane. Fusion o f these vesicles exposes the sphingomyelin on the luminal surface of the inclusion membrane, from which it is adsorbed by the chlamydial RBs and incorporated into their cell walls. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Darville T. 2000. spp., p 229-261. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy of untreated (A) and IFN-γ-treated (B) cells 48 h after infection. Note the typical RB and EB forms in inclusions of untreated cells. The IFN-γ-treated cells do not contain typical chlamydial forms; instead, large atypical RB forms characterize the inclusions. (Photomicrographs provided by Gerald I. Byrne.)

Citation: Darville T. 2000. spp., p 229-261. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy of rescue of infectious chlamydial forms from cells treated with IFN-γ for 48 h after infection and subsequently cultured in the absence of IFN-γ. At 12 h following the removal of IFN-γ, budding from enlarged RBs (A) was observed. By 24 h following the removal of IFN-γ, nucleoid-like structures were observed within aberrant forms (B). Bar, 1 μm. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Darville T. 2000. spp., p 229-261. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Immuno-electron microscopy of BrdU incorporation during the recovery process. At 24 h after removal of IFN-γ, anti-BrdU antibodies localized DNA synthesis to dense nucleoid masses. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Darville T. 2000. spp., p 229-261. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Allan, I.,, and J. H. Pearce. 1983. Amino acid requirements of strains of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci growing in McCoy cells: relationship with clinical syndrome and host origin. J. Gen. Microbiol 129:20012007.
2. Allan, I.,, and J. H. Pearce. 1983. Differential amino acid utilization by Chlamydia psittaci (strain guinea pig conjunctivitis) and its regulatory effect on chlamydial growth. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:19912000.
3. Armstrong, J. A. 1975. Phagosome-lysosome interactions in cultured macrophages infected with virulent tubercle bacilli. Reversal of the usual nonfusion pattern and observations on bacterial survival. J. Exp. Med. 142:116.
4. Baehr, W.,, Y. X. Zhang,, T. Joseph,, H. Su,, F. E. Nano,, K. D. E. Everett,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1988. Mapping antigenic domains expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 85: 40004004 .
5. Balin, B. J.,, H. C. Gerard,, E. J. Arking,, D. M. Appelt,, P. J. Branigan,, J. T. Abrams,, J. A. Whittum-Hudson,, and A. P. Hudson. 1998. Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain. Med. Microbiol Immunol. 187:2342.
6. Beatty, W. L.,, T. A. Belanger,, A. A. Desai,, R. P. Morrison,, and G. I. Byrne. 1994. Tryptophan depletion as a mechanism of gamma interferon- mediated chlamydial persistence. Infect. Immun. 62:37053711.
7. Beatty, W. L.,, G. I. Byrne,, and R. P. Morrison. 1993. Morphologic and antigenic characterization of interferon-γ-mediated persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:39984002.
8. Beatty, W. L.,, R. P. Morrison,, and G. I. Byrne. 1994. Persistent chlamydiae: from cell culture to a paradigm for chlamydial pathogenesis. Microbiol Rev. 58:686699.
9. Beatty, W. L.,, R. P. Morrison,, and G. I. Byrne. 1995. Reactivation of persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cell culture. Infect. Immun. 63:199205.
10. Bell, T. A.,, W. E. Stamm,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, K. K. Holmes,, and J. T. Grayston. 1987. Delayed appearance of Chlamydia trachomatis infections acquired at birth. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6:928931.
11. Berdal, B. P.,, O. Scheel,, A. R. Ogaard,, T. Hoel,, T. J. Gutteberg,, and G. Anestad. 1992. Spread of subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a closed community. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 24:431436.
12. Beutler, A. M.,, H. R. Schumacher,, J. A. Whittum-Hudson,, W. A. Salameh,, and A. P. Hudson. 1995. In situ hybridization for detection of inapparent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue of a patient with Reiter's syndrome. Am. J. Med. Sci. 310:206213.
13. Beutler, A. M.,, J. A. Whittum-Hudson,, R. Nanagara,, H. R. Schumacher,, and A. P. Hudson. 1994. Intracellular location ofinapparently infecting chlamydia in synovial tissue from patients with Reiter's syndrome. Immunol. Res. 13:163171.
14. Branigan, P. J.,, H. C. Gerard,, A. P. Hudson ,, and H. R. Schumacher. 1996. Comparison of synovial tissue and synovial fluid as the source of nucleic acids for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. Arthritis Rheum. 39: 17401746.
15. Brunham, R.,, C. Yang,, I. Maclean,, J. Kimani,, G. Maitha,, and F. Plummer. 1994. Chlamydia trachomatis from individuals in a sexually transmitted disease core group exhibit frequent sequence variation in the major outer membrane protein (omp1) gene. J. Clin. Investig. 94:458463.
16. Brunham, R. C.,, and R. W. Peeling. 1994. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens: role in immunity and pathogenesis. Infect. Agents Dis. 3:218233.
17. Byrne, G. I.,, and D. A. Krueger. 1983. Lymphokine- mediated inhibition of Chlamydia replication in mouse fibroblasts is neutralized by antigamma interferon immunoglobulin. Infect. Immun. 42:11521158.
18. Byrne, G. I.,, L. K. Lehmann,, and G. J. Landry. 1986. Induction of tryptophan catabolism is the mechanism for gamma-interferon-mediated inhibition of intracellular Chlamydia psittaci replication in T24 cells. Infect. Immun. 53:347351.
19. Cain, C. C.,, D. M. Sipe,, and R. F. Murphy. 1989. Regulation of endocytic pH by Na, K-ATPase in living cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 86:544548.
20. Campbell, L. A.,, C. C. Kuo,, and J. T. Grayston. 1998. Chlamydia pneumoniae and cardiovascular disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:571579.
21. Campbell, L. A.,, D. L. Patton,, D. E. Moore,, A. L. Cappuccio,, B. A. Mueller,, and S. P. Wang. 1993. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid in women with tubal infertility. Fertil. Steril. 59:4550.
22. Carlin, J. M.,, E. C. Borden,, and G. I. Byrne. 1989. Interferon-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity inhibits Chlamydia psittaci replication in human macrophages. J. Interferon Res. 9: 329337.
22a. Cates, W., Jr.,, and J. N. Wasserheit. 1991. Genital chlamydial infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 164:17711781.
23. Cevenini, R.,, M. Donati,, and M. La Placa. 1988. Effects of penicillin on the synthesis of membrane proteins o f Chlamydia trachomatis LGV2 serotype. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 56:4146.
24. Chaim, W.,, B. Sarov,, I. Sarov,, B. Piura,, A. Cohen,, and V. Insler. 1989. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies to chlamydia in ectopic pregnancies. Contraception 40:5971.
25. Cheema, M. A.,, H. R. Schumacher,, and A. P. Hudson. 1991. RNA-directed molecular hybridization screening: evidence for inapparent chlamydial infection. Am. J. Med. Sci. 302: 261268.
26. Chen, J. C.,, and R. S. Stephen. 1994. Trachoma and LGV biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis share the same glycosaminoglycan-dependent mechanism for infection of eukaryotic cells. Mol. Microbiol. 11:501507.
27. Coles, A. M.,, D. J. Reynolds,, A. Harper,, A. Devitt,, and J. H. Pearce. 1993. Low-nutrient induction of abnormal chlamydial development: a novel component of chlamydial pathogenesis? FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 106:193200.
28. Collett, B. A.,, W. J. Newhall,, R. A. Jersild,, and R. B. Jones. 1989. Detection of surfaceexposed epitopes on Chlamydia trachomatis by immune electron microscopy. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:8594.
29. Danesh, J.,, R. Collins,, and R. Peto. 1997. Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link? Lancet 350:430436.
30. de la Maza, L. M.,, T. J. Fielder,, E. J. Carlson,, B. A. MarkofF,, and E. M. Peterson. 1991. Sequence diversity of the 60-kilodalton protein and of a putative 15-kilodalton protein between the trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 59:11961201.
31. Dean, D.,, P. Roblin,, L. Mandel,, J. Schachter,, and M. Hammerschlag,. 1998. Molecular evaluation of serial isolates from patients with persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, p. 219222. In R. S. Stephens,, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection. Napa, Calif.
32. Dean, D.,, J. Schachter,, C. R. Dawxon,, and R. S. Stephens. 1992. Comparison of the major outer membrane protein variant sequence regions of B/Ba isolates: a molecular epidemiologic approach to Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Infect. Dis. 166:383392.
33. Dean, D.,, R. J. Suchland,, and W. E. Stamm,. 1998. Apparent long-term persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections–analysis of Omp1genotyping, p. 3134. In R. S. Stephen,s, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection. Napa, Calif.
34. Eissenberg, L. G.,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1981. Inhibition of phagolysosome fusion is localized to Chlamydia psittaci-laden vacuoles. Infect. Immun. 32:880896.
35. Eissenberg, L. G.,, P. B. Wyrick,, C. H. Davis,, and J. W. Rumpp. 1983. Chlamydia psittaci elementary body envelopes: ingestion and inhibition of phagolysosome fusion. Infect. Immun. 40: 741751.
36. Ekman, M. R.,, J. T. Grayston,, R. Visakorpi,, M. Kleemola,, C. C. Kuo,, and P. Saikku. 1993. An epidemic of infections due to Chlamydia pneumoniae in military conscripts. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:420425.
37. Fan, J.,, and R. S. Stephens. 1997. Antigen conformation dependence of Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity neutralization. J. Infect. Dis. 176:713721.
38. Fan, T.,, H. Lu,, L. Lu,, L. Shi,, G. A. McClarty,, D. M. Nance,, A. H. Greenberg,, and G. Zhong. 1998. Inhibition of apoptosis in Chlamydia- infected cells: blockage of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase activation. J. Exp. Med. 187P:487497.
39. Francis, T. F.,, and T. P. Magill. 1938. An unidentified virus producing acute meningitis and pneumonitis in experimental animals. J. Exp. Med. 68:147160.
40. Friis, R. R. 1972. Interaction of L cells and Chlamydia psittaci: entry of the parasite and host responses to its development. J. Bacteriol. 110: 706721.
41. Fryer, R. H.,, E. P. Schwobe,, M. L. Woods ,, and G. M. Rodgers. 1997. Chlamydia species infect human vascular endothelial cells and induce procoagulant activity. J. Investig. Med. 45: 168174.
42. Fuchs, R.,, S. Schmidt,, and I. Mellman. 1989. A possible role for Na +, K+ -ATPase in regulating ATP-dependent endosome acidification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:539543.
43. Gaydos, C. A.,, J. T. Summersgill,, N. N. Sahney,, J. A. Ramirez,, and T. C. Quinn. 1996. Replication of Chlamydia pneumoniae in vitro in human macrophages, endothelial cells, and aortic artery smooth muscle cells. Infect. Immun. 64: 16141620.
44. Gerard, H. C.,, P. J. Branigan,, H. R. Schumacherz, Jr.,, and A. P. Hudson. 1998. Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis/Reiter's syndrome are viable but show aberrant gene expression. J. Rheumatol. 25:734742.
45. Gnarpe, J.,, H. Gnarpe,, and B. Sundelof. 1991. Endemic prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in subjectively healthy persons. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 23:387388.
46. Godzik, K.,, E. R. O'Brien,, S. W. Wang,, and C. C. Kuo. 1995. In vitro susceptibility o f human vascular wall cells to infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:24112414.
47. Grayston, J. T.,, M. B. Aldous, and A. Easton. 1993. Evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumonia and bronchitis. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 12311235.
48. Grayston, J. T.,, C. C. Kuo,, A. S. Coulson,, L. A. Campbell,, R. D. Lawrence,, and L. Ming- Jong. 1995. Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) in atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. Circulation 93: 33973400.
49. Grayston, J. T.,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, and J. Altman. 1986. A new Chlamydia psittaci strain, TWAR, isolated in acute respiratory tract infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 315:161168.
50. Grayston, J. T.,, S. P. Wang,, L. J. Ye h,, and C. C. Kuo. 1985. Importance of re-infection in the pathogenesis of trachoma. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:717725.
51. Hackstadt, T.,, D. D. Rockey,, R. A. Heinzen,, and M. A. Scidmore. 1996. Chlamydia trachomatis interrupts an exocytic pathway to acquire endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin in transit from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. EMBO J. 15:964977.
52. Hackstadt, T.,, M. A. Scidmore,, and D. D. Rockey. 1995. Lipid metabolism in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells: directed trafficking of Golgi-derived sphingolipids to the chlamydial inclusion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:48774881.
53. Hahn, D. L.,, T. Anttila,, and P. Saikku. 1996. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae IgA antibodies with recendy symptomatic asthma. Epidemiol. Infect. 117:513517.
54. Hamilton, P. T.,, and D. P. Malinowski. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of the major outer membrane protein gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar H. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:8366.
55. Hammer, M.,, E. Nettelnbreker,, S. Hopf,, E. Schmitz,, K. Porschke,, and H. Zeidler. 1992. Chlamydial R N A in the joints of patients with Chlamydia-induced arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 10:6366.
56. Hammerschlag, M. R.,, K. Chirgwin,, P. M. Roblin,, M. Gelling,, W. Dumornay,, L. Mandel,, P. Smith,, and J. Schachter. 1992. Persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae following acute respiratory illness. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 178182.
57. Heinemann, M.,, M. Susa,, U. Simnacher,, R. Marre,, and A. Essig. 1996. Growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cytokine production and expression of CD14 in a human monocytic cell line. Infect. Immun. 64:48724887.
58. Heinzen, R. A.,, M. A. Scidmore,, D. D. Rockey,, and T. Hackstadt. 1996. Differential interaction with endocytic and exocytic pathways distinguish [sic] parasitophorous vacuoles of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 64:796809.
59. Holland, M. J.,, R. L. Bailey,, L. J. Hayes,, H. C. Whittle,, and D. C. Mabey. 1993. Conjunctival scarring in trachoma is associated with depressed cell-mediated immune responses to chlamydial antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 168:15281531.
60. Holland, S. M.,, A. P. Hudson,, L. Bobo,, J. A. Whittum-Hudson,, R. P. Viscidi,, T. C. Quinn,, and H. R. Taylor. 1992. Demonstration of chlamydial RNA and DNA during a culture- negative state. Infect. Immun. 60:20402047.
61. Hooton, T. M.,, E. Rogers,, T. G. Medina,, L. E. Kuwamura,, C. Ewers,, P. L. Roberts,, and W. E. Stamm. 1990. Ciprofloxacin compared with doxycycline for nongonococcal urethritis. Ineffectiveness against Chlamydia trachomatis due to relapsing infection. JAMA 264:14181421.
62. Hudson, A. P.,, C. M. McEntee,, M. Reacher,, J. A. Whittum-Hudson,, and H. R. Taylor. 1992. Inapparent ocular infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in experimental and human trachoma. Curr. Eye Res. 11:279283.
63. Hyman, C. L.,, M. H. Augenbraun,, P. M. Roblin,, J. Schachter,, and M. R. Hammerschlag. 1991. Asymptomatic respiratory tract infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae TWAR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:20822083.
64. Hyman, C. L.,, P. M. Roblin,, C. A. Gaydos,, T. C. Quinn,, J. Schachter,, and M. R. Hammerschlag. 1995. Prevalence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage of Chlamydia pneumoniae in subjectively healthy adults: assessment by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay and culture. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:11741178.
65. Ingalls, R. R.,, P. A. Rice,, N. Qureshi,, K. Takayama,, J. Shin Lin,, and D. T. Golenbock. 1995. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated. Infect. Immun. 63:31253130.
66. Johnson, F. W. A.,, and D. Hobson. 1977. The effect of penicillin on genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis in tissue culture. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 3:4956.
67. Joseph, T. D.,, and S. K. Bose. 1991. A heatlabile protein of Chlamydia trachomatis binds to HeLa cells and inhibits the adherence of chlamydiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:40544058.
68. Joseph, T. D.,, and S. K. Bose. 1991. Further characterization of an outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis with cytadherence properties. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 68:167171.
69. Kalayoglu, M. V.,, and G. I. Byrne. 1998. Induction of macrophage foam cell formation by Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Inject. Dis. 111:125129.
70. Kane, C. D.,, R. M. Vena,, S. P. Ouelette,, and G. I. Byrne. 1999. Intracellular tryptophan pool sizes may account for differences in gamma interferon- mediated inhibition and persistence o f chlamydial growth in polarized and nonpolarized cells. Infect. Immun. 67:16661671.
71. Katz, B. P.,, D. Fortenberry,, and D. Orr,. 1998. Factors affecting chlamydial persistence or recurrence one and three months after treatment, p. 3538. In R. S. Stephen,s, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection. Napa, Calif.
72. Kaukoranta-Tolvanen, S. S.,, T. Ronni,, M. Leinonen,, P. Saikku,, and K. Laitinen. 1996. Expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells stimulated by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Microb. Pathog. 21:407411.
73. Kaukoranta-Tolvanen, S. S.,, A. M. Teppo,, K. Laitinen,, P. Saikku,, K. Linnavuori,, and M. Leinonen. 1996. Growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induction of a cytokine response. Microb. Pathog. 21:215221.
74. Kern, D. G.,, M. A. Neill,, and J. Schachter. 1993. A seroepidemiologic study of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Rhode Island. Evidence of serologic cross-reactivity. Chest 104:208213.
75. Kiviat, N. B.,, P. Wolner-Hanssen,, M. Peterson,, J. Wasserheit,, W. E. Stamm,, D. A. Eschenbach,, J. Paavonen,, J. Lingenfelter,, T. Bell,, V. Zabriskie,, B. Kirby,, and K. K. Holmes. 1986. Localization of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by direct immunofluorescence and culture in pelvic inflammatory disease. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154:865873.
76. Koehler, L.,, E. Nettelnbreker,, A. P. Hudson,, N. Ott,, H. C. Cerard, P. J. Branigan,, H. R. Schumacher,, W. Drommer,, and H. Zeidler. 1997. Ultrastructural and molecular analyses o f the persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar K) in human monocytes. Microb. Pathog. 22:133142.
77. Kordova, N.,, J. C. Wilt,, and M. Sadiq. 1971. Lysosomes in L cells infected with Chlamydia psittaci strain 6BC. Can. J. Microbiol. 17:955959.
78. Kotake, S.,, H. R. Schumacher,, and R. L. Wilder. 1996. A simple nested RT-PCR method for quantitation o f the relative amounts of multiple cytokine mRNAs in small tissue samples. J. Immunol. Methods 199:193203.
79. Kramer, M. J.,, and F. B. Gordon. 1971. Ultrastructural analysis of the effects of penicillin and chlortetracycline on the development of a genital tract. Chlamydia. Infect. Immun. 3:333341.
80. Kuo, C. C.,, A. S. Coulson,, L. A. Campbell,, A. L. Cappuccio,, R. D. Lawrence,, and S. P. Wang. 1997. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries of lower extremities from patients undergoing bypass operation for arterial obstruction. J. Vasc. Surg. 26:2931.
81. Kuo, C. C.,, A. M. Gown,, E. P. Benditt,, and J. T. Grayston. 1992. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in aortic lesions of atherosclerosis by immunocytochemical stain. Arterioscler. Thromb. 13:15011504.
82. Kuo, C. C.,, A. Shor,, L. A. Campbell,, H. Fukushi,, D. L. Patton,, and J. T. Grayston. 1993. Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries. J. Infect. Dis. 167:841849.
83. Kutlin, A.,, P. M. Roblin,, and M. R. Hammerschlag. 1999. In vitro activities of azithromycin and ofloxacin against Chlamydia pneumoniae in a continuous-infection model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:22682272.
84. Laitinen, K.,, A. L. Laurila,, M. Leinonen,, and P. Saikku. 1996. Reactivation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice by cortisone treatment. Infect. Immun. 64:14881490.
85. Lampe, M. F.,, R. J. Suchland,, and W. E. Stamm. 1993. Nucleotide sequence of the variable domains within the major outer membrane protein gene from serovariants of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 61:213219.
86. Lin, J.-S. L.,, P. Donegan,, T. C. Heeren,, M. Greenberg,, E. E. Flaherty,, R. Haivanis,, X.-H. Su,, D. Dean,, W. J. Newhall,, J. S. Knapp,, S. K. Saraflan,, R. J. Rice,, S. A. Morse,, and P. A. Rice. 1998. Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men with urethritis and their female sex partners. J. Infect. Dis. 178:17071712.
87. Maass, M.,, C. Bartels,, P. M. Engel,, U. Mamat,, and H. H. Sievers. 1998. Endovascular presence of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common phenomenon in coronary artery disease. J. Am. Coll Cardiol. 31:827832.
88. Mabey, D. C. W.,, M. E. Ward,, and J. N. Robertson. 1987. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by enzyme immunoassay in patients with trachoma. Lancet 2:14911492.
89. Malinverni, R.,, C. C. Kuo,, L. A. Campbell,, and J. T. Grayston. 1995. Reactivation ofChlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice by cortisone treatment. J. Infect. Dis. 172:593594.
90. Manire, G. P.,, and A. Tamura. 1967. Preparation and chemical composition of the cell walls of mature infectious dense forms of meningopneumonitis organisms. J. Bacteriol. 94:11781183.
91. Manor, E.,, and I. Sarov. 1986. Fate of Chlamydia trachomatis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Infect. Immun. 54:9095.
92. Matsumoto, A.,, and G. P. Manire. 1970. Electron microscopic observations on the effects of penicillin on the morphology of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Bacteriol. 101:278285.
93. Megram, D. W.,, H. G. Stiver,, and W. R. Bowie. 1985. Complement activation and stimulation of chemotoxin by Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 49:670673.
94. Meyer, K. F. 1967. The host spectrum of psittacosis- lymphogranuloma venereum (PL) agents. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63:12251246.
95. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1933. Latent psittacosis infections in shell parakeets. Proc. Exp. Biol. Med. 30:484488.
96. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1933. Latent psittacosis infections in mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 30:483484.
97. Moazed, T. C,, C. C. Kuo,, J. T. Grayston,, and L. A. Campbell. 1998. Systemic dissemination of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection via macrophages. J. Infect. Dis. 177:132135.
98. Molestina, R. E.,, D. Dean,, J. A. Ramirez,, and J. T. Summersgill. 1998. Characterization of a strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolated from a coronary atheroma by analysis o f the omp1 gene and biological activity in human endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 66:13601376.
99. Morrison, R. P.,, H. Su,, K. Lyng,, and Y. Yuan. 1990. The Chlamydia trachomatis hyp operon is homologous to the groEL stress response of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 58:27012705.
100. Moulder, J. W. 1991. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro. Microbiol. Rev. 55:143190.
101. Moulder, J. W.,, N. J. Levy,, and L. P. Schulman. 1980. Persistent infection of mouse fibroblasts (L cells) with Chlamydia psittaci: evidence for a cryptic chlamydial form. Infect. Immun. 30:874883.
102. Muhlestein, J. B.,, J. L. Anderson,, E. H. Hammond,, L. Zhao,, S. Trehan,, E. P. Schwobe,, and J. F. Carlquist. 1998. Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae accelerates the development of atherosclerosis and treatment with azithromycin prevents it in a rabbit model. Circulation 97:633636.
103. Mullock, B. M.,, W. J. Branch,, M. van Schaik,, L. K. Gilbert,, and J. P. Luzio. 1989. Reconstitution of an endosome-lysosome interaction in a cell-free system. J. Cell Biol. 108:20932099.
104. Mullock, B. M.,, J. H. Perez,, T. Kuwana,, S. R. Gray,, and J. P. Luzio. 1994. Lysosomes can fuse with a late endosomal compartment in a cell-free system from rat liver. J. Cell Biol. 126: 11731182.
105. Nanagara, R.,, L. Feng,, A. Beutler,, A. P. Hudson,, and H. R. Schumacher. 1995. Alteration o f Chlamydia trachomatis biologic behavior in synovial membranes. Arthritis Rheum. 38: 14101417.
106. Ojcius, D. M.,, Y. Bravo de Alba,, J. M. Kanellopoulos,, R. A. Hawkins,, K. A. Kelly,, R. G. Rank,, and A. Dautry-Vaarsat. 1998. Internalization of Chlamydia by dendritic cells and stimulation of Chlamydia-specific T cells. J. Immunol. 160:12971303.
107. Ojcius, D. M.,, P. Souque,, J.-L. Perfettini,, and A. Dautry-Varsat. 1998. Apoptosis of epithelial cells and macrophages due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia psittaci. J. Immunol. 161:42204226.
108. Ozanne, G.,, and J. Lefebvre. 1992. Specificity of the rmcroimmunofluorescence assay for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:11851189.
109. Patton, D. L.,, M. Askienazy-Elbhar,, J. Henry-Suchet,, L. A. Campbell,, A. Cappuccio,, W. Tannous,, S. P. Wang,, and C. C. Kuo. 1994. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in fallopian tube tissue in women with postinfectious tubal infertility. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171:95101.
110. Patton, D. L.,, Y. C. Sweeney,, N. J. Bohannon,, A. M. Clark,, J. P. Hughes,, A. Cappuccio,, L. A. Campbell,, and W. E. Stamm. 1997. Effects of doxycycline and antiinflammatory agents on experimentally induced chlamydial upper genital tract infection in female macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 175:648654.
111. Peterson, E. M.,, X. Cheng,, Z. Qu,, and L. M. de la Maza. 1996. Characterization of the murine antibody response to peptides representing the variable domains of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Infect. Immun. 64:33543359.
112. Peterson, E. M.,, B. A. MarkofF,, and L. M. de la Maza. 1990. The major outer membrane protein nucleotide sequence of Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar E. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:3414.
113. Picket, M. A.,, M. E. Ward,, and I. N. Clarke. 1987. Complete nucleotide sequence of the major outer membrane protein gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 42:185190.
114. Pollard, M.,, and N. Sharon. 1963. Induction of prolonged latency in psittacosis infected cells by aminopterin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112:5154.
115. Rahman, M. U.,, M. A., Cheema,, H. R. Schumacher,, and A. P. Hudson. 1992. Molecular evidence for the presence of chlamydia in the synovium of patients with Reiter's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 35:521529.
116. Ramirez, J. A. 1996. Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae from the coronary artery of a patient with coronary atherosclerosis. The Chlamydia pneumonia/atherosclerosis Study Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 125:979982.
117. Rapoza, P. A.,, S. G. Tahija,, J. M. Carlin,, S. L. Miller,, M. L. Padilla,, and G. I. Byrne. 1991. Effect of interferon on a primary conjunctival epithelial cell model of trachoma. Investig. Ophthalmol Vis. Sci. 32:29192923.
118. Rasmussen, S.J.,, L. Eckmann,, A. J. Quayle,, L. Shen,, Y.-X. Zhang,, D. J. Anderson,, J. Fierer,, R. S. Stephens,, and M. F. KagnofF. 1997. Secretion o f proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells in response to chlamydia infection suggests a central role for epithelial cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. J. Clin. Investig. 99:7787.
119. Rasmussen, S. J.,, P. Timms,, P. R. Beatty,, and R. S. Stephens. 1996. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte- mediated cytolysis of L cells persistently infected with Chlamydia spp. Infect Immun. 64:19441949.
120. Raulston, J. E.,, C. H. Davis,, D. H. Schmiel,, M. W. Morgan,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1993. Molecular characterization and outer membrane association of a Chlamydia trachomatis protein related to the hsp70 family of proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 268:2313923147.
121. Rockey, D. D.,, D. Grosenbach,, D. E. Hruby,, M. G. Peacock,, R. A. Heinzen,, and T. Hackstadt. 1997. Chlamydia psittaci IncA is phosphorylated by the host cell and is exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the developing inclusion. Mol. Microbiol. 24:217228.
122. Rockey, D. D.,, R. A. Heinzen,, and T. Hackstadt. 1995. Cloning and characterization of a Chlamydia psittaci gene coding for a protein localized in the inclusion membrane of infected cells. Mol Microbiol 15:617626.
123. Rothermel, C. D.,, J. Schachter,, P. Lavrich,, E. C. Lipsitz,, and T. Francus. 1989. Chlamydia trachomatis induced production of interleukin- 1 by human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 57:27052711.
124. Rothman, J. E.,, and F. T. Wieland. 1996. Protein sorting by transport vesicles. Science 272:227234.
125. Saikku, P.,, M. Leinonen,, L. Tenkanen,, E. Linnanmaki,, M. R. Ekman,, V. Manninen,, M. Manttari,, M. H. Frick,, and J. K. Huttunen. 1992. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 116:273278.
126. Sardinia, L. M.,, E. Segal,, and D. Ganem. 1988. Developmental regulation of the cysteinerich outer membrane proteins of murine Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:9971004.
127. Schachter, J. 1978. Chlamydial infections. N. Engl J. Med. 298:428435.
128. Schachter, J.,, M. Grossman,, R. T. Sweet,, J. Halt,, C. Jordan,, and E. Bishop. 1986. Prospective study of perinatal transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis. JAMA 225:33743377.
129. Schmiel, D. H.,, S. T. Knight,, J. E. Raulston,, J. Choong,, C. H. Davis,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1991. Recombinant Escherichia coli clones expressing Chlamydia trachomatis gene products attach to human endometrial epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 59:40014012.
130. Schmitz, E.,, E. Nettelnbreker,, H. Zeidler,, M. Hammer,, E. Manor,, and J. Wollenhaupt. 1993. Intracellular persistence of chlamydial major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide and rRNA after non-productive infection of human monocytes with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar K. J. Med. Microbiol 38: 278285.
131. Scholes, D.,, A. Stergachis,, F. E. Heidrich,, H. Andrilla,, K. K. Holmes,, and W. E. Stamm. 1996. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:13621366.
132. Schramm, N.,, C. R. Bagnell,, and P. B. Wyrick. 1996. Vesicles containing Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 remain above pH 6 within HEC-1B cells. Infect. Immun. 64:12081214.
133. Scidmore, M. A.,, D. D. Rockey,, E. R. Fischer,, R. A. Heinzen,, and T. Hackstadt. 1996. Vesicular interactions of the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion are determined by chlamydial early protein synthesis rather than route of entry. Infect. Immun. 64:53665372.
134. Scidmore-Carlson, M.,, E. I. Shaw,, C. A. Dooley,, and T. Hackstadt,. 1997. Identification and characterization of putative Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion membrane proteins, p. 103106. In R. S. Stephen,s, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Mont.
135. Shemer, Y.,, and I. Sarov. 1985. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by human gamma interferon. Infect. Immun. 48:592596.
136. Shemer-Avni, Y.,, D. Wallach,, and I. Sarov. 1988. Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by recombinant tumor necrosis factor. Infect. Immun. 56:25032506.
137. Shewen, P. E. 1980. Chlamydial infection in animals: a review. Can. Vet. J. 21:21.
138. Shor, A.,, C. C. Kuo,, and D. L. Patton. 1992. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary arterial fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques. S. Afr. Med. J. 82:158161.
139. Smith, C. B.,, W. J. Friedewald,, and R. M. Chanock. 1967. Shedding of Mycoplasma pneumoniae after tetracychne and erythromycin therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 276:11721175.
140. Soderlund, G.,, C. Dahlgren,, and E. Kihlstrom. 1984. Interaction between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Chlamydia trachomatis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 22:2125.
141. Soong, Y. K.,, S. M. Kao,, C. J. Lee,, P. S. Lee,, and C. C. Pao. 1990. Endocervical chlamydial deoxyribonucleic acid in infertile women. Fertil. Steril. 54:815818.
142. Stagg, A. J.,, W. A. Elsley,, M. A. Pickett,, M. E. Ward,, and S. C. Knight. 1993. Primary human T-cell responses to the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. Immunology 79:19.
143. Stephens, R. S. 1992. Challenge of chlamydia research. Infect. Agents Dis. 1:279293.
144. Stephens, R. S.,, S. Kalman,, C. Lammel,, J. Fan,, R. Marathe,, L. Aravind,, W. Mitchell,, L. Olinger,, R. L. Tatusov,, J. Qixun,, E. V. Koonin,, and R. W. Davis. 1998. Genome sequence of an obligate intracellular pathogen of humans: Chlamydia trachomatis. Science 282:754759.
145. Stirling, P.,, I. Allan,, and J. H. Pearce. 1983. Interference with transformation of chlamydiae from reproductive to infected body forms by deprivation o f cysteine. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 133136.
146. Su, H.,, R. Messer,, W. Whitmore,, E. Fischer,, J. C. Portis,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1998. Vaccination against chlamydial genital tract infection after immunization with dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with nonviable chlamydiae. J. Exp. Med. 188:809818.
147. Su, H.,, N. G. Watkins,, Y. X. Zhang,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1990. Chlamydia trachomatishost cell interactions: role of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein as an adhesin. Infect. Immun. 58:10171025.
148. Su, H.,, Y. X. Zhang,, O. Barrera,, N. G. Watkins,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1988. Differential effect of trypsin on infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis: loss o f infectivity requires cleavage of major outer membrane protein variable domains II and IV. Infect. Immun. 56:20942100.
149. Swanson, A. F.,, and C. C. Kuo. 1994. Binding of the glycan of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis to HeLa cells. Infect. Immun. 62:2428.
150. Tamura, A.,, and G. P. Manire. 1968. Effect of penicillin on the multiplication of meningopneumonitis organisms (Chlamydia psittaci). J. Bacteriol. 96:875880.
151. Taraska, T.,, D. M. Ward,, R. S. Ajioka,, P. B. Wyrick,, S. R. Davis-Kaplan,, C. H. Davis,, and J. Kaplan. 1996. The late chlamydial inclusion membrane is not derived from the endocytic pathway and is relatively deficient in host proteins. Infect. Immun. 64:37133727.
152. Thejis, H.,, J. Gnarpe,, O. Lundkvist,, G. Heimer,, G. Larsson,, and A. Victor. 1991. Diagnosis and prevalence of persistent chlamydia infection in infertile women: tissue culture, direct antigen detection, and serology. Fertil. Steril. 55:304310.
153. Ting, L.-M.,, R.-C. Hsia,, C. G. Haidaris,, and P. M. Bavoil. 1995. Interaction of outer envelope proteins of Chlamydia psittaci GPIC with the HeLa cell surface. Infect. Immun. 63: 36003608.
154. Todd, W. J.,, and J. Storz. 1975. Ultrastructural cytochemical evidence for the activation of lysosomes in the cytocidal effect of Chlamydia psittaci. Infect. Immun. 12:638646.
155. von Hertzen, L.,, R. Isoaho,, M. Leinonen,, R. Koskinen,, P. Laippala,, M. Toyryla,, S. L. Kivela,, and P. Saikku. 1996. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int. J. Epidemiol. 25:658664.
156. Watson, M. W.,, P. R. Lambden,, J. S. Everson,, and J. N. Clarke. 1994. Immunoreactivity of the 60 kDa cysteine-rich proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae expressed in Escherichia coli. Microbiology 140:20032011.
157. Weiss, S. M.,, P. M. Roblin,, C. A. Gaydos,, P. Cummings,, D. L. Patton,, N. SchulhofF,, J. Shani,, R. Frankel,, K. Penney,, T. C. Quinn,, M. R. Hammerschlag,, and J. Schachter. 1996. Failure to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary atheromas of patients undergoing atherectomy. J. Infect. Dis. 173:957962.
158. Williams, D. M.,, D. M. Magee,, L. F. B onewald,, J. G. Smith,, C. A. Bleicker,, G. I. Byrne,, and J. Schachter. 1990. A role in vivo for tumor necrosis factor alpha in host defense against Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 58: 15721576.
159. Workowski, K. A.,, M. F. Lampe,, K. G. Wong,, M. B. Watts,, and W. E. Stamm. 1993. Long-term eradication of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection after antimicrobial therapy. Evidence against persistent infection. JAMA 270:20712075. (Erratum, 271:348, 1994).
160. Wylie, J. L.,, G. M. Hatch,, and G. McClarty. 1997. Host cell phospholipids are trafficked to and then modified by Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Bacteriol. 179:72337242.
161. Wyrick, P. B.,, and E. A. Brownridge. 1978. Growth of Chlamydia psittaci in macrophages. Infect. Immun. 19:10541060.
162. Wyrick, P. B.,, S. T. Knight,, T. R. Paul,, R. G. Rank,, and C. S. Barbier. 1999. Persistent chlamydial envelope antigens in antibiotic-exposed infected cells trigger neutrophil chemotaxis. J. Infect. Dis. 179:954966.
163. Yamazaki, T.,, H. Nakada,, N. Sakurai,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, and J. T. Grayston. 1990. Transmission of Chlamydia pneumoniae in young children in a Japanese family. J. Infect. Dis. 162:13901392.
164. Yong, E. C.,, E. Y. Chi,, and C. C. Kuo. 1987. Differential antimicrobial activity of human mononuclear phagocytes against the human biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Immunol. 139:12971302.
165. Yong, E. C,, S.J. Klebanoff,, and C. C. Kuo. 1982. Toxic effect of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 57:422426.
166. Zeichner, S. L. 1983. Isolation and characterization of macrophage phagosomes containing infectious and heat-inactivated Chlamydia psittaci: two phagosomes with different intracellular behavior. Infect. Immun. 40:956966.
167. Zhang, J. P.,, and R. S. Stephens. 1992. Mechanism of Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Cell 69:861869.
168. Zhang, Y. X.,, S. G. Morrison,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1990. The nucleotide sequence of the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar F. Nucleic Acids Res. 18:1061.
169. Zhang, Y. X.,, S. Stewart,, T. Joseph,, H. R. Taylor,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1987. Protective monoclonal antibodies recognize epitopes located on the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Immunol. 138:575581.
170. Zvillich, M.,, and I. Sarov. 1985. Interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies: electron microscopy and chemiluminescent response. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131:26272635.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error