1887

Chapter 22 : Biofilms and Device-Related Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap22-2.gif

Abstract:

The study of bacterial biofilms is more advanced in the engineering field than in the medical field, but the simple realization that biofilms are involved in chronic infections opens the way for a massive transfer of valuable information from the engineering realm to the medical realm and for its application to the treatment of infectious diseases. first came to the attention of biofilm microbiologists because it predominates in cold alpine streams and grows predominantly (99.99%) in biofilms in this natural habitat. The Center for Biofilm Engineering (CBE) has established the fact that most biofilms assume this microcolony and water channel structure, including all biofilms formed by the few grampositive species examined to date, and the most significant consequence of this new observation is that we must now explain how these elaborate structures are established and maintained. If we try to imagine the bacterial survival strategies that would have been effective in the earliest stages of the development of life on this planet, growth in stationary biofilms that were protected from unfavorable conditions would prevent bacteria from being swept into acid or boiling downstream pools and from surges of threatening water from upstream sources. The role of host defenses in controlling biofilm infections is discussed in the chapter. There is a growing conviction that antibiotics are losing their ability to control bacterial infections because the bacteria have mobilized all of their survival strategies in the face of this frontal attack.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.6369719
Environmental Microbiology
0.60775024
Antibacterial Agents
0.5076909
Bacterial Diseases
0.5061542
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.4932141
0.6369719
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Diagrammatic representation of the cellular structure of a microbial biofilm showing the directly ovserved shapes of matrix-enclosed microcolonies and intervening water channels, in which convective flow occurs.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Isobar map of dissolved oxygen concentration as measured directly in a living biofilm by the use of a microeclectrode, showing that the centers of microcolonies can be essentially anoxic, even when the biofilm is growing in ambient air.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Polycrylamide gel electrophoresis gel showing the pattern of production of OMP's by cells of in the biofilm mode of growth (lane 5) versus production by cells in the planktonic mode of growth (lanes 1 to 4 and 6). The differences in OMP production between these cells indicate that the biofilm phenotype differs profoundly from the planktonic phenotype (H. Yu and J. W. Costerton, unpublished data)

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Scanning electron micrograph of an biofilm on an endocardial pacemaker lead, showing spherical bacterial cells embedded in dehydration-condensed matrix material. These biofilm cells were resistant to a 6-week course of very high-dose antibiotic therapy.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Scanning electron micrograph of a mixed-species bacterial biofilm on the copper component of a Copper 7 IUD worn by an asymptomatic patient.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Transmission electron micrograph of a matrix-enclosed microcolony of cells in the lung of a rat with a model infection designed to mimic cystic fibrosis in human patients. Note the dehydration-related shrinkage of the matrix material and the dark “crust” of immune complex material surrounding the microcolony.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Confocal scanning laser micrograph of a silver-coated sewing cuff fabric designed for a mechanical heart valve. This thread had been exposed to cells of , which had colonized its surface to produce matrix-enclosed microcolonies containing living (green) and a few dead (orange and red) cells in a developing biofilm.

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818104.chap22
1. Brown, M. R. W.,, D. G. Allison,, and P. Gilbert. 1988. Resistance ofbacterial biofilms to antibiotics: a growth-rate related effect. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22:777783.
2. Brown, M. R. W.,, and P. Williams. 1985. The influence of environment on envelope properties affecting survival of bacteria in infections. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 39:527556.
3. Ceri, H.,, M. E. Olson,, C. Stremick,, R. R. Read,, D. Morck,, and A. Buret. 1999. The Calgary biofilm device: new technology for rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial biofilms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:17711776.
4. Chen, X.,, and P. S. Stewart. 1996. Chlorine penetrationinto artificial biofilm is Hmited by a reaction-diffusion interaction. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30:20782083.
5. Cochrane, D. M. G.,, M. R. W. Brown,, H. Anwar,, P. H. Weller,, K. Lam,, and J. W. Costerton. 1988. Antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa surface protein antigens in a rat model of chronic lung infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 27:255261 .
6. Costerton, J. W.,, P. S. Stewart,, and E. P. Greenberg. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284: 13181322.
7. Costerton, J. W.,, Z. Lewandowski,, D. E. Caldwell,, D. R. Korber,, and H. M. Lappin- Scott. 1995. Microbial biofilms. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 49:711745.
8. Costerton, J. W.,, G. G. Geesey,, and G. K. Cheng. 1978. How bacteria stick. Sci. Am. 238:8695 .
9. Dasgupta, M. K.,, K. B. Bettcher,, R. A. Ulan,, V. Burns,, K. Lam,, J. B. Dossetor,, and j. W. Costerton. 1987. Relationship of adherent bacterial biofilms to peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal Dialysis Bull. 7: 168173.
10. Dasgupta, M. K.,, and j. W. Costerton. 1989. Significance of biofilm-adherent bacterial microcolonies on Tenckhoff catheters in CAPD patients. Blood Purif. 7:144155.
11. Davies, D. G.,, M. R. Parsek,, J. P. Pearson,, B. H. Iglewski,, J. W. Costerton,, and E. P. Greenberg. 1998. The involvement of cell-tocell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 280:295298.
12. Davies, D. G.,, and G. G. Geesey. 1995. Regulation of the alginate biosynthesis gene algC in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during biofilm development in continuous culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 61:860867.
13. de Beer, D.,, R. Srinivasan,, and P. S. Stewart. 1994. Direct measurement of chlorine penetration into biofilms duringdisinfection. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 60:43394344.
14. De Nys, R.,, P. D. Steinberg,, P. Willemsen,, S. A. Dworjanyn,, C. L. Gabelish,, and R. J. King. 1995. Broad spectrum effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra in antifouling assays. Biqfouling 8:259271.
15. Dunny, G.M.,, and B. A. Leonard. 1997. Cellcell communicationin Gram-positive bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol 51:527564.
16. Foley, I.,, P. Marsh,, E. M. H. Wellington,, A. W. Smith,, and M. R. W. Brown. 1999. General stress responsemaster regulator rpoS is expressed in human infection: a possible role in chronicity. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:164165.
17. Cristina, A.G.,, J. J. Dobbins,, B. Giamara,, J. C. Lewis,, and W. C. DeVries. 1988. Biomaterial- centeredsepsis and the total artificial heart: microbial adhesion versus tissue integration. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 259:870877.
18. Gristina, A. G.,, and J. W. Costerton. 1984. Bacteria-laden biofilms: a hazard to orthopedic prostheses. Infect. Surg. 3:655662.
19. Huang, C.-T.,, F. Yu,, G. A. McFeters,, and P. S. Stewart. 1995. Nonuniform spatial patterns of respiratory activity within biofilms during disinfection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:22522256.
20. Jensen, E.T.,, A. Kharazmi,, K. Lam,, J. W. Costerton,, and N. Hoiby. 1990. Human polymorphonuclearleukocyte response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Infect. Immun. 58: 23832385.
21. Khoury, A.E.,, K. Lam,, B. Ellis,, and j. W. Costerton. 1992. Prevention and controlofbacterial infections associated with medical devices. ASAIO J. 38:M174M178.
22. Kolter, R.,, and R. Losick. 1998. All for one and one for all. Science 280:226227.
23. Lam, J.,, R. Chan,, K. Lam,, and J. W. Costerton. 1980. Production of mucoidmicrocolonies by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within infected lungs in cysticfibrosis. Infect. Immun. 28:546556.
24. Lambe, D. W., Jr.,, K. P. Ferguson,, K. J. Mayberry-Carson,, B. Tober-Meyer,, and J. W. Costerton. 1991. Foreign-body-associated experimental osteomyehtis induced with Bacteroides fragilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis in rabbits. Clin. Orthop. 266:285294.
25. Lewandowski, Z.,, W. Lee,, W. G. Characklis,, and B. Little. 1989. Dissolved oxygen and pH microelectrode measurements at water immersed metal surfaces. Corrosion 45:9298.
26. Marrie, T. J.,, and j. W. Costerton. 1984. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of in situ bacterial colonization of intravenous and intraarterial catheters. J. Clin. Microbiol 19:687693.
27. Nickel, J. C.,, J. W. Costerton,, R. J. C. McLean,, and M. Olson. 1994. Bacterial biofilms: influence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of urinary-tract infections. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33:3141.
28. Nickel, J. C.,, I. Ruseska,, J. B. Wright,, and J. W. Costerton. 1985. Tobramycin resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells growing as a biofilm on urinary catheter material. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:619624.
29. Pitt, W. G.,, M. O. McBride,, J. K. Lunceford,, R. J. Roper,, and R. D. Sagers. 1994. Ultrasonic enhancement of antibiotic action on gramnegative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:25772582.
30. Stewart, P. S. 1996. Theoretical aspects o f antibiotic diffusion into microbial biofilms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother 40:25172522.
31. Stoodley, P.,, I. Dodds,, Z. Lewandowski,, A. B. Cunningham,, J. D. Boyle,, and H. M. Lappin-Scott. 1999. Influence ofhydrodynamics and nutrients on biofilm structure. J. Appl Microbiol 85:19S28S.
32. Suci, P.,, M. W. Mittelman,, F. P. Y u,, and G. G. Geesey. 1994. Investigation of ciprofloxacin penetration into Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:21252133.
33. Tenney, J.H.,, M. R. Moody,, K. A. Newman ,, S. C. Schimpff,, J. C. Wade,, J. W. Costerton,, and W. P. Reed. 1986. Adherent microorganisms on lumenal surfaces of long-term intravenous catheters: importance of Staphylococcus epidermidis in patients with cancer. Arch. Intern. Med. 146:19491954.
34. Terzieva, S.,, J. Donnelly,, V. Ulevicius,, S. A. Grinshpun,, K. Willeke,, G. N. Selma,, and K. P. Brenner. 1996. Comparison of methods for detection and enumeration of airborne microorganisms collected by liquid impingement. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:22642272.
35. Vrany, J. D.,, P. S. Stewart,, and P. A. Suci. 1997. Comparison of recalcitrance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms displaying rapid-transport characteristics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 13521358.
36. Ward, K. H.,, M. E. Olson,, K. Lam,, and J. W. Costerton. 1992. Mechanism of persistent infection associated with peritoneal implants. J. Med. Microbiol. 36:406413.
37. Wellman, N.,, S. M. Fortun,, and B. R. McLeod. 1996. Bacterial biofilms andthe bioelectric effect. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 20122014.
38. Wentland, E.,, P. S. Stewart,, C.-T. Huang,, and G. A. McFeters. 1996. Spatial variations in growth rate within Klebsiella pneumoniae colonies and biofilm. Biotechnol. Prog. 12:316321.
39. Xu, K. D.,, P. S. Stewart,, F. Xia,, C.-T. Huang,, and G. A. McFeters. 1998. Spatial physiological heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm is determined by oxygen availability. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:40354039.
40. Yu, F. P.,, and G. A. McFeters. 1994. Rapid insitu assessment of physiological activities in biofilms using fluorescentprobes. J. Microbiol. Methods 20:110.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Partial list of human infections involving biofilms

Citation: Costerton J, Stewart P. 2000. Biofilms and Device-Related Infections, p 423-439. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error