1887

Chapter 8 : Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818104/9781555811594_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on bacterial infections in specific settings where fundamental relationships relevant to the persistence of bacterial infections in the human host may be observed and studied. Neonates usually acquire bacterial pathogens transplacentally through the umbilical vein or by aspiration from amniotic fluid or cervical secretions. The complement system is able directly to lyse some gram-negative bacteria even in the absence of specific antibodies, but circulating levels of complement in the sera of neonates are lower than those in adults. Both the infected fetus and the neonate are able to produce protective IgM antibodies in response to bacterial antigens, but the levels in serum are lower than those in adults. The primary T-cell deficiencies produce defects in the cytokine production that is required to activate macrophages to kill intracellular bacteria. A primary defect of superoxide synthesis or adhesion of neutrophils is related to severe infection with pyogenic bacteria. The extreme example of acquired immune deficiency is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which produces AIDS. Persistent infections modulate all aspects of immune response, including both adaptive and natural immune functions, and have long-term consequences for immune defense. Although encounters with bacteria are a normal aspect of neonatal life, infants are also more susceptible to bacterial infections than are adults.

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.46228445
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
0.40940922
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.40712455
0.46228445
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Neonatal NK cell activity in response to bacteria. The data show the effect of , prepared as ribosomal vesicles, and , prepared as whole inactivated cells, on neonatal NK effector cell function against the K562 target in the 4-h short-term Cr release assay following 18 h of pretreatment compared to endogenous activity at different effector-to-target ratios.

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Production of IFN-γ in response to . The data show the production of IFN- γ by adult and neonatal mononuclear cells in response to after 18 h of culture.

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Superoxide production in phagocytes. The data show a deficient monocyte respiratory burst in response to and phorbol myristate acetate in a child on two test dates compared with normal controls. The data are shown as percent activated cells detected by flow cytometry.

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Lymphocyte response to lactobacilli in HIV-infected children. The data show mononuclear cell response to lactobacilli in vitro in HIV children with low CD4 T-cell numbers (mean, 7%) compared to children with better CD4 T-cell numbers (mean, 34%).

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818104.chap8
1. Agematsu, K.,, H. Nagumo,, K. Shinozaki,, S. Hokibara,, K. Yasui,, K. Terada,, N. Kawamura,, T. Toba,, S. Nonoyama,, H. D. Ochs,, and A. Komiyama. 1998. Absence of IgDCD27 (+) memory B cell population in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. J. Clin. Investig. 102: 853 860.
2. Alenghat, E. E.,, and J. R. Sterly. 1984. Alveolar macrophages in perinatal infants. Pediatrics 74: 221 223.
3. Baltimore, R. S. 1998. Neonatal nosocomial infections. Semin. Perinatol. 22: 25 32.
4. Barnes, P. F.,, and R. L. Modlin. 1996. Human cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 215: 197 219.
5. Beaugerie, L.,, B. Salauze,, A. Bure,, A. M. Deluol,, N. Hoyeau-Idrissi,, F. Carbonnel,, Y. Ngo,, J. Cosnes,, W. Rozenbaum,, J. C. Nicolas,, and J. Gendre. 1996. Results of culture from colonoscopically obtained specimens for bacteria and fungi in HIV-infected patients with diarrhea. Gastrointest. Endosc. 44: 663 666.
6. Benator, D. A.,, and F. M. Gordin. 1996. Nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Semin. Respir. Infect. 11: 285 300.
7. Bengmark, S.,, and B. Jeppsson. 1995. Gastrointestinal surface protection and mucosa reconditioning. J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 19: 410 415.
8. Berner, R.,, C. M. Niemeyer,, J. U. Leititis,, A. Funke,, C. Schwab,, U. Rau,, K. Richter,, M. S. Tawfeek,, M. Clad,, and M. Brandis. 1998. Plasma levels and gene expression of GCSF, TNF-alpha, IL-lbeta, IL-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule in neonatal early onset sepsis. Pediatr. Res. 44: 469 477.
9. Berthet, F.,, F. Le Deist,, A. M. Duliege,, and C. Griscelli. 1994. Clinical consequences and treatment of primary immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by functional T and B lymphocyte anomalies (combined immune deficiency). Pediatrics 93: 265 270.
10. Boes, M.,, A. P. Prodeus,, T. Schmidt,, M. C. Carroll,, and J. Chen. 1998. A critical role of natural immunoglobuHn M in immediate defense against systemic bacterial infection. J. Exp. Med. 188: 2381 2386.
11. Bohnsack, J. F.,, K. Vidjaja,, S. Ghazizadeh,, C. E. Rubens,, D. R. Hilhyard,, C. J. Parker,, K. H. Ablertne,, and H. R. Hill. 1997. A role for C5a and C5-ase in the acute neutrophil response to group B streptococcal infections. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 847 855.
12. Boullierin, S.,, Y. Poquet,, T. Debord,, J. J. Fournie,, and M. L. Gougeon, 1999. Regulation by cytokines (IL-12, IL-15, IL-4 and IL-10) of the V gamma9Vdelta2 T cell response to mycobacterial phosphoantigens in responder and anergic HIV-infected persons. Eur. J. Immunol. 29: 90 99.
13. Brown, T. A.,, R. Jonsson,, and B. Haneberg. 1998. Cervical secretions in pregnant women colonized rectally with group B streptococci have high levels of antibodies to serotype III polysaccharide capsular antigen and protein R. Scand. J. Immunol. 47: 179 188.
14. Buckley, R.H., 1996. Primary immunodeficiencydisease, p. 1401 1408. In J. C. Bennett, and F. Plum (ed.), Cecil Textbook of Medicine. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
15. Buhrer, C.,, J. Graulich,, D. Stibenz,, J. W. Dudenhousen,, and M. Obladen. 1994. L-selection is down-regulated in umbilical cord blood granulocytes and monocytes of newborn infants with acute bacterial infection. Pediatr. Res. 36: 799 804.
16. Campos-Neto, A.,, P. Ovendale,, T. Bement,, T. A. Koppi,, W. C. Fanslow,, M. A. Rossi,, and M. R. Alderson. 1998. CD40 ligand is not essential for the development of cell-mediated immunity and resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 160: 2037 2041.
17. Caperna, J.,, R. E. Barber,, J. G. Toerner,, and W. C. Mathews. 1998. Estimation of the effect of neutropenia on rates of clinical bacteraemia in HIV-infected patients. Epidemiol. Infect. 120: 71 80.
18. Carson, P. J.,, R. L. Schut,, M. L. Simpson,, J. O'Brien,, and E. N. JanofF. 1995. Antibody class and subclass responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides following immunization o f human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 340 345.
19. Caux, C.,, C. Dezutter-Dambuyant,, D. Schmitt,, and J. Banchereau. 1992. GM-CSF and TNF-α cooperate in the generation of dendritic Langerhans cells. Nature 360: 258 261.
20. Craven, D. E. 1995. Staphylococcus aureus colonisation and bacteraemia in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a dynamic interaction with the host. J. Chemother. 7 (Suppl. 3): 19 28.
21. Cunningham-Rundles, C.,, F. P. Siegal,, S. Cunningham-Rundles,, and P. Lieberman. 1987. Incidence of cancer in 98 patients with common varied immunodeficiency in the United States. Clin. Immunol. 7: 294 303.
22. Cunningham-Rundles, S.,, S. Arne,, S. Bengmark,, R. Johann-Liang ,, F. Marshall,, L. Metakis,, C. Califano,, A. M. Dun,, C. Grassey,, G. Hinds,, and J. Cervia. Probiotics and immune response. J. Gastroenterol, in press.
23. Cunningham-Rundles, S.,, C. Chen,, J. B. Bussel,, C. Blankenship,, M. B. Veber,, D. Sanders-Laufer,, T. Hinds,, J. S. Cervia,, and P. Edelson. 1995. Human immune development: implications for congenital HIV infection. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 693: 70 84.
24. Cunningham-Rundles, S.,, and F. P. Pearson. 1990. ImuVert activation of natural killer cytotoxicity and interferon gamma production via CD 16 triggering. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 12: 589 598.
25. Cunningham-Rundles, S. 1994. Malnutrition and gut immune function. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol 10: 664 670.
26. Cusumano, V.,, V. Mancuso,, F. Genovese,, M. Cuzzola,, M. Carbone,, J. A. Cook,, J. B. Cochran,, and G. Teti. 1997. Neonatal hypersusceptibility to endotoxin correlates with increased TNF production in mice. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 168 176.
27. Dai, W. J.,, G. Kohler,, and F. Brombacher. 1997. Both innate and acquired immunity to Listeria monocytogenes infection are increased in IL-10-deficient mice. J. Immunol 158: 2259 2267.
28. Deerojanawong, J.,, A. B. Chang,, P. A. Eng,, C. F. Robertson,, and A. S. Kemp. 1997. Pulmonary diseases in children with severe combined immune deficiency and DiGeorge syndrome. Pediatr. Pulmonol 24: 324 330.
29. Denis, M.,, and E. Ghadirian. 1994. Mycobacterium avium infection in HIV-1-infected subjects increases monokine secretion and is associated with enhanced viral load and diminished immune response to viral antigens. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 97: 76 82.
30. Derkx, H. H.,, E. I. Kuijper,, C. A. Fijen,, M. Jak,, J. Dankert,, and S. J. van Deventer. 1995. Inherited complement deficiency in children surviving fulminant meningococcal septic shock. Eur. J. Pediatr. 154: 735 738.
31. Devis, C. A.,, E. H. Vallota,, and J. Forristal. 1979. Serum complement level in infancy; age related changes. Pediatr. Res. 13: 1043 1046.
32. Drago, L.,, M. R. Gismondo,, A. Lombardi,, C. de Haen ,, and L. Gozzini. 1997. Inhibition of in vitro growth of enteropathogens by new Lactobacillus isolates of human intestinal origin. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 153: 455 463.
33. Duchmann, R.,, I. Kaiser,, E. Hermann,, W. Mayet,, K. Ewe,, and K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde. 1995. Tolerance exists towards resident intestinal flora but is broken in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clin. Exp. Immunol 102: 448 455.
34. Ekdahl, K.,, J. H. Braconier,, and C. Svanborg. 1997. Impaired antibody response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides and phosphorylcholine in adult patients with a history of bacteremic pneumococcal infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 654 660.
35. Ewert, D.P.,, L. Lieb,, P. S. Hayes,, M. W. Reeves,, and L. T. I. Mascola. 1995. Listeria monocytogenesinfection and serotype distribution among HIV-infected persons in Los Angeles County, 1985-1992. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol 8: 461 465.
36. Fidler, S. J.,, I. Dorrell,, S. Ball,, G. Lombardi,, J. Weber,, C. Hawrylowicz,, and A. D. Rees. 1996. An early antigen-presenting cell defect in HIV-1-infected patients correlates with CD4 dependency in human T-cell clones. Immunology 89: 46 53.
37. Figueroa, J. E.,, and P. Densen. 1991. Infectious disease associated with complement deficiencies. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 359 395.
38. Fiorentino, D. F.,, A. Zlotnik,, T. R. Mosman,, M. Howard,, and A. O'Garra. 1991. IL-10 inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages. J. Immunol. 147: 3815 3822.
39. Fischetti, V. A.,, D. Medaglini,, and G. Pozzi. 1996. Gram-positive commensal bacteria for mucosal vaccine delivery. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol 7: 659 666.
40. French, M. A.,, K. A. Denis,, R. Dawkins,, and J. B. Peter. 1995. Severity of infections in IgA deficiency: correlation with decreased serum antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides and decreased serum IgG2 and/or IgG4. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 100: 47 53.
41. Fujiwara, T.,, T. Kobayashi,, J. Takaya,, S. Taniuchi,, and J. Kobayashi. 1997. Plasma effects on phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production by PMNs in neonates. Clin. Immunol Immunopathol. 85: 67 72.
42. Gao, J. X.,, and A. C. Issekutz. 1995. PMN migration through human dermal fibroblast monolayers is dependent on beta 2 integrin and beta 1 integrin mechanisms. Immunology 85: 485 494.
43. Garcia, V. E.,, P. A. Sieling,, J. Gong ,, P. F. Barnes,, K. Uyemura,, Y. Tanaka,, B. R. Bloom,, C. T. Morita,, and R. L. Modlin. 1997. Single-cell cytokine analysis o f gamma delta T cell responses to nonpeptide mycobacterial antigens. J. Immunol 159: 1328 1335.
44. Gellin, B.G.,, C. V. Broome,, and W. F. Bilb. 1991. The epidemiology oflisteriosis in the United States-1986. Am. J. Epidemiol 133: 392 401.
45. Gemmell, C. G. 1995. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J. Med. Microbiol. 43: 318 322.
46. Gladstone, I. M.,, R. A. Ehenkranz,, S. C. Edberg,, and R. S. Baltimore. 1990. A ten-year review o f neonatal sepsis and comparison with the previous fifty-year experience. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9: 819 825.
47. Goletti, D.,, D. Weissman,, R. W. Jackson,, N. M. Graham,, D. Vlahov,, R. S. Klein,, S. S. MunsifF,, L. Ortona,, R. Cauda,, and A. S. Fauci. 1996. Effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on HIV replication. Role of immune activation. J. Immunol. 157: 1271 1278.
48. Gong, J.,, S. Stenger,, J. A. Zack,, B. E. Jones,, G. C. Bristol,, R. L. Modlin,, P. J. Morrissey,, and P. F. Barnes. 1998. Isolation of mycobacterium- reactive CD1-restricted T cells from patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Clin. Investig. 101: 383 389.
49. Gong, J. H.,, M. Zhang,, R. L. Modlin,, P. S. Linsley,, D. Iyer,, Y. Lin,, and P. F. Barnes. 1996. Interleukin-10 downregulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced Thl responses and CTLA-4 expression. Infect. Immun. 64: 913 918.
50. Gray, R. H.,, M. J. Wawer,, N. Sewankambo,, and D. Serwadda. 1997. HIV-1 infection associated with abnormal vaginal flora morphology and bacterial vaginosis. Lancet 350: 1780.
51. Grewal, I. S.,, and R. A. Flavell. 1997. The CD40 ligand. At the center of the immune universe? Immunol. Res. 16: 59 70.
52. Gruenewald, R.,, S. Blum,, and J. Chan. Relationship between human immunodeficiencyvirus infection and salmonellosis in 20- to 59-year-old residents of New York City. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18: 358 363.
53. Haas, D. W.,, M. M. Lederman,, L. A. Clough,, R. S. Wallis,, D. Chernoff,, and S. L. Crampton. 1998. Proinflammatory cytokine and human immunodeficiency virus R N A levels during early Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in advanced AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 1746 1749.
54. Harrison, T. S.,, and S. M. Levitz. 1997. Priming with IFN-gamma restores deficient IL-12 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive donors. J. Immunol. 158: 459 463.
55. Harrison, T. S.,, and S. M. Levitz. 1995. Interaction with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 modulates innate effector functions of human monocytes. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 1598 1601.
56. Hassan, J.,, and D. J. Reen. 1996. Reduced primary antigen-specific T-cell precursor frequencies in neonates is associated with deficient interleukin-2 production. Immunology 87: 604 608.
57. Haziot, A.,, B. Z. Tsuberi,, and S. M. Goyert. 1993. Neutrophil CD 14: biochemical properties and role in the secretion o f tumor necrosis factoralpha in response to lipopolysaccharide. J. Immunol. 150: 5556 5565.
58. Hessle, C.,, L. A. Hanson,, and A. E. Wold. 1999. Lactobacilli from human gastro-intestinal mucosa are strong stimulators of IL-12 production. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 116: 276 282.
59. Hibbs, J.R.,, J. M. Douglas, Jr.,, F.N. Judson,, W.L. McGill,, C.A. Rietmeijer,, and E.N. Janoff. 1997. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection, mortality rate, and serogroup distribution among patients with pneumococcal bacteremia at Denver General Hospital, 1984-1994. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 195 199.
60. Hill, M.J. 1997. Intestinal flora and endogenousvitamin synthesis. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 6( Suppl. 1): S43 S45.
61. Hobbs, J. R.,, and J. A. Davis. 1967. Serum gamma globulin levels and gestational age in premature babies. Lancet i: 757 759.
62. Hoffman, A. A. 1981. Presentation o f antigen by human newborn monocytes to maternal tetanus toxoid-specific T cells. J. Clin. Investig. 1: 127.
63. Hogg, N.,, M. P. Stewart,, S. L. Scarth,, R. Newton,, J. M. Shaw,, S. K. Law,, and N. Klein. 1999. A novel leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by expressed but nonfunctional beta2 integrins Mac-1 and LFA-l. J. Clin. Investig. 103: 97 106.
64. Howard, A. M.,, and M. Cosyns. 1994. Proliferative and cytokine responses by human newborn T cells stimulated with staphylococcal enterotoxins. Pediatr. Res. 35: 293 298.
65. Johansson, M.,, K. Schon,, M. Ward,, and N. Lycke. 1997. Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce protective immunity in gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice despite a strong local immunoglobulin A response. Infect. Immun. 65: 1032 1044.
66. Johansson, M. L.,, G. Molin,, B. Jeppsson,, S. Nobaek,, S. Ahrne,, and S. Bengmark. 1993. Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: in vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the indigenous flora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 15 20.
67. Jouanguy, E.,, F. Altare,, S. Lamhamedi-Cherradi,, and J. L. Casanova. 1997. Infections in IFNGR-1 -deficient children. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 17: 583 587.
68. Kagi, D.,, B. Ledermann,, K. Burki,, H. Hengartner,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 1994. CD8 + T cell-mediated protection against an intracellular bacterium by perforin-dependent cytotoxicity. Eur. J. Immunol. 24: 3068 3072.
69. Keiser, P.,, E. Higgs,, and J. Smith. 1996. Neutropenia is associated with bacteremia in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Med. Sci. 312: 118 122.
70. Klein, J. O. 1990. From harmless commensal to invasive pathogen: coagulase negative staphylococci. N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 1 3.
71. Klein, J. O.,, and S. M. Marcy,. 1995. Bacterial sepsis and meningitis, p. 847. In J. S. Remington, and J. O. Klein (ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
72. Klein, J.O.,, and J. S. Remington,. 1995. Current concepts ofinfections of the fetus and newborn infant, p. 11 13. In J. S. Remington, and J. O. Klein (ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 4th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
73. Kotler, D. P. 1998. Intestinal disease associated with HIV infection: characterization and response to antiretroviral therapy. Pathobiology 66: 183 188.
74. Kotler, D. P. 1998. Human immunodeficiency virus-related wasting: malabsorption syndromes. Semin. Oncol. 25 (Suppl. 6): 70 75.
75. Kuan, S. F. 1992. Interactions of surfactant protein D with bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Surfactant protein D is an Escherichia coli-binding protein in bronchoalveolar lavage. J. Clin. Investig. 90: 97 106.
76. Kurosawa, S.,, M. Harada,, Y. Shinomiya,, H. Terao,, and K. Nomoto. 1996. The concurrent administration of OK432 augments the antitumor vaccination effect with tumor cells by sustaining locally infiltrating natural killer cells. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 43: 31 38.
77. Laurence, J.,, D. Mitra,, M. Steiner,, D. H. Lynch,, F. P. Siegal,, and L. Staiano-Coico. 1996. Apoptotic depletion of CD4 + T cells in idiopathic CD4 + T lymphocytopenia. J. Clin. Investig. 97: 672 680.
78. Laver, J.,, E. Duncan,, and M. Abboud. 1990. High levels of granulocyte and GM-CSF in cord blood of normal full term neonates. J. Pediatr. 116: 627 632.
79. Lee, S. M.,, Y. Suen,, L. Chang,, V. Bruner,, J. Qian,, J. Indes,, E. Knoppel,, C. van de Ven,, and M. S. Cairo. 1996. Decreased interleukin-12 (IL-12) from activated cord versus adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells and upregulation of interferon-gamma, natural killer, and lymphokine-activated killer activity by IL-12 in cord blood mononuclear cells. Blood 88: 945 954.
80. Levy, J.A. 1994. Viral studies of chronic fatiguesyndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18( Suppl.1): S117 S120.
81. Lewis, D. A.,, A. Larsen,, and C. B. Wilson. 1986. Reduced interferon gamma mRNA levels in human neonates. J. Exp. Med. 163: 1018 1023.
82. Lichenstein, R.,, J. C. King, Jr.,, J. J. Farley,, P. Su,, P. Nair,, and P. E. Vink. 1998. Bacteremia in febrile human immunodeficiency virusinfected children presenting to ambulatory care settings. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17: 381 385.
83. Madoff, L. C. 1994. Maternal immunization of mice with group B streptococcal type III polysaccharide beta C protein conjugate elicits protective antibodies to multiple serotypes. J. Clin. Investig. 94: 286 292.
84. MadofF, L. C.,, J. L. Michel,, E. W. Gong,, D. E. Kling,, and D. L. Kager. 1996. Group B streptococci escape host immunity by deletion of tandem repeat elements of the alpha C protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 4131 4136.
85. Mahon, B.P.,, B. J. Sheahan,, F. Griffin,, G. Murphy,, and K. H. Mills. 1997. Atypical disease after Bordetellapertussis respiratory infection of mice with targeted disruptions of interferongamma receptor or immunoglobulin mu chain genes. J. Exp. Med. 186: 1843 1851.
86. Manroe, B. L.,, A. G. Weinberg,, and C. R. Rosenfeld. 1979. The neonatal blood count in health and disease. J. Pediatr. 95: 89 98.
87. Medaglini, D.,, G. Pozzi,, T. P. King,, V. A. Fischetti. 1995. Mucosal and systemic immune responses to a recombinant protein expressed on the surface of the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii after oral colonization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 6868 6872.
88. Mellander, L.,, B. Carlsson,, F. Jelil,, T. Soderstrom,, and L. A. Hanson. 1985. Secretory IgA antibody response against E. coli antigens in infants in relation to exposure. J. Pediatr. 107: 430 433.
89. Menzies, B. E.,, and I. Kourteva. 1998. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by endothelial cells induces apoptosis. Infect. Immun. 66: 5994 5998.
90. Merry, C.,, P. Puri,, and D. J. Reen. 1998. Phosphorylation and the actin cytoskeleton in defective newborn neutrophil chemotaxis. Pediatr. Res. 44: 259 264.
91. Morell, A. 1994. Clinical relevance of IgG subclass deficiencies. Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris). 52: 49 52.
92. Moroni, M.,, and F. Franzetti. 1995. Bacterial pneumonia in adult patients with HIV infection. J. Chemother. 7: 292 306.
93. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, and M. Potter. 1997. Emergence of new pathogens as a function of changes in host susceptibility. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 435 440.
94. Murray, J. F. 1998. Tuberculosis and HIV infection: a global perspective. Respiration 65: 335 342.
95. Newman , G. W.,, J. R. Guarnaccia,, E. A. Vance III,, J. Y. Wu,, H. G. Remold ,, and P. H. Kazanjian, Jr. 1994. Interleukin-12 enhances antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-positive and negative donors in response to Mycobacterium avium. AIDS 8: 1413 1419.
96. Nguyen, M. H.,, C. A. Kauffinan,, R. P. Goodman,, C. Squier,, R. D. Arbeit,, N. Singh,, M. M. Wagener,, and V. L. Yu. 1999. Nasal carriage of and infection with Staphylococcus aureus in HIV-infected patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 130: 221 225.
97. Nicoletti, F.,, G. Mancuso,, V. Cusumano,, R. DiMarco,, P. Zaccone,, K. Benndtzen,, and G. Teti. 1997. Prevention of endotoxin induced lethality in neonatal mice by IL-13. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 1580 1583.
98. Nybo, M.,, O. Soversen,, R. Leslie,, and P. Wang. 1998. Reduced expression of C5a receptors on neutrophils from cord blood. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 78: 129 132.
99. Pasparakis, M.,, L. Alexopoulou,, V. Episkopou,, and G. Kollias. 1996. Immune and inflammatory responses in TNF alpha-deficient mice: a critical requirement for T N F alpha in the formation of primary B cell follicles, follicular dendritic cell networks and germinal centers, and in the maturation of the humoral immune response. J. Exp. Med. 184: 1397 1411.
100. Payne, N. R.,, and H. B. Fleit. 1996. Extremely l ow birth weight infants have lower Fc gamma RIII plasma levels and their PMN produce less Fc gamma compared to adults. Biol. Neonate 69: 235 242.
101. Pierre-Audigier, C.,, E. Jouanguy,, S. Lamhamedi,, F. Altare,, J. Rauzier,, V. Vincent,, D. Canioni,, J. F. Emile,, A. Fischer,, S. Blanche,, J. L. Gaillard,, and J. L. Casanova. 1997. Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium smegmatis infection in a child with inherited interferon gamma receptor deficiency. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 982 984.
102. Porcelli, S.,, C. T. Morita,, and M. B. Brenner. 1992. CDlb restricts the response of human CD4-8-T lymphocytes to a microbial antigen. Nature 360: 593 597.
103. Prindull, G.,, and M. Ahmad. 1993. The ontogeny of the gut mucosal immune system and the susceptibility to infections in infants of developing countries. Eur. J. Pediatr. 152: 786 792.
104. Rebuck, N. 1995. Neutrophil adhesion molecules in term and preterm infants: normal or enhanced leukocyte integrins but defective L selectin expression and shedding. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 101: 183 189.
105. Rodriguez-Barradas, M. C.,, J. E. Groover,, C. E. Lacke,, D. W. Gump,, C. I. Lahart,, J. P. Pandey,, and D. M. Musher. 1996. IgG antibody to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects: persistence of antibody in responders, revaccination in nonresponders, and relationship of immunoglobulin allotype to response. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 1347 1353.
106. Rogasi, P. G.,, S. Vigano,, P. Pecile,, and F. Leoncini. 1998. Lactobacillus casei pneumonia and sepsis in a patient with AIDS. Case report and review of the literature. Ann. Ital. Med. Int. 13: 180 182.
107. Romagnani, S. 1995. Biology of human TH1 and TH2 cells. J. Clin. Immunol. 15: 121 129.
108. Rowen, J. L.,, C. W. Smith,, and M. S. E dwards. 1995. Group B streptococci elicit leukotriene B 4 and IL-8 from human monocytes: neonates exhibit a diminished response. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 420 426.
109. Rubens, C. E. 1992. Epithelial cell invasion by group B streptococci. Infect. Immun. 60: 5157 5161.
110. Sampaio, E.P.,, J. R. Caneshi,, J. A. Nery,, N. C. Duppre,, G. M. Pereira,, L. M. Vieira,, A. L. Moreira,, G. Kaplan,, and E. N. Sarno. 1995. Cellular immune response to Mycobacterium leprae infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Infect. Immun. 63: 1848 1854.
111. Schaumann, R.,, J. Krosing,, and P. M. Shah. 1998. Phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by neutrophils of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Eur. J. Med. Res. 3: 546 548.
112. Schiffrin, E. J.,, F. Rochat,, H. Link-Amster,, J. M. Aeschlimann,, and A. Donnet-Hughes. 1995. Immunomodulation of human blood cells following the ingestion of lactic acid bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 491 497.
113. Shroflf, K. E.,, K. Meslin,, and J. J. Cebra. 1995. Commensal enteric bacteria engender a self-Umiting humoral mucosal immune response while permanently colonizing the gut. Infect. Immun. 63: 3904 3913.
114. Smith, D. H.,, G. Peter,, and D. L. Ingram. 1973. Responses of children immunized with capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae. Pediatrics 52: 637 644.
115. Sorensen, R. U.,, L. E. Leiva,, F. C. Javier III,, D. M. Sacerdote,, N. Bradford,, B. Butler,, P. A. Giangrosso,, and C. Moore. 1998. Influence of age on the response to Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine in patients with recurrent infections and normal immunoglobulin concentrations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 102: 215 221.
116. Stoll, B. J.,, T. Gordon,, S. B. Korones,, S. Shankaron,, J. E. Tyson ,, C. R. Bauer,, A. A. FanarofF,, J. A. Lemons,, E. F. Donovan ,, W. Oh,, D. K. Stevenson,, R. A. Ehrenkanz,, L. A. Papile,, J. Verter,, and L. L. Wright. 1996. Late onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J. Pediatr. 129: 63 71.
117. Stoll, B. J.,, T. Gordon,, S. B. Korones,, S. Shankaron,, J. E. Tyson,, C. R. Bauer,, A. A. FanarofF,, J. A. Lemons,, E. F. Donovan,, W. Oh,, D. K. Stevenson,, R. A. Ehrenkanz,, L. A. Papile,, J. Verter,, and L. L. Wright. 1996. Early onset sepsis in very l ow birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J. Pediatr. 129: 72 80.
118. Taha, T. E.,, D. R. Hoover,, G. A. Dallabetta,, and N. I. Kumwenda. 1998. Bacterial vaginosis and disturbances of vaginal flora: association with increased acquisition of HIV. AIDS 12: 1699 1706.
119. Tee, W.,, and A. Mijch. 1998. Campylobacter jejuni bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected patients: comparison o f clinical features and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 91 96.
120. Teti, G.,, G. Mancuso,, and F. Tomasello. 1993. Cytokine appearance and effects of anti- TNF alpha antibodies in a neonatal rat model of group B streptococcal infection. Infect. Immun. 61: 227 235.
121. Tossing, G. 1996. Immunodeficiency and itsrelation to lymphoid and other malignancies. Ann. Hematol. 73: 163 167.
122. Tsukada, H.,, I. Kawamura,, and M. Arakawa. 1991. Dissociated development of T cells mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity and protective T cells against Listeria monocytogenes and their functional difference in lymphokine production. Infect. Immun. 59: 3589 3595.
123. Veber, M. B.,, S. Cunningham-Rundles,, M. Schulman,, F. Mandel,, and P. A. M. Auld. 1991. Acute shift in immune response to microbial activators in very low birthweight infants. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 83: 391 395.
124. Wagner, R. D.,, T. Warner,, L. Roberts,, J. Farmer,, and E. Balish. 1997. Colonization of congenitally immunodeficient mice with probiotic bacteria. Infect. Immun. 65: 3345 3351.
125. Winkelstein, J. A., 1998. The complementsystem in the fetus and newborn, p. 1964 1967. In R. A. Polin, and W. W. Fox (ed.), Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, 2nd ed. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
126. Wolbink, G. J.,, A. W. Bossink,, A. B. Groneweld ,, M. C. de Grott,, L. G. Thijs,, and C. E. Hack. 1998. Complement activation in patients with sepsis is in part mediated by Creactive protein. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 81 87.
127. Wolf, B. W.,, K. B. Wheeler,, D. G. Ataya,, and K. A. Garleb. 1998. Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36: 1085 1094.
128. Woods, M. L., II,, R. MacGinley,, D. P. Eisen,, and A. M. Allworth. 1998. HIV combination therapy: partial immune restitution unmasking latent cryptococcal infection. AIDS 12: 1491 1494.
129. Wright, J.R.,, and D. C. Youmansi. 1993. Pulmonary surfactantprotein A stimulates chemotaxis of alveolar macrophage. Am. J.Physiol. 264: L338 L344.
130. Yang, X.,, and R. C. Brunham. 1998. Gene knockout B cell-deficient mice demonstrate that B cells play an important role in the initiation of T cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (mouse pneumonitis) lung infection. J. Immunol. 161: 1439 1446.
131. Yap, P.L. 1994. Does intravenous immune globulinhave a role in HIV-infected patients? Clin. Exp. Immunol. 97( Suppl. l): 59 67.
132. Yegin, O. 1983. Chemotaxis in childhood. Pediatr. Res. 17: 183 187.
133. Zerlauth, G.,, E. Maier,, H. Chehadeh,, K. Zimmermann,, M. M. Eibl,, and J. W. Mannhalter. 1995. Interaction with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 modulates innate effector functions of human monocytes. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 1598 1601.
134. Zhang, Y.,, K. Nakata,, M. Weiden,, and W. N. Rom. 1995. Mycobacterium tuberculosis enhances human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication by transcriptional activation at the long terminal repeat. J. Clin. Investig. 95: 2324 2331.
135. Zlabinger, G. J. 1983. Cord blood macrophages present bacterial antigen (E. coli) to paternal T cells. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 28: 405 412.
136. Zybarth, G.,, N. Reiling,, H. Schmidtmayerova,, B. Sherry,, and M. Bukrinsky. 1999. Activation-induced resistance of human macrophages to HIV-1 infection in vitro. J. Immunol. 162: 400 406.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Bacterial infections in primary immune deficiency

Citation: Cunningham-Rundles S, Nesin M. 2000. Bacterial Infections in the Immunocompromised Host, p 145-163. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error