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Chapter 18 : Uncloaking Hidden Viruses

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Uncloaking Hidden Viruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The concept that viruses could remain latent in human cells and cause cancer, propelled the author to examine the potential role of viruses in human diseases, particularly immune deficiency and cancer. The author was at the time fascinated by the field of lysogeny, in which bacterial viruses (phages) remain hidden within the organism and can make products that are toxic to the host the bacteria invade (e.g., diphtheria toxin). At the Wistar, the author helped derive human lymphoid B cell lines in the early days when only a few papers reported the establishment of such cell lines. It was then fortuitous for the author to be with the Henles when they showed the induction of prolonged growth of B cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The irony came when the author found EBV in the cell lines derived at the Wistar. Further virus research training was obtained at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 1967 to 1970. This experience certainly laid the foundation for the major focus of the author's research career-retroviruses. With Robertson Parkinson, the author found that mouse embryo cells, once transformed by the murine sarcoma viruses (MSV), could not grow into a visible focus of transformed cells without the spread of new progeny virus to other cells. MSV-infected mouse cells usually died.

Citation: Levy J. 2000. Uncloaking Hidden Viruses, p 138-145. In Atlas R (ed), Many Faces, Many Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818128.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Murine leukemia virus
0.4917707
Human herpesvirus 8
0.481134
Kaposi's Sarcoma
0.44255367
0.4917707
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Citation: Levy J. 2000. Uncloaking Hidden Viruses, p 138-145. In Atlas R (ed), Many Faces, Many Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818128.ch18
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Citation: Levy J. 2000. Uncloaking Hidden Viruses, p 138-145. In Atlas R (ed), Many Faces, Many Microbes. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818128.ch18
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818128.chap18
1. Levy, J. A. 1999. Xenotropism: The elusive viral receptor finally uncovered. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:927932.
2. Stranford, S. A.,, J. Skurnick,, D. Louria,, D. Osmond,, S. Y. Chang,, J. Sninsky,, G. Ferrari,, K. Weinhold,, C. Lindquist,, and J. A. Levy. 1999. Lack of infection in HIV-exposed individuals is associated with a strong CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:10301035.
3. Barker, E.,, C. Mackewicz,, Q. Reyes-Terán,, A. Sato,, S. Stranford,, S. H. Fujimura,, C. Christopherson,, S. Y. Chang,, and J. A. Levy. 1998. Virologiesl and immunological features of long-term human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who have remained asymptomatic compared with those who have progressed to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Blood 92:31053114.
4. Barker, E.,, K. N. Bossart,, and J. A. Levy. 1998. Primary CD8+ cells from HIV-infected individuals can suppress productive infection of macrophages independent of beta-chemokines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:17251729.
5. Levy, J. A. 1998. HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
6. Levy, J. A. 1997. Three new human herpesviruses (HHV6, 7, and 8). Lancet 349:558563.
7. Mackewicz, C. E.,, E. Barker,, G. Greco,, G. Reyes-Teran,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Do ?-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection? J. Clin. Invest. 100:921930.
8. Levy, J. A. 1996. Infection by human immunodeficiency virus—CD4 is not enough. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:15281530.
9. Lennette, E. T.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Lancet 348:858861.
10. Blackbourn, D. J.,, C. E. Mackewicz,, E. Barker,, T. K. Hunt,, B. Herndier,, A. T. Haase,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Suppression of HIV replication by lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells correlates with the clinical state of HIV-infected individuals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1312513130.
11. Barker, E.,, C. E. Mackewicz,, and J. A. Levy. 1995. Effects of TH1 and TH2 cytokines on CD8+ cell response against human immunodeficiency virus: Implications for long-term survival. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:1113511139.
12. Levy, J. A. 1992-1995. The Retroviridae, vols. 1-4. Plenum, New York, N.Y..
13. Barnett, S. W.,, K. K. Murthy,, B. G. Herndier,, and J. A. Levy. 1994. An AIDS-like condition induced in baboons by HIV-2. Science 266:642646.

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