Chapter 21 : Developmental Cycle of

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Recent advances in the cloning of variant specific proteins has led to a new appreciation of the developmental cycle. This chapter summarizes the current state of research in this area and draws upon several recent reviews to present a more defined and testable model of development for this unusual pathogen. The moderate relatedness of and , revealed by 16S rRNA comparison, has proven consistent when sesuch as CbMveral cloned proteins, ip and LpMip, were compared and may prove valuable in understanding the similarities between and interactions with host cells. The first class of proteins that was identified consisted of basic DNA binding proteins. Heinzen and coworkers provide both single-and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of small-cell variants (SCV) and large-cell variants (LCV) proteins, noting several differences beyond PI, Hql, ScvA, EF-Ts, and EF-Tu. One of the observations that appear to distinguish a developmental cycle from that of is that a mixture of SCV and LCV appears in all vacuoles, whether newly occupied with a few organisms or containing hundreds of organisms. There are superficial similarities between the developmental cycles of and , since both are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that undergo an infectious cycle inside a membrane-bound vacuole. Cellular differentiation in prokaryotes is an adaptive response that involves alterations in gene expression.

Citation: Samuel J. 2000. Developmental Cycle of , p 427-440. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 1

Transmission electron micrograph of bacteria in a vacuole and separated into SCV and LCV. (A) Persistently infected L929 cells were prepared for ТЕМ. Note a membrane-bound vacuole with multiple cells with pleo-morphic morphology, including large cells with diffuse nucleoids (LCV) and small cells with compact nucleoids (SCV). Purified ? cells were separated into LCV (B) and SCV (C) by cesium chloride equilibrium gradient centrifugation. Bars, 1 μm.

Citation: Samuel J. 2000. Developmental Cycle of , p 427-440. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch21
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Differential protein expression or proteins detected with monoclonal antibodies. LCV and SCV were separated by cesium chloride equilibrium gradient centrifugation, and proteins were subsequently separated by SDS-PAGE. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each antigen were reacted on Western blots. (A) Monoclonal antibody specific for Com-1 (27 kDa); (B) monoclonal antibody specific for CbMip (25 kDa); (C) monoclonal antibody specific for EF-Ts (32 kDa); (D) monoclonal antibody specific for EF-Tu (45 kDa).

Citation: Samuel J. 2000. Developmental Cycle of , p 427-440. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 3

Surface-labeled proteins. LCV and SCV were surface iodinated with Iodogen beads, and proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by auto-radiographic detection of labeled proteins. The major outer membrane protein, PI, is identified. An apparent SVC upregulated surface protein at ∼34 kDa is noted.

Citation: Samuel J. 2000. Developmental Cycle of , p 427-440. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch21
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Image of FIGURE 4

Model of LCV, SCV, SDC, and SLP. A working model of developmental stages derived from studies summarized in this review. A single infected cell is represented containing a phagolysosome with all four forms. SLP have only been observed infrequently. The ability of each form to develop into one of the alternate forms is unconfirmed. The functional properties assigned to each form and the level of expression of specific proteins is indicated for high (↑↑), medium (↑), relatively low (↓), and not detected (ND).

Citation: Samuel J. 2000. Developmental Cycle of , p 427-440. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch21
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