Chapter 4 : Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818173/9781555811617_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818173/9781555811617_Chap04-2.gif


While intestinal strains can be grouped into at least six different pathotypes, extraintestinal strains fall into three groups: MENEC (meningitis ) strains, which cause newborn meningitis (NBM), SEPEC (septicemia ) strains, which cause meningitis and septicemia, and UPEC (uropathogenic ) strains, which are by far the most common cause of uncomplicated cases of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This chapter focuses mainly on UPEC because urinary tract infections represent, by number, the most important bacterial infectious disease in highly industralized countries. At least four pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are present in the genome of UPEC 536. Sample sequencing analysis of PAI I, PAI II, and PAIs I to IV was performed by investigating overlapping cosmid clones; the results of this analysis are discussed. Integrase genes and other bacteriophage-specific sequences may have played an important role for the evolution of pathogenic bacteria and that their presence on PAIs is one of the main characteristics of PAIs. The newly acquired sequences often form blocks of DNA which may code for virulence but also code for other distinct properties such as secretion, degradation of xenobiotic compounds, metabolic functions, and resistance to antibiotics. PAIs of UPEC strains are excellent examples for the study of the evolution of prokaryotic genomes in pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes.

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Mobile Genetic Elements
Type 1 Pili
Type 1 Fimbriae
Urinary Tract Infections
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Distribution of PAIs in the UPEC genome. The indicated map positions refer to the K-12 chromosome. The position of PAI I remains unclear and is shown in dotted lines because the left junction of this PAI maps at 26.55, downstream of the gene (alanine racemase), and the right junction maps at 63.5, downstream of the tRNA gene ( ).

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Deletion process of PAIs I and II involving the flanking direct-repeat sequences. Following deletion, one copy each of the direct repeats remains in the chromosome. The map positions and sizes of the PAIs are indicated.

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Presence of different genomic islands in phenylalanine-specific tRNA genes.

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Atlung, T.,, and H. Ingmer. 1997. H-NS: a modulator of environmentally regulated gene expression. Mol. Microbiol. 24:717.
2. Bailey, M. J.,, C. Hughes,, and V. Koronakis. 1997. RfaH and the ops element, components of a novel system controlling bacterial transcription elongation. Mol. Microbiol. 26:845851.
3. Barinaga, M. 1996. A shared strategy for virulence. Science 272:12611263.
4. Berger, H.,, J. Hacker,, A. Juarez,, C. Hughes,, and W. Goebel. 1982. Cloning of the chromosomal determinants encoding hemolysin production and mannose-resistant hemagglutination in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 152:12411247.
5. Berlyn, M. K. B. 1998. Linkage map of Escherichia coli K-12, edition 10: the traditional map. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62:814984.
6. Blanc-Potard, A.-B.,, and E. A. Groisman. 1997. The Salmonella selC locus contains a pathogenicity island mediating intramacrophage survival. EMBO J. 16:53765385.
7. Blattner, F. R.,, G. Plunkett III,, C. A. Bloch,, N. T. Perna,, V. Burland,, M. Riley,, J. Collado-Vides,, J. D. Glasner,, C. K. Rode,, G. F. Mayhew,, J. Gregor,, N. W. Davis,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, M. A. Goeden,, D. J. Rose,, B. Mau,, and Y. Shao. 1997. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277:14531474.
8. Blum, G.,, M. Ott,, A. Lischewski,, A. Ritter,, H. Imrich,, H. Tschäpe,, and J. Hacker. 1994. Excision of large DNA regions termed pathogenicity islands from tRNA-specific loci in the chromosome of an Escherichia coli wild-type pathogen. Infect. Immun. 62:606614.
9. Blum, G.,, V. Falbo,, A. Caprioli,, and J. Hacker. 1995. Gene clusters encoding the cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Prs-fimbriae and α -hemolysin form the pathogenicity island II of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 126:189196.
10. Blum-Oehler, G.,, J. Heesemann,, D. Kranzfelder,, F. Scheutz,, and J. Hacker. 1997. Characterization of Escherichia coli serotype O12:K1:H7 isolates from an immunocompetent carrier with a history of spontaneous abortion and septicemia. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 16:153155.
11. Blum-Oehler, G.,, U. Dobrindt,, N. Weiβ ,, B. Janke,, S. Schubert,, A. Rakin,, J. Heesemann,, R. Marre,, and J. Hacker. 1998. Pathogenicity islands of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: implications for the evolution of virulence. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Suppl. 29:380386.
12. Blum-Oehler, G.,, G. Nagy,, N. Weiβ ,, T. Steiner,, and J. Hacker. Unpublished data.
13. Buchrieser, C.,, R. Brosch,, S. Bach,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1998. The high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can be inserted into any of the three chromosomal asn tRNA genes. Mol. Microbiol. 30:965978.
14. Calia, K. E.,, M. K. Waldor,, and S. B. Calderwood. 1998. Use of representational difference analysis to identify genomic differences between pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 66:849852.
15. Carniel, E.,, I. Guilvout,, and H. Prentice. 1996. Characterization of a large chromosomal' 'high-pathogenicity island" in biotype IB Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 178:67436751.
16. Censini, S.,, C. Lange,, Z. Xiang,, J. E. Crabtree,, P. Ghiara,, M. Borodovsky,, R. Rappuoli,, and A. Covacci. 1996. Cag, a pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori, encodes type I-specific and disease-associated virulence factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1464814653.
17. Chakraborty, T. Personal communication.
18. Cheetham, B. F.,, D. B. Tattersall,, G. A. Bloomfield,, J. I. Rood,, and M. E. Katz. 1995. Identification of a gene encoding a bacteriophage-related integrase in a vap region of the Dichelobacter nodosus genome. Gene 162:5358.
19. Cieslewicz, M.,, and E. Vimr. 1997. Reduced polysialic acid capsule expression in Escherichia coli Kl mutants with chromosomal defects in kpsF. Mol. Microbiol. 26:237249.
20. Connell, H.,, M. Hedlund,, W. Agace,, and C. Svanborg. 1997. Bacterial attachment to uro-epithelial cells: mechanisms and consequences. Adv. Dent. Res. 11:5058.
21. Crosa, J. H. 1989. Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 53:517530.
22. Dobrindt, U.,, P. S. Cohen,, M. Utley,, I. Mühldorfer,, and J. Hacker. 1998. The leuX-encoded tRNA5(Leu) but not the pathogenicity islands I and II influence the survival of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 in CD-I mouse bladder mucus in the stationary phase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 162:135141.
23. Falbo, V.,, M. Famiglietti,, and A. Caprioli. 1992. Gene block encoding production of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and hemolysin in Escherichia coli isolates from extraintestinal infections. Infect. Immun. 60: 21822187.
24. Falbo, V.,, T. Pace,, L. Picci,, E. Pizzi,, and A. Caprioli. 1993. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 61:49094914.
25. Fenno, J. C.,, D. J. LeBlanc,, and P. M. Fives-Taylor. 1989. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a type 1 fimbrial gene of Streptococcus sanguis FW213. Infect. Immun. 57:35273533.
26. Ferat, J. L.,, M. Le Gouar,, and F. Michel. 1994. Multiple group II self-splicing introns in mobile DNA from Escherichia coli. C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. III 317:141148.
27. Fetherston, J. D.,, P. Schuetze,, and R. D. Perry. 1992. Loss of the pigmentation phenotype in Yersinia pestis is due to the spontaneous deletion of 102 kb of chromosomal DNA which is flanked by a repetitive element. Mol. Microbiol. 6:26932704.
28. Filippov, A. A.,, P. N. Oleinikov,, V. L. Motin,, O. A. Protsenko,, and G. B. Smirnov. 1995. Sequencing of two Yersinia pestis IS elements, IS285 and IS 100. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 13:306309.
29. Flatau, G.,, E. Lemichez,, M. Gauthier,, P. Chardin,, S. Paris,, C. Fiorentini,, and P. Boquet. 1997. Toxin-induced activation of the G protein p21 Rho by deamidation of glutamine. Nature 387:729733.
30. Forsman, K.,, B. Sonden,, M. Goransson,, and B. E. Uhlin. 1992. Antirepression function in Escherichia coli for the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein transcriptional activator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:98809884.
31. Fünfstück, R.,, H. Tschape,, G. Stein,, H. Kunath,, M. Bergner,, and G. Wessel. 1986. Virulence properties of E. coli strains in patients with chronic pyelonephritis. Infection 14:38.
32. Guyer, D. M.,, J.-S. Kao,, and H. L. T. Mobley. 1998. Genomic analysis of a pathogenicity island in uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073: distribution of homologous sequences among isolates from patients with pyelonephritis, cystitis, and catheter-associated bacteriuria and from fecal samples. Infect. Immun. 66: 44114417.
33. Hacker, J.,, S. Knapp,, and W. Goebel. 1983. Spontaneous deletions and flanking regions of the chromosomal inherited hemolysin determinant of an Escherichia coli 06 strain. J. Bacteriol. 154:11451152.
34. Hacker, J.,, L. Bender,, M. Ott,, J. Wingender,, B. Lund,, R. Marre,, and W. Goebel. 1990. Deletions of chromosomal regions coding for fimbriae and hemolysins occur in vivo and in vitro in various extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates. Microb. Pathog. 8:213225.
35. Hacker, J. 1992. Role of fimbrial adhesins in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli infections. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:720727.
36. Hacker, J.,, G. Blum-Oehler,, I. Mühldorfer,, and H. Tschäpe. 1997. Pathogenicity islands of virulent bacteria: structure, function and impact on microbial evolution. Mol. Microbiol. 23:10891097.
37. Hess, J.,, W. Wels,, M. Vogel,, and W. Goebel. 1986. Nucleotide sequence of a plasmid-encoded hemolysin determinant and its comparison with a corresponding chromosomal hemolysin sequence. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 34:111.
38. High, N. J.,, B. A. Hales,, K. Jann,, and G. J. Boulnois. 1988. A block of urovirulence genes encoding multiple fimbriae and hemolysin in Escherichia coli 04:K12:H-. Infect. Immun. 56:513517.
39. Hochhut, B.,, K. Jahreis,, J. W. Lengeler,, and K. Schmid. 1997. CTnscr94, a conjugative transposon found in enterobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 179:20972102.
40. Huang, S. H.,, C. Wass,, Q. Fu,, N. V. Prasadarao,, M. Stins,, and K. S. Kim. 1995. Escherichia coli invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo: molecular cloning and characterization of invasion gene ibe10. Infect. Immun. 63:44704475.
41. Hull, R. A.,, R. E. Gill,, P. Hsu,, B. H. Minshew,, and S. Falkow. 1981. Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 or D-mannose-resistant pili from a urinary tract infection Escherichia coli isolate. Infect. Immun. 33:933938.
42. Janke, B.,, J. Hacker,, and G. Blum-Oehler. Unpublished data.
43. Johnson, J. 1991. Virulence factors in Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 80128.
44. Kao, J.-S.,, D. M. Stucker,, J. W. Warren,, and H. L. T. Mobley. 1997. Pathogenicity island sequences of pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are associated with virulent uropathogenic strains. Infect. Immun. 65:28122820.
45. Khan, S.,, and J. Hacker. Unpublished data.
46. Knapp, S.,, I. Then,, W. Wels,, G. Michel,, H. Tschäpe,, J. Hacker,, and W. Goebel. 1985. Analysis of the flanking regions from different haemolysin determinants of Escherichia coli. Mol. Gen. Genet. 200:385392.
47. Knapp, S.,, J. Hacker,, T. Jarchau,, and W. Goebel. 1986. Large unstable inserts in the chromosome affect virulence properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. J. Bacteriol. 168:2230.
48. Knoop, V.,, and A. Brennicke. 1994. Evidence for a group II intron in Escherichia coli inserted into a highly conserved reading frame associated with mobile DNA sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:11671171.
49. Lawrence, J. G.,, and H. Ochman. 1998. Molecular archaeology of the Escherichia coli genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:94139417.
50. Lindsay, J. A.,, A. Ruzin,, H. F. Ross,, N. Kurepina,, and R. P. Novick. 1998. The gene for toxic shock toxin is carried by a family of mobile pathogenicity islands in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 29: 527543.
51. Lindsey, D. F.,, D. A. Mullin,, and J. R. Walker. 1989. Characterization of the cryptic lambdoid prophage DLP12 of Escherichia coli and overlap of the DLP12 integrase gene with the tRNA gene argU. J. Bacteriol. 171:61976205.
52. Lisitsyn, N.,, N. Lisitsyn,, and M. Wigler. 1993. Cloning of differences between two complex genomes. Science 259:946951.
53. Low, D.,, V. David,, D. Lark,, G. Schoolnik,, and S. Falkow. 1984. Gene clusters governing the production of hemolysin and mannose-resistant hemagglutination are closely linked in Escherichia coli serotype 04 and 06 isolates from urinary tract infections. Infect. Immun. 43:353358.
54. Ludwig, A.,, and W. Goebel,. 1991. Genetic determinants of cytolytic toxins from gram-negative bacteria, p. 117146. In J. E. Alouf, and J. H. Freers (ed.). Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press, Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
55. Lutwyche, P.,, R. Rupps,, J. Cavanagh,, R. A. Warren,, and D. E. Brooks. 1994. Cloning, sequencing, and viscometric adhesion analysis of heat-resistant agglutinin 1, an integral membrane hemagglutinin from Escherichia coli O9:H10:K99. Infect. Immun. 62:50205026.
56. Massad, G.,, and H. L. Mobley. 1994. Genetic organization and complete sequence of the Proteus mirabilis pmf fimbrial operon. Gene 150:101104.
57. Meier, C.,, T. A. Oelschlaeger,, H. Merkert,, T. K. Korhonen,, and J. Hacker. 1996. Ability of Escherichia coli isolates that cause meningitis in newborns to invade epithelial and endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 64: 23912399.
58. Mobley, H. L. T.,, D. M. Green,, A. L. Trifillis,, D. E. Johnson,, G. R. Chippendale,, C. V. Lockatell,, B. D. Jones,, and J. W. Warren. 1990. Pyelonephritogenic Escherichia coli and killing of cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: role of hemolysin in some strains. Infect. Immun. 58:12811289.
59. Morschhäuser, J.,, B. E. Uhlin,, and J. Hacker. 1993. Transcriptional analysis and regulation of the sfa determinant coding for S fimbriae of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Mol. Gen. Genet. 238:97105.
60. Morschhäuser, J.,, V. Vetter,, L. Emody,, and J. Hacker. 1994. Adhesin regulatory genes within large, unstable DNA regions of pathogenic Escherichia coli: cross-talk between different adhesin gene clusters. Mol. Microbiol. 11:555566.
61. Mühldorfer, I.,, and J. Hacker. 1994. Genetic aspects of Escherichia coli virulence. Microb. Pathog. 16: 171181.
62. Nagy, G.,, J. Hacker,, and G. Blum-Oehler. Unpublished data.
63. Oswald, E.,, M. Sugai,, A. Labigne,, H. C. Wu,, C. Fiorentini,, P. Bouquet,, and A. D. O'Brien. 1994. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 produced by virulent Escherichia coli modifies the small GTP-binding proteins Rho involved in assembly of actin stress fibers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:38143818.
64. Perna, N. T.,, G. F. Mayhew,, G. Posfai,, S. Elliott,, M. S. Donnenberg,, J. B. Kaper,, and F. R. Blattner. 1998. Molecular evolution of a pathogenicity island from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Infect. Immun. 66:38103817.
65. Piechaczek, K.,, and J. Hacker. Unpublished data.
66. Pierson, L. S.III,, and M. L. Kahn. 1987. Integration of satellite bacteriophage P4 in Escherichia coli. DNA sequences of the phage and host regions involved in site-specific recombination. J. Mol. Biol. 196: 487496.
67. Prere, M. F.,, M. Chandler,, and O. Fayet. 1990. Transposition in Shigella dysenteriae: isolation and analysis of IS911, a new member of the IS3group of insertion sequences. J. Bacteriol. 172:40904099.
68. Reiter, W.-D.,, P. Palm,, and S. Yeats. 1989. Transfer RNA genes frequently serve as integration sites for prokaryotic genetic elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:19071914.
69. Ritter, A.,, G. Blum,, L. Emody,, M. Kerenyi,, A. Böck,, B. Neuhierl,, W. Rabsch,, F. Scheutz,, and J. Hacker. 1995. tRNA genes and pathogenicity islands: influence on virulence and metabolic properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 17:109121.
70. Ritter, A.,, D. L. Gaily,, P. B. Olsen,, V. Dobrindt,, A. Friedrich,, P. Klemm,, and J. Hacker. 1997. The PAI-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1 fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression. Mol. Microbiol. 25:871882.
71. Schmidt, G.,, P. Sehr,, M. Wilm,, J. Selzer,, M. Mann,, and K. Aktories. 1997. Gin 63 of Rho is deamidated by Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1. Nature 387:725729.
72. Schmidt, H.,, J. Scheef,, C. Janetzki-Mittmann,, M. Datz,, and H. Karch. 1997. An ileX tRNA gene is located close to the Shiga toxin II operon in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157 and non-0157 strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 149:3944.
73. Schmoll, T.,, H. Hoschlitzky,, J. Morschhäuser,, F. Lottspeich,, K. Jann,, and J. Hacker. 1989. Analysis of genes coding for the sialic acid-binding adhesin and two other minor fimbrial subunits of the S-fimbrial adhesin determinant of Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 3:17351744.
74. Schubert, S.,, A. Rakin,, H. Karch,, E. Carniel,, and J. Heesemann. 1998. Prevalence of the "high-pathogenicity island" of Yersinia species among Escherichia coli strains that are pathogenic to humans. Infect. Immun. 66:480485.
75. Schubert, S. Personal communication.
76. Sullivan, J. T.,, and C. W. Ronson. 1998. Evolution of rhizobia by acquisition of a 500-kb symbiosis island that integrates into a phe-tRNA gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:51455149.
77. Sussman, M., 1997. Escherichia coli and human disease, p. 348. In M. Sussman (ed.), Escherichia coli: Mechanisms of Virulence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
78. Swenson, D. L.,, N. O. Bukanov,, D. E. Berg,, and R. A. Welch. 1996. Two pathogenicity islands in uropathogenic Escherichia coli J96: cosmid cloning and sample sequencing. Infect. Immun. 64:37363743.
79. Tinsley, C. R.,, and X. Nassif. 1996. Analysis of the genetic differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: two closely related bacteria expressing two different pathogenicities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1110911114.
80. Wabiko, H. 1992. Sequence analysis of an insertion element, IS 1131, isolated from the nopaline-type Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Gene 114:229233.
81. Warren, J. W., 1996. Clinical presentations and epidemiology of urinary tract infections, p. 327. In H. L. T. Mobley, and J. W. Warren (ed.), Urinary Tract Infections: Molecular Pathogenesis and Clinical Management. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
82. Waters, V. L.,, and J. H. Crosa. 1991. Colicin V virulence plasmids. Microbiol. Rev. 55:437450.
83. Welch, R. A.,, R. Hull,, and S. Falkow. 1983. Molecular cloning and physical characterization of a chromosomal hemolysin from Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 42:178186.
84. Zhang, D.-L.,, J. Hacker,, and T. Oelschlaeger. Unpublished data.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Main features of PAIs of UPEC strains

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

Putative virulence genes on PAIs of UPEC strains

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

Mobility genes on PAIs of UPEC strains 536, J96 and CFT073

Citation: Hacker J, Blum-Oehler G, Janke B, Nagy G, Goebel W. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands of Extraintestinal , p 59-76. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch4

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error