1887

Chapter 7 : Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818173/9781555811617_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818173/9781555811617_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the structure and function of -specific DNA segments that play a role in virulence. SPI-1 is a 40-kb DNA segment located at 63 min on the serovar Typhimurium chromosome. It is flanked by two housekeeping genes, and , and this distinguishes it from other pathogenicity islands (PAIs), which are typically adjacent to tRNA genes. The SpaN and SpaO proteins are required for secretion of all substrates by the SPI-1 secretory system, and thus they can be considered part of the export apparatus. At least six proteins are translocated into cultured epithelial cells by the SPI-1 secretion system. The major role of SPI-1 is to govern bacterial entry into nonphagocytic cells. However, SPI-1 genes have also been implicated in inflammation and macrophage apoptosis. SPI-1 genes are organized in several transcriptional units: , , , , the operon that might extend through ,a large operon including genes from through , and invH. SPI- 2 was introduced later in the evolution of and conferred upon the microorganism the ability to proliferate within host cells and to cause systemic disease. Other - specific sequences may specify host range, govern other aspects of infection, or mediate growth in nonhost environments.

Citation: Groisman E, Blanc-Potard A, Uchiya K. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, p 127-150. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Type III Secretion System Proteins
0.42786676
0.42786676
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Physical and genetic map of the SPI-1 PAI of

Citation: Groisman E, Blanc-Potard A, Uchiya K. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, p 127-150. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Model for transcriptional control of invasion genes by regulatory proteins encoded within and outside SPI-1.

Citation: Groisman E, Blanc-Potard A, Uchiya K. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, p 127-150. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Physical and genetic map of the SPI-2 PAI of

Citation: Groisman E, Blanc-Potard A, Uchiya K. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, p 127-150. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818173.chap7
1. Abe, A.,, H. Matsui,, H. Danbara,, K. Tanaka,, H. Takahashi,, and K. Kawahara. 1994. Regulation of spvR gene expression of Salmonella virulence plasmid pKDSC50 in Salmonella choleraesuis serovar Choleraesuis. Mol. Microbiol. 12: 779 787.
2. Allaoui, A.,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 1993. MxiD, an outer membrane protein necessary for the secretion of the Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins. Mol. Microbiol. 7: 59 68.
3. Alpuche-Aranda, C. M.,, J. A. Swanson,, W. P. Loomis,, and S. I. Miller. 1992. Salmonella typhimurium activates virulence gene transcription within acidified macrophage phagosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 10079 10083.
4. Altmeyer, R. M.,, J. K. McNern,, J. C. Bossio,, I. Rosenshine,, B. B. Finlay,, and J. E. Galan. 1993. Cloning and molecular characterization of a gene involved in Salmonella adherence and invasion of cultured epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 7: 89 98.
5. Bajaj, V.,, C. Hwang,, and C. A. Lee. 1995. hilA is a novel ompR/toxR family member that activates the expression of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes. Mol. Microbiol. 18: 715 727.
6. Bajaj, V.,, R. L. Lucas,, C. Hwang,, and C. A. Lee. 1996. Co-ordinate regulation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by environmental and regulatory factors is mediated by control of hilA expression. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 703 714.
7. Baudry, B.,, M. Kaczorek,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the invasion plasmid antigen B and C genes (ipaB and ipaC) of Shigella flexneri. Microb. Pathog. 4: 345 357.
8. Baumler, A. J. 1997. The record of horizontal gene transfer in Salmonella. Trends Microbiol. 5: 318 322.
9. Baumler, A. J.,, A. J. Gilde,, R. M. Tsolis,, A. W. M. van der Velden,, B. M. M. Ahmer,, and F. Heffron. 1997. Contribution of horizontal gene transfer and deletion events to development of distinctive patterns of fimbrial operons during evolution of Salmonella serotypes. J. Bacieriol. 179: 317 322.
10. Baumler, A. J.,, J. G. Kusters,, I. Stojiljkovic,, and F. Heffron. 1994. Salmonella typhimurium loci involved in survival within macrophages. Infect. Immun. 62: 1623 1630.
11. Baumler, A. J.,, R. M. Tsolis,, T. A. Ficht,, and L. G. Adams. 1998. Evolution of host adaptation in Salmonella enterica. Infect. Immun. 66: 4579 4587.
12. BSumler, A. J.,, R. M. Tsolis,, and F. Heffron. 1997. Fimbrial adhesins of Salmonella typhimurium. Role in bacterial interactions with epithelial cells. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 412: 149 158.
13. Behlau, I.,, and S. I. Miller. 1993. A PhoP-repressed gene promotes Salmonella typhimurium invasion of epithelial cells. J. Bacteriol. 175: 4475 4484.
14. Benz, I.,, and M. A. Schmidt. 1992. AIDA-I, the adhesin involved in diffuse adherence of the diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli strain 2787 (O126:H27), is synthesized via a precursor molecule. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 1539 1546.
15. Blanc-Potard, A.-B.,, and E. A. Groisman. 1997. The Salmonella selC locus contains a pathogenicity island mediating intramacrophage survival. EMBO J. 16: 5376 5385.
16. Blanc-Potard, A.-B.,, F. Solomon,, J. Kayser,, and E. A. Groisman. 1999. The SPI-3 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica. J. Bacteriol. 181: 998 1004.
17. Blanc-Potard, A. B.,, and E. A. Groisman. Unpublished results.
18. Blum, G.,, M. Ott,, A. Lischewski,, A. Ritter,, H. Imrich,, H. Tschäpe,, and J. Hacker. 1994. Excision of large DNA regions termed pathogenicity islands from tRNA-specific loci in the chromosome of an Escherichia coli wild-type pathogen. Infect. Immun. 62: 606 614.
19. Chen, C. Y.,, N. A. Buchmeier,, S. Libby,, F. C. Fang,, M. Krause,, and D. G. Guiney. 1995. Central regulatory role for the RpoS sigma factor in expression of Salmonella dublin plasmid virulence genes. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5303 5309.
20. Chen, C. Y.,, L. Eckmann,, S. J. Libby,, F. C. Fang,, S. Okamoto,, M. F. Kagnoff,, J. Fierer,, and D. G. Guiney. 1996. Expression of Salmonella typhimurium rpoS and rpoS-dependent genes in the intracellular environment of eukaryotic cells. Infect. Immun. 64: 4739 4743.
21. Chen, L. M.,, K. Kaniga,, and J. E. Galan. 1996. Salmonella spp. are cytotoxic for cultured macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 21: 1101 1115.
22. Cirillo, D. M.,, R. H. Valdivia,, D. M. Monack,, and S. Falkow. 1998. Macrophage-dependent induction of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system and its role in intracellular survival. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 175 188.
23. Clark, M. A.,, B. H. Hirst,, and M. A. Jepson. 1998. Inoculum composition and Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 regulate M-cell invasion and epithelial destruction by Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 66: 724 731.
24. Clark, M. A.,, K. A. Reed,, J. Lodge,, J. Stephen,, B. H. Hirst,, and M. A. Jepson. 1996. Invasion of murine intestinal M cells by Salmonella typhimurium inv mutants severely deficient for invasion of cultured cells. Infect. Immun. 64: 4363 4368.
25. Collazo, C. M.,, and J. E. Galan. 1996. Requirement for exported proteins in secretion through the invasion-associated type III system of Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 64: 3524 3531.
26. Collazo, C. M.,, and J. E. Galan. 1997. The invasion-associated type III system of Salmonella typhimurium directs the translocation of Sip proteins into the host cell. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 747 756.
27. Collazo, C. M.,, and J. E. Galan. 1997. The invasion-associated type-IH protein secretion system in Salmonella—a review. Gene 192: 51 59.
28. Collazo, C. M.,, M. K. Zierler,, and J. E. Galan. 1995. Functional analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invI and invJ and identification of a target of the protein secretion apparatus encoded in the inv locus. Mol. Microbiol. 15: 25 38.
29. Conner, C. P.,, D. M. Heithoff,, S. M. Julio,, R. L. Sinsheimer,, and M. J. Mahan. 1998. Differential patterns of acquired virulence genes distinguish Salmonella strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 4641 4645.
30. Crago, A. M.,, and V. Koronakis. 1998. Salmonella InvG forms a ring-like multimer that requires the InvH lipoprotein for outer membrane localization. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 47 56.
31. Daefler, S. 1999. Type III secretion by Salmonella typhimurium does not require contact with a eukaryotic host. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 45 51.
32. Daefler, S.,, and M. Russel. 1998. The Salmonella typhimurium InvH protein is an outer membrane lipoprotein required for the proper localization of InvG. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 1367 1380.
33. Deiwick, J.,, T. Nikolaus,, J. E. Shea,, C. Gleeson,, D. W. Holden,, and M. Hensel. 1998. Mutations in Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) genes affecting transcription of SPI1 genes and resistance to antimicrobial agents. J. Bacteriol. 180: 4775 4780.
34. Eckmann, L.,, M. T. Rudolf,, A. Ptasznik,, C. Schultz,, T. Jiang,, N. Wolfson,, R. Tsien,, J. Fierer,, S. B. Shears,, M. F. Kagnoff,, and A. E. Traynor-Kaplan. 1997. D;- myo-Inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate produced in human intestinal epithelial cells in response to Salmonella invasion inhibits phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 14456 14460.
35. Eichelberg, K.,, C. C. Ginocchio,, and J. E. Galan. 1994. Molecular and functional characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invB and invC: homology of InvC to the F 0F1 ATPase family of proteins. J. Bacteriol. 176: 4501 4510.
36. El-Gedaily, A.,, G. Paesold,, and M. Krause. 1997. Expression profile and subcellular location of the plasmid-encoded virulence (Spv) proteins in wild-type Salmonella dublin. Infect. Immun. 65: 3406 3411.
37. Elliott, S. J.,, L. A. Wainwright,, T. K. McDaniel,, K. G. Jarvis,, Y. K. Deng,, L. C. Lai,, B. P. McNamara,, M. S. Donnenberg,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 1 4.
38. Fields, P. I.,, R. V. Swanson,, C. G. Haidaris,, and F. Heffron. 1986. Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that cannot survive within the macrophage are avirulent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 5189 5193.
39. Fierer, J.,, L. Eckmann,, F. Fang,, C. Pfeifer,, B. B. Finlay,, and D. Guiney. 1993. Expression of the Salmonella virulence plasmid gene spvB in cultured macrophages and nonphagocytic cells. Infect. Immun. 61: 5231 5236.
40. Friedrich, M. J.,, N. E. Kinsey,, J. Vila,, and R. J. Kadner. 1993. Nucleotide sequence of a 13.9 kb segment of the 90 kb virulence plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium: the presence of fimbrial biosynthetic genes. Mol. Microbiol. 8: 543 558.
41. Fu, Y.,, and J. E. Galan. 1998. Identification of a specific chaperone for SptP, a substrate of the centisome 63 type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3393 3399.
42. Fu, Y.,, and J. E. Galan. 1998. The Salmonella typhimurium tyrosine phosphatase SptP is translocated into host cells and disrupts the actin cytoskeleton. Mol. Microbiol. 27: 359 368.
43. Galán, J. E. 1996. Molecular genetic bases of Salmonella entry into host cells. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 263 272.
44. Galán, J. E.,, and R. Curtiss. 1989. Cloning and molecular characterization of genes whose products allow Salmonella typhimurium to penetrate tissue culture cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 6383 6387.
45. Galán, J. E.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1990. Expression of Salmonella typhimurium genes required for invasion is regulated by changes in DNA supercoiling. Infect. Immun. 58: 1879 1885.
46. Galán, J. E.,, and R. Curtiss III. 1991. Distribution of the invA, -B, -C, and -D genes of Salmonella typhimurium among other Salmonella serovars: invA mutants of Salmonella typhi are deficient for entry into mammalian cells. Infect. Immun. 59: 2901 2908.
47. Galán, J. E.,, C. Ginocchio,, and P. Costeas. 1992. Molecular and functional characterization of the Salmonella invasion gene invA: homology of InvA to members of a new protein family. J. Bacteriol. 174: 4338 4349.
48. Galyov, E. E.,, M. W. Wood,, R. Rosqvist,, P. B. Mullan,, P. R. Watson,, S. Hedges,, and T. S. Wallis. 1997. A secreted effector protein of Salmonella dublin is translocated into eukaryotic cells and mediates inflammation and fluid secretion in infected ileal mucosa. Mol. Microbiol. 25: 903 912.
49. Garcia-del Portillo, F.,, J. W. Foster,, M. E. Maguire,, and B. B. Finlay. 1992. Characterization of the micro-environment of Salmonella typhimurium-coMaimng vacuoles within MDCK epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 3289 3297.
50. García-Véscovi, E.,, F. C. Soncini,, and E. A. Groisman. 1996. Mg2+ as an extracellular signal: environmental regulation of Salmonella virulence. Cell 84: 165 174.
51. Ginocchio, C.,, J. Pace,, and J. E. Galán. 1992. Identification and molecular characterization of a Salmonella typhimurium gene involved in triggering the internalization of salmonellae into cultured epithelial cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 5976 5980.
52. Ginocchio, C. C.,, and J. E. Galan. 1995. Functional conservation among members of the Salmonella typhimurium InvA family of proteins. Infect. Immun. 63: 729 732.
53. Ginocchio, C. C.,, S. B. Olmsted,, C. L. Wells,, and J. E. Galan. 1994. Contact with epithelial cells induces the formation of surface appendages on Salmonella typhimurium. Cell 76: 717 724.
54. Ginocchio, C. C.,, K. Rahn,, R. C. Clarke,, and J. E. Galán. 1997. Naturally occurring deletions in the centisome 63 pathogenicity island of environmental isolates of Salmonella spp. Infect. Immun. 65: 1267 1272.
55. Goldberg, M. B.,, O. Barzu,, C. Parsot,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1993. Unipolar localization and ATPase activity of IcsA, a Shigella flexneri protein involved in intracellular movement. J. Bacteriol. 175: 2189 2196.
56. Grob, P.,, and D. G. Guiney. 1996. In vitro binding of the Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid regulatory protein SpvR to the promoter regions of spvA and spvR. J. Bacteriol. 178: 1813 1820.
57. Groisman, E. A. 1998. The ins and outs of virulence gene expression: Mg 2+ as a regulatory signal. Bioessays 20: 96 101.
58. Groisman, E. A.,, and H. Ochman. 1993. Cognate gene clusters govern invasion of host epithelial cells by Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri. EMBO J. 12: 3779 3787.
59. Groisman, E. A.,, and H. Ochman. 1997. How Salmonella became a pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 5: 343 349.
60. Guiney, D. G.,, S. Libby,, F. C. Fang,, M. Krause,, and J. Fierer. 1995. Growth-phase regulation of plasmid virulence genes in Salmonella. Trends Microbiol. 3: 275 279.
61. Gulig, P. A.,, A. L. Caldwell,, and V. A. Chiodo. 1992. Identification, genetic analysis and DNA sequence of a 7.8-kb virulence region of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 1395 1411.
62. Gulig, P. A.,, H. Danbara,, D. G. Guiney,, A. J. Lax,, F. Norel,, and M. Rhen. 1993. Molecular analysis of spv virulence genes of the Salmonella virulence plasmids. Mol. Microbiol. 7: 825 830.
63. Gulig, P. A.,, and T. J. Doyle. 1993. The Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid increases the growth rate of salmonellae in mice. Infect. Immun. 61: 504 511.
64. Gulig, P. A.,, T. J. Doyle,, J. A. Hughes,, and H. Matsui. 1998. Analysis of host cells associated with the Spv-mediated increased intracellular growth rate of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. Infect. Immun. 66: 2471 2485.
65. Gunn, J. S.,, C. M. Alpuche-Aranda,, W. P. Loomis,, W. J. Belden,, and S. I. Miller. 1995. Characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium pagC/pagD chromosomal region. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5040 5047.
66. Gunn, J. S.,, W. J. Belden,, and S. I. Miller. 1998. Identification of phoP-phoQ activated genes within a duplicated region of the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome. Microb. Pathog. 25: 77 90.
67. Hardt, W.-D.,, L.-M. Chen,, K. E. Schuebel,, X. R. Bustelo,, and J. E. Galan. 1998. S. typhimurium encodes an activator of Rho GTPases that induces membrane ruffling and nuclear responses in host cells. Cell 93: 815 826.
68. Hardt, W.-D.,, and J. E. Galan. 1997. A secreted Salmonella protein with homology to an avirulence determinant of plant pathogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 9887 9892.
69. Hardt, W.-D.,, H. Urlaub,, and J. E. Galan. 1998. A substrate of the centisome 63 type III protein secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium is encoded by a cryptic bacteriophage. Proc: Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 2574 2579.
70. Heithoff, D. M.,, C. P. Conner,, P. C. Hanna,, S. M. Julio,, U. Hentschel,, and M. J. Mahan. 1997. Bacterial infection as assessed by in vivo gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 934 939.
71. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, and J. P. Nataro. 1998. The great escape: structure and function of the autotransporter family. Trends Microbiol. 6: 370 378.
72. Hensel, M.,, J. E. Shea,, A. J. Baumler,, C. Gleeson,, F. Blattner,, and D. W. Holden. 1997. Analysis of the boundaries of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 and the corresponding chromosomal region of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1105 1111.
73. Hensel, M.,, J. E. Shea,, C. Gleeson,, M. D. Jones,, E. Dalton,, and D. W. Holden. 1995. Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection. Science 269: 400 403.
74. Hensel, M.,, J. E. Shea,, B. Raupach,, D. Monack,, S. Falkow,, C. Gleeson,, T. Kubo,, and D. F. Holden. 1997. Functional analysis of ssaJ and the ssaK/u operon, 13 genes encoding components of the type III secretion apparatus of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 155 167.
75. Hensel, M.,, J. E. Shea,, S. R. Waterman,, R. Mundy,, T. Nikolaus,, G. Banks,, A. Vazquez-Torres,, C. Gleeson,, F. C. Fang,, and D. W. Holden. 1998. Genes encoding putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 are required for bacterial virulence and proliferation in macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 163 174.
76. Hermant, D.,, R. Menard,, N. Arricau,, C. Parsot,, and M. Y. Popoff. 1995. Functional conservation of the Salmonella and Shigella effectors of entry into epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 17: 781 789.
77. Hersh, D.,, D. M. Monack,, M. R. Smith,, N. Ghori,, S. Falkow,, and A. Zychlinsky. 1999. The Salmonella invasin SipB induces macrophage apoptosis by binding to caspase-1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 2396 2401.
78. Hong, K. H.,, and V. L. Miller. 1998. Identification of a novel Salmonella invasion locus homologous to Shigella ipgDE. J. Bacteriol. 180: 1793 1802.
79. Hueck, C. J. 1998. Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 379 433.
80. Inouye, S.,, M. G. Sunshine,, E. W. Six, and M. Inouye. 1991. Retronphage 0R73: an E. coli phage that contains a retroelement and integrates into a tRNA gene. Science 252: 969 971.
81. Johnston, C.,, D. A. Pegues,, C. J. Hueck,, C. A. Lee,, and S. I. Miller. 1996. Transcriptional activation of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes by a member of the phosphorylated response-regulator superfamily. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 715 727.
82. Jones, B. D.,, and S. Falkow. 1994. Identification and characterization of a Salmonella typhimurium oxygen-regulated gene required for bacterial internalization. Infect. Immun. 62: 3745 3752.
83. Jones, B. D.,, and S. Falkow. 1996. Salmonellosis: host immune responses and bacterial virulence determinants. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14: 533 561.
84. Kaniga, K.,, J. C. Bossio,, and J. E. Galan. 1994. The Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes invF and invG encode homologues of the AraC and PulD family of proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 13: 555 568.
85. Kaniga, K.,, D. Trollinger,, and J. E. Galan. 1995. Identification of two targets of the type III protein secretion system encoded by the inv and spa loci of Salmonella typhimurium that have homology to the Shigella IpaD and IpaA proteins. J. Bacteriol. 177: 7078 7085.
86. Kaniga, K.,, S. Tucker,, D. Trollinger,, and J. E. Galan. 1995. Homologs of the Shigella IpaB and IpaC invasins are required for Salmonella typhimurium entry into cultured epithelial cells. J. Bacteriol. 177: 3965 3971.
87. Kaniga, K.,, J. Uralil,, J. B. Bliska,, and J. E. Galan. 1996. A secreted protein tyrosine phosphatase with modular effector domains in the bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Mol. Microbiol. 21: 633 641.
88. Kim, J. M.,, L. Eckmann,, T. C. Savidge,, D. C. Lowe,, T. Witthoft,, and M. F. Kagnoff. 1998. Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion. J. Clin. Invest. 102: 1815 1823.
89. Knutton, S.,, I. Rosenshine,, M. J. Pallen,, I. Nisan,, B. C. Neves,, C. Bain,, C. Wolff,, G. Dougan,, and G. Frankel. 1998. A novel EspA-associated surface organelle of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli involved in protein translocation into epithelial cells. EMBO J. 17: 2166 2176.
90. Kubori, T.,, Y. Matsushima,, D. Nakamura,, J. Uralil,, M. Lara-Tejero,, A. Sukhan,, J. E. Galan,, and S.-I. Aizawa. 1998. Supramolecular structure of the Salmonella typhimurium type III protein secretion system. Science 280: 602 605.
91. Leclerc, G. J.,, C. Tartera,, and E. S. Metcalf. 1998. Environmental regulation of Salmonella typhi invasion-defective mutants. Infect. Immun. 66: 682 691.
92. Lee, C. A.,, and S. Falkow. 1990. The ability of Salmonella to enter mammalian cells is affected by bacterial growth state. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 4304 4308.
93. Li, J.,, H. Ochman,, E. A. Groisman,, E. F. Boyd,, F. Solomon,, K. Nelson,, and R. K. Selander. 1995. Relationship between evolutionary rate and cellular location among the Inv/Spa invasion proteins of Salmonella enterica. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 7252 7256.
94. Libby, S. J.,, L. G. Adams,, T. A. Ficht,, C. Allen,, H. A. Whitford,, N. A. Buchmeier,, S. Bossie,, and D. G. Guiney. 1997. The spv genes on the Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid are required for severe enteritis and systemic infection in the natural host. Infect. Immun. 65: 1786 1792.
95. Lim, D. 1992. Structure and biosynthesis of unbranched multicopy single-stranded DNA by reverse transcriptase in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 3531 3542.
96. Lodge, J.,, G. R. Douce,, I. I. Amin,, A. J. Bolton,, G. D. Martin,, S. Chatfield,, G. Dougan,, N. L. Brown,, and J. Stephen. 1995. Biological and genetic characterization of TnphoA mutants of Salmonella typhimurium TML in the context of gastroenteritis. Infect. Immun. 63: 762 769.
97. McCormick, B. A.,, S. I. Miller,, D. Carnes,, and J. L. Madara. 1995. Transepithelial signaling to neutrophils by salmonellae: a novel virulence mechanism for gastroenteritis. Infect. Immun. 63: 2302 2309.
98. McDaniel, T. K.,, K. G. Jarvis,, M. S. Donnenberg,, and J. B. Kaper. 1995. A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 1664 1668.
99. Menard, R.,, P. Sansonetti,, C. Parsot,, and T. Vasselon. 1994. Extracellular association and cytoplasmic partitioning of the IpaB and IpaC invasins of S. flexneri. Cell 79: 515 525.
100. Miller, S. I.,, A. M. Kukral,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1989. A two-component regulatory system ( phoP phoQ) controls Salmonella typhimurium virulence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 5054 5058.
101. Miller, V. L.,, R. K. Taylor,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1987. Cholera toxin transcriptional activator ToxR is a transmembrane DNA binding protein. Cell 48: 271 279.
102. Mills, D. M.,, V. Bajaj,, and C. A. Lee. 1995. A 40 kilobase chromosomal fragment encoding Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome. Mol. Microbiol. 15: 749 759.
103. Mills, S. D.,, A. Boland,, M. P. Sory,, P. van der Smissen,, C. Kerbourch,, B. B. Finlay,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica induces apoptosis in macrophages by a process requiring functional type III secretion and translocation mechanisms and involving YopP, presumably acting as an effector protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 12638 12643.
104. Monack, D. M.,, J. Mecsas,, N. Ghori,, and S. Falkow. 1997. Yersinia signals macrophages to undergo apoptosis and YopJ is necessary for this cell death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 10385 10390.
105. Monack, D. M.,, B. Raupach,, A. E. Hromockyj,, and S. Falkow. 1996. Salmonella typhimurium invasion induces apoptosis in infected macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 9833 9838.
106. Moncrief, M. B. C.,, and M. E. Maguire. 1998. Magnesium and the role of mgtC in growth of Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 66: 3802 3809.
107. Norris, F. A.,, M. P. Wilson,, T. S. Wallis,, E. E. Galyov,, and P. W. Majerus. 1998. SopB, a protein required for virulence of Salmonella dublin,is an inositol phosphate phosphatase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 14057 14059.
108. Ochman, H.,, and E. A. Groisman. 1996. Distribution of pathogenicity islands in Salmonella. Infect. Immun. 64: 5410 5412.
109. Ochman, H.,, F. C. Soncini,, F. Solomon,, and E. A. Groisman. 1996. Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella survival in host cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 7800 7804.
110. Pegues, D. A.,, M. J. Hantman,, I. Behlau,, and S. I. Miller. 1995. PhoP/PhoQ transcriptional repression of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes: evidence for a role in protein secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 17: 169 181.
111. Penheiter, K. L.,, N. Mathur,, D. Giles,, T. Fahlen,, and B. D. Jones. 1997. Non-invasive Salmonella typhimurium mutants are avirulent because of an inability to enter and destroy M cells of ileal Peyer's patches. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 697 709.
112. Reed, K. A.,, M. A. Clark,, T. A. Booth,, C. J. Hueck,, S. I. Miller,, B. H. Hirst,, and M. A. Jepson. 1998. Cell-contact-stimulated formation of filamentous appendages by Salmonella typhimurium does not depend on the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1. Infect. Immun. 66: 2007 2017.
113. Rhen, M.,, P. Riikonen,, and S. Taira. 1993. Transcriptional regulation of Salmonella enterica virulence plasmid genes in cultured macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 10: 45 56.
114. Robbe-Saule, V.,, F. Schaeffer,, L. Kowarz,, and F. Norel. 1997. Relationships between H-NS, 0s, SpvR and growth phase in the control of spvR, the regulatory gene of the Salmonella plasmid virulence operon. Mol. Gen. Genet. 256: 333 347.
115. Shea, J. E.,, C. R. Beuzon,, C. Gleeson,, R. Mundy,, and D. W. Holden. 1999. Influence of the Salmonella typhimurium pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system on bacterial growth in the mouse. Infect. Immun. 67: 213 219.
116. Shea, J. E.,, M. Hensel,, C. Gleeson,, and D. W. Holden. 1996. Identification of a virulence locus encoding a second type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 2593 2597.
117. Snavely, M. D.,, C. G. Miller,, and M. E. Maguire. 1991. The mgtB Mg 2+ transport locus of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a P-type ATPase. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 815 823.
118. Soncini, F. C, E. Garcia Vescovi, F. Solomon, and E. A. Groisman. 1996. Molecular basis of the magnesium deprivation response in Salmonella typhimurium: identification of PhoP-regulated genes. J. Bacteriol. 178: 5092 5099.
119. Stein, M. A.,, K. Y. Leung,, M. Zwick,, F. Garcia-del Portillo,, and B. B. Finlay. 1996. Identification of a Salmonella virulence gene required for formation of filamentous structures containing lysosomal membrane glycoproteins within epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 151 164.
120. Stone, B. J.,, C. M. Garcia,, J. L. Badger,, T. Hassett,, R. I. F. Smith,, and V. L. Miller. 1992. Identification of novel loci affecting entry of Salmonella enteritidis into eukaryotic cells. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3945 3952.
121. Stout, V.,, and S. Gottesman. 1990. RcsB and RcsC: a two-component regulator of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172: 659 669.
122. Tao, T.,, M. D. Snavely,, S. G. Farr,, and M. E. Maguire. 1995. Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: mgtA encodes a P-type ATPase and is regulated by Mg 2+ in a manner similar to that of the mgtB P-type ATPase. J. Bacteriol. 177: 2654 2662.
123. Uchiya, K.,, M. A. Barbieri,, K. Funato,, A. H. Shah,, P. D. Stahl,, and E. A. Groisman. Inhibition of cellular trafficking by a Salmonella virulence protein. Submitted for publication.
124. Uchiya, K.,, and E. A. Groisman. Unpublished results.
125. Valdivia, R. H.,, and S. Falkow. 1997. Fluorescence-based isolation of bacterial genes expressed within host cells. Science 277: 2007 2010.
126. Valone, S. E.,, G. K. Chikami,, and V. L. Miller. 1993. Stress induction of the virulence proteins (SpvA, -B, and -C) from native plasmid pSDL2 of Salmonella dublin. Infect. Immun. 61: 705 713.
127. Van der Velden, A. W. M.,, A. J. Baumler,, R. M. Tsolis,, and F. Heffron. 1998. Multiple fimbrial adhesins are required for full virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. Infect. Immun. 66: 2803 2808.
128. Watson, P. R.,, E. E. Galyov,, S. M. Paulin,, P. W. Jones,, and T. S. Wallis. 1998. Mutation of invH. but not stn, reduces Salmonella-induced enteritis in cattle. Infect. Immun. 66: 1432 1438.
129. Wattiau, P.,, B. Bernier,, P. Deslee,, T. Michiels,, and G. R. Cornells. 1994. Individual chaperones required for Yop secretion by Yersinia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 10493 10497.
130. Wilson, J. A.,, T. J. Doyle,, and P. A. Gulig. 1997. Exponential-phase expression of spvA of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid: induction in intracellular salts medium and intracellularly in mice and cultured mammalian cells. Microbiology 143: 3827 3839.
131. Wolff, C.,, I. Nisan,, E. Hanski,, G. Frankel,, and I. Rosenshine. 1998. Protein translocation into host epithelial cells by infecting enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 143 156.
132. Wong, K.-K.,, M. McClelland,, L. C. Stillwell,, E. C. Sisk,, S. J. Thurston,, and J. D. Saffer. 1998. Identification and sequence analysis of a 27-kilobase chromosomal fragment containing a Salmonella pathogenicity island located at 92 minutes on the chromosome map of Salmonella enterica serovar typhiu-murium LT2. Infect. Immun. 66: 3365 3371.
133. Wood, M. W.,, M. A. Jones,, P. R. Watson,, S. Hedges,, T. S. Wallis,, and E. E. Galyov. 1998. Identification of a pathogenicity island required for Salmonella enteropathogenicity. Mol. Microbiol. 29: 883 891.
134. Wood, M. W.,, R. Rosqvist,, P. B. Mullan,, M. H. Edwards,, and E. E. Galyov. 1996. SopE, a secreted protein of Salmonella dublin, is translocated into the target eukaryotic cell via a sip-dependent mechanism and promotes bacterial entry. Mol. Microbiol. 22: 327 338.
135. Zhou, D.,, M. S. Mooseker,, and J. E. Galan. 1999. Role of the S. typhimurium actin-binding protein SipA in bacterial internalization. Science 283: 2092 2095.
136. Zierler, M. K.,, and J. E. Galan. 1995. Contact with cultured epithelial cells stimulates secretion of Salmonella typhimurium invasion protein InvJ. Infect. Immun. 63: 4024 4028.
137. Zychlinsky, A.,, B. Kenny,, R. Menard,, M.-C. Prevost,, I. B. Holland,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1994. IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 11: 619 627.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Salmonella PAIs

Citation: Groisman E, Blanc-Potard A, Uchiya K. 1999. Pathogenicity Islands and the Evolution of Salmonella Virulence, p 127-150. In Kaper J, Hacker J (ed), Pathogenicity Islands and Other Mobile Virulence Elements. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818173.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error