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Section 2 : Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests

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Abstract:

This section talks about the diseases and disorders diagnosed using immunologic tests and also discusses the serologic tests for bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Methods for detecting infection with organisms include (i) isolation and identification of organisms in the lesion; (ii) culture of organisms from the lesion, from body fluids, or from tissue samples; (iii) detection of an immune response to the organisms after an appropriate time interval; and (iv) detection of an organism’s nucleic acid in the infected host. For decades, culture and serology have been the major techniques used to detect infection, and the section concentrates on the serologic procedures. The specific diseases discussed include those due to infection with enterobacteria, gram-negative cocci and bacilli, mycobacteria, spirochetes, streptococci, and certain toxin-secreting bacteria. Serology is a major feature of the laboratory diagnosis of viral infections; it can be used to identify a particular virus as well as various serotypes and strains of the virus. Disease causing virus such as arboviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, hepatitis viruses (HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV), herpesviruses. The fungal diseases for which serologic tests are commercially available and useful are discussed; these tests are usually agglutination tests with coated latex particles or double-diffusion (DD) tests in agarose gels. Disease causing fungus such as , , , , are described in the section. Rickettsial diseases causing organisms such as and , and toxoplasmosis diseases causing organisms such as are also discussed.

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
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Live Attenuated Viral Vaccines
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References

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Tables

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Table II.1

Serologic detection of arbovirus infections

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.2

Serologic detection of IgM antibodies to rubella virus

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.3

Serologic detection of adenovirus infections

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.4

Serologic tests for laboratory diagnosis of HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HEV infection

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.5

Serologic detection of antibodies to CMV

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.6

Tests to diagnose HHV-6 infection

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.7

Laboratory diagnosis of VZV infection

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.8

EBV-infectious mononucleosis serology

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.9

Serologic detection of HSV infection

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2
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Table II.10

Tests to diagnose HIV infection

Citation: Folds J, Normansell D. 1999. Diseases and Disorders Diagnosed Using Immunologic Tests, p 69-186. In Pocket Guide to Clinical Immunology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818197.ch2

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