Chapter 6 : Infection and Disease Epidemiology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Infection and Disease Epidemiology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818203/9781555811556_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818203/9781555811556_Chap06-2.gif


Chlamydiae cause a wide variety of diseases. In their natural hosts, chlamydial infections usually cause relatively mild diseases characterized by persistent infections with relatively poor immunity, so that recurrent infections can occur. is an extraordinarily common organism among avian species. While infections in the wild may affect only a small fraction of the birds at any given time, the agents are highly infectious and often cause enteric and respiratory infection. The chapter first talks about infections. Many cases of human psittacosis go undiagnosed because it requires a high index of suspicion on the part of a clinician to test cases of atypical pneumonia or unusual febrile diseases for psittacosis. Control of psittacosis depends on control of the avian sources of infection. Despite the wide host range of , infection of humans from nonavian animals is rare. Next, the chapter discusses infection. is passed from eye to eye by direct contact. The epidemiology of trachoma continues to provide hope for those trying to produce an effective vaccine for trachoma. Finally, the chapter focuses on infections. is recognized as an important cause of respiratory disease in young adults and may cause serious respiratory disease in older debilitated individuals. There are no gold standards for diagnosis of infection. Tetracycline and erythromycin are effective against in vitro. has also been associated with a bewildering array of chronic diseases.

Citation: Schachter J. 1999. Infection and Disease Epidemiology, p 139-169. In Stephens R (ed), Chlamydia. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818203.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Adair, C. D.,, M. Gunter,, T. G. Stovall,, G. McElroy,, J. C. Veille,, and J. M. Ernest. 1998. Chlamydia in pregnancy: a randomized trial of azithromycin and erythromycin. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 165 168.
2. Arth, C.,, B. Von Schmidt,, M. Grossman,, and J. Schachter. 1978. Chlamydial pneumonitis. J. Pediatr. 93: 447 449.
3. Bailey, R. L.,, P. Arullendran,, H. C. Whittle,, and D. C. Mabey. 1993. Randomised controlled trial of single-dose azithromycin in treatment of trachoma. Lancet 342: 453 456.
4. Bedson, S. P. 1940. Virus diseases acquired from animals. Lancet ii: 577 579.
5. Bedson, S. P.,, and J. O. W. Bland. 1932. A morphological study of psittacosis virus, with description of a developmental cycle. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 13: 461 466.
6. Bedson, S. P.,, and G. T. Western,. 1930. Aetiology—experimental observations, p. 59 95. In E. L. Sturdee, and W. M. Scott (ed.), A Disease of Parrots Communicable to Man (Psittacosis). Rep. Public Health Med. Subj. No. 61. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, United Kingdom..
7. Beem, M. O.,, and E. M. Saxon. 1977. Respiratory-tract colonization and a distinctive pneumonia syndrome in infants infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 306 310.
8. Bell, T. A.,, W. E. Stamm,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, K. K. Holmes,, and J. T. Grayston. 1987. Delayed appearance of Chlamydia trachomatis infections acquired at birth. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6: 928 931. ( Erratum, 7:303, 1988.).
9. Berger, R. E.,, E. R. Alexander,, G. E. Monda,, J. Ansell,, G. McCormick,, and K. K. Holmes. 1978. Chlamydia trachomatis as a cause of acute "idiopathic" epididymitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 301.
10. Bevan, C. D.,, B. J. Johal,, G. Mumtaz,, G. L. Ridgway,, and N. C. Siddle. 1995. Clinical, laparoscopic and microbiological findings in acute salpingitis: report on a United Kingdom cohort. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol 102: 407 414.
11. Bolan, R. K.,, M. Sands,, J. Schachter,, R. C. Miner,, and W. L. Drew. 1982. Lymphogranuloma venereum and acute ulcerative proctitis. Am. J. Med. 72: 703 706.
12. Brunham, R. C., 1994. Vaccine design for the prevention of C. trachomatis infection, p. 73 82. In J. Orfila,, G. Byrne,, M. A. Chernesky,, J. T. Grayston,, R. B. Jones,, G. L. Ridgway,, R. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, W. E. Stamm,, and R. S. Stephens (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infections. Societa Editrice Esculapio, Bologna, Italy.
13. Brunham, R. C.,, J. Paavonen,, C. E. Stevens,, N. Kiviat,, C.-C. Kuo,, and K. K. Holmes. 1984. Mucopurulent cervicitis—the ignored counterpart in women of urethritis in men. N. Engl. J. Med. 311: 1 6.
14. Cates, W., Jr.,, and J. N. Wasserheit. 1991. Genital chlamydial infections: epidemiology and reproductive sequelae. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 164: 1771 1781.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 42: 139.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998a. 1998 guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 7( RR-1): 1118.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998b. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 1998. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 47( RR-10): 114.
18. Chernesky, M. A.,, H. Lee,, J. Schachter,, J. D. Burczak,, W. E. Stamm,, W. M. McCormack,, and T. C. Quinn. 1994. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic men by testing first-void urine in a ligase chain reaction assay. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 1308 1311.
19. Clarke, L. M.,, M. F. Sierra,, B. J. Daidone,, N. Lopez,, J. M. Covino,, and W. M. McCormack. 1993. Comparison of the Syva MicroTrak enzyme immunoassay and Gen-Probe PACE 2 with cell culture for diagnosis of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-prevalence female population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 968 971.
20. Crombleholme, W. R.,, J. Schachter,, M. Grossman,, D. V. Landers,, and R. L. Sweet 1990. Amoxicillin therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 75: 752 756.
21. Dawson, C. R.,, T. Daghfous,, M. Messadi,, I. Hoshiwara,, and J. Schachter. 1976. Severe endemic trachoma in Tunisia. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 60: 245 252.
22. Dawson, C. R.,, B. R. Jones,, and S. Darougar. 1975. Blinding and nonblinding trachoma: assessment of intensity of upper tarsal inflammatory disease and disabling lesions. Bull. W. H. O. 52: 279 282.
23. Dawson, C. R.,, and J. Schachter. 1985. Strategies for treatment and control of blinding trachoma: cost-effectiveness of topical or systemic antibiotics. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7: 768 773.
24. Dawson, C. R.,, J. Schachter,, S. Sallam,, A. Sheta,, R. A. Rubinstein,, and H. Washton. 1997. A comparison of oral azithromycin with topical oxytetracycline/polymyxin for the treatment of trachoma in children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 363 368.
25. File, T. M., Jr.,, J. G. Bartlett,, G. H. Cassell,, C. A. Gaydos,, J. T. Grayston,, M. R. Hammerschlag,, R. B. Jones,, J. B. Kahn,, T. J. Marrie,, J. A. Ramirez,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, H. R. Schumacher,, W. E. Stamm,, C. W. Stratton,, and V. L. Yu. 1997. The importance of Chlamydia pneumoniae as a pathogen: the 1996 Consensus Conference on Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. Pract. 6( Suppl. 2): S28 S31.
26. Forster, R. K.,, C. R. Dawson,, and J. Schachter. 1970. Late follow-up of patients with neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 69: 467 472.
27. Goessens, W. H.,, J. W. Mouton,, W. I. van der Meijden,, S. Deelen,, T. H. van Rijsoort-Vos,, N. Lemmens-den Toom,, H. A. Verbrugh,, and R. P. Verkooyen. 1997. Comparison of three commercially available amplification assays, AMP CT, LCx, and COBAS AMPLICOR, for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2628 2633.
28. Goldmeier, D., 1985. Proctitis. In D. Taylor-Robinson (ed.), Clinical Problems in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
29. Grayston, J. T. 1992. Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR pneumonia. Annu. Rev. Med. 43: 317 323.
30. Grayston, J. T.,, C.-C. Kuo,, L. A. Campbell,, and S.-P. Wang. 1989. Chlamydia pneumoniae sp. nov. for Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 88 90.
31. Grayston, J. T.,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, and J. Altaian. 1986. A new Chlamydia psittaci strain, TWAR, isolated in acute respiratory tract infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 315: 161 168.
32. Grayston, J. T.,, S. P. Wang,, L. J. Yeh,, and C. C. Kuo. 1985. Importance of reinfection in the pathogenesis of trachoma. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7: 717 725.
33. Greaves, A. B.,, M. R. Hilleman,, S. R. Taggart,, A. B. Bankhead,, and M. Field. 1957. Chemotherapy in bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum. A clinical and serological evaluation. Bull. W. H. O. 16: 277 289.
34. Halberstaedter, L.,, and S. von Prowazek. 1907. Uber Zelleinschlusse parasitarer Natur beim Trachom. Arb. Kais. Gesund. 26: 44 47.
35. Hook, E. W., III,, K. Smith,, C. Mullen,, J. Stephens,, L. Rinehardt,, M. S. Pate,, and H. H. Lee. 1997. Diagnosis of genitourinary Chlamydia trachomatis infections by using the ligase chain reaction on patient-obtained vaginal swabs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2133 2135.
36. Jaschek, G.,, C. A. Gaydos,, L. E. Welsh,, and T. C. Quinn. 1993. Direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic men by using a rapid polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1209 1212.
37. Johnson, F. W.,, B. A. Matheson,, H. Williams,, A. G. Laing,, V. Jandial,, R. Davidson-Lamb,, G. J. Halliday,, D. Hobson,, S. Y. Wong,, K. M. Hadley, et al. 1985. Abortion due to infection with Chlamydia psittaci in a sheep farmer's wife. Br. Med. J. {Clin. Res. Ed.) 290: 592 594.
38. Jones, B. R. 1964. Ocular syndromes of TRIC virus infection and their possible genital significance. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 40: 3 18.
39. Jones, B. R. 1974. Prevention of blindness from trachoma. Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 95: 16 33.
40. Jones, B. R.,, L. H. Collier,, and C. H. Smith. 1959. I solation of virus from inclusion blennorrhoea. Lancet i: 902 905.
41. Jones, R. B.,, J. B. Mammel,, M. K. Shepard,, and R. R. Fisher. 1986. Recovery of Chlamydia trachomatis from the endometrium of women at risk for chlamydial infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 35 39.
42. Keat, A. 1983. Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis in perspective. N. Engl. J. Med. 309: 1606 1615.
43. Keat, A.,, B. Thomas,, J. Dixey,, M. Osborn,, C. Sonnex,, and D. Taylor-Robinson. 1987. Chlamydia trachomatis and reactive arthritis: the missing link. Lancet 1: 72 74.
44. Keat, A. C.,, B. J. Thomas,, D. Taylor-Robinson,, G. D. Pegrum,, R. N. Maini,, and J. T. Scott. 1980. Evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually acquired reactive arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 39: 431 437.
45. Kiviat, N. B.,, P. Wolner-Hanssen,, D. A. Eschenbach,, J. N. Wasserheit,, J. A. Paavonen,, T. A. Bell,, C. W. Critchlow,, W. E. Stamm,, D. E. Moore,, and K. K. Holmes. 1990. Endometrial histopathology in patients with culture-proved upper genital tract infection and laparoscopically diagnosed acute salpingitis. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 14: 167 175.
46. Kleemola, M.,, P. Saikku,, R. Visakorpi,, S. P. Wang,, and J. T. Grayston. 1988. Epidemics of pneumonia caused by TWAR, a new Chlamydia organism, in military trainees in Finland. J. Infect. Dis. 157: 230 236.
47. Kuo, C. C.,, A. Shor,, L. A. Campbell,, H. Fukushi,, D. L. Patton,, and J. T. Grayston. 1993. Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 841 849.
48. Lee, H. H.,, M. A. Chernesky,, J. Schachter,, J. D. Burczak,, W. W. Andrews,, S. Muldoon,, G. Leckie,, and W. E. Stamm. 1995. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine. Lancet 345: 213 216.
49. Lindner, K. 1911. Gonoblennorrhoe, Einschlussblennorrhoe und Trachoma. Albrecht von Graefes Arch. Ophthalmol. 78: 380.
50. Lwoff, A. 1957. The concept of virus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 17: 239 253.
51. MacCallan, A. F. 1936>. Trachoma. Butterworth, London, United Kingdom.
52. Macchiavello, A. 1944. El virus del trachoma y su cultivo en el saco vitelino del huevo de gallina. Rev. Ecuat. Hig. Med. Trop. 2: 211.
53. Malaty, R.,, S. Zaki,, M. E. Said,, D. W. Vastine,, D. W. Dawson,, and J. Schachter. 1981. Extraocular infections in children in areas with endemic trachoma. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 853.
54. Manuel, A. R.,, M. Veeravahu,, R. S. Matthews,, and J. C. Clay. 1987. Pooled specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis: new approach to increase yield and cost efficiency. Genitourin. Med. 63: 172 175.
55. Mardh, P. A., 1987. Chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease, p. 45 55. In P. Reeves (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
56. Mardh, P. A.,, T. Ripa,, L. Svensson,, and L. Westrom. 1977. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with acute salpingitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 296: 1377 1379.
57. Marrie, T. J.,, J. T. Grayston,, S. P. Wang,, and C. C. Kuo. 1987. Pneumonia associated with the TWAR strain of Chlamydia. Ann. Intern. Med. 106: 507 511.
58. Martin, D. H.,, T. F. Mroczkowski,, Z. A. Dalu,, J. McCarty,, R. B. Jones,, S. J. Hopkins,, and R. B. Johnson. 1992. A controlled trial of a single dose of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. The Azithromycin for Chlamydial Infections Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 921 925.
59. McCormack, W. M.,, S. Alpert,, D. E. McComb,, R. L. Nichols,, D. Z. Semine,, and S. H. Zinner. 1979. Fifteen-month follow-up study of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 123 125.
60. Menke, H. E.,, J. L. Schuller,, E. Stolz,, P. L. Niemel,, and M. F. Michel. 1979. Treatment of lymphogranuloma venereum with rifampicin. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 55: 379. (Letter.)
61. Meyer, K. F. 1967. The host spectrum of psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum (PL) agents. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 63( Suppl.): 1225 1246.
62. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1951. Human carrier of the psittacosis virus. J. Infect. Dis. 88: 109 125.
63. Meyer, K. F.,, and B. Eddie. 1962. Immunity against some Bedsonia in man resulting from infection and in animals from infection or vaccination. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 98: 288 313.
64. Moncada, J. V.,, J. Schachter,, and C. Wofsy. 1986. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis lung infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 986.
65. Morange, A. 1895. De la psittacose, ou infection speciale determinee par des perruches. Thesis. Acad6mie de Paris, Paris, France.
66. Mordhorst, C. H.,, S. P. Wang,, and J. T. Grayston. 1978. Childhood trachoma in a nonendemic area. Danish trachoma patients and their close contacts, 1963 to 1973. JAMA 239: 1765 1771.
67. Moscicki, B.,, M. A. Shafer,, S. G. Millstein,, C. E. Irwin, Jr.,, and J. Schachter. 1987. The use and limitations of endocervical Gram stains and mucopurulent cervicitis as predictors for Chlamydia trachomatis in female adolescents. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 65 71.
68. Moulder, J. W. 1964. Ciba Lectures in Microbial Biochemistry, 1963 ed. The Psittacosis Group as Bacteria. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y..
69. Murdin, A. D.,, H. Su,, D. S. Manning,, M. H. Klein,, M. J. Parnell,, and H. D. Caldwell. 1993. A poliovirus hybrid expressing a neutralization epitope from the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly immunogenic. Infect. Immun. 61: 4406 4414.
70. Myhre, E. B.,, and P. A. Mardh. 1981. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a patient with meningoencephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 910 911. (Letter.)
71. Olson, B. J.,, and W. L. Treuting. 1944. An epidemic of a severe pneumonitis in the Bayou Region of Louisiana. IV. A preliminary note on etiology. Public Health Rep. 59: 1299 1311.
72. Oriel, D.,, and G. L. Ridgway. 1982. Genital Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis. E Arnold, London, United Kingdom..
73. Oriel, J. D.,, P. Reeve,, B. J. Thomas,, and C. S. Nicol. 1975. Infection with Chlamydia group A in men with urethritis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Infect. Dis. 131: 376 382.
74. Oriel, J. D.,, G. L. Ridgway,, and S. Tchamouroff. 1977. Comparison of erythromycin stearate and oxytetracycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: their efficacy against C. trachomatis. Scott Med. J. 22: 375 379.
75. Palmer, S. R. 1982. Psittacosis in man—recent developments in the UK: a review. J. R. Soc. Med. 75: 262 267.
76. Patton, D. L.,, C. C. Kuo,, S. P. Wang,, and S. A. Halbert 1987. Distal tubal obstruction induced by repeated Chlamydia trachomatis salpingeal infections in pig-tailed macaques. J. Infect. Dis. 155: 1292 1299.
77. Peeling, R. W.,, R. L. Bailey,, D. J. Conway,, M. J. Holland,, A. E. Campbell,, O. Jallow,, H. C. Whittle,, and D. C. Mabey. 1998. Antibody response to the 60-kDa chlamydial heat-shock protein is associated with scarring trachoma. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 256 259.
78. Quinn, T. C.,, S. E. Goodell,, E. Mkrtichian,, M. D. Schuffler,, S. P. Wang,, W. E. Stamm,, and K. K. Holmes. 1981. Chlamydia trachomatis proctitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 195 200.
79. Regan, R. J.,, J. R. Dathan,, and J. D. Treharne. 1979. Infective endocarditis with glomerulonephritis associated with cat chlamydia ( C. psittaci) infection. Br. Heart J. 42: 349 352.
80. Ridgway, G. L. 1995. Quinolones in sexually transmitted diseases. Global experience. Drugs 49( Suppl. 2): 115 122.
81. Ridgway, G. L. 1997. Treatment of chlamydial genital infection. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40: 311 314.
82. Ringel, R. E.,, J. I. Brenner,, M. B. Rennels,, S. W. Huang,, S. P. Wang,, J. T. Grayston,, and M. A. Berman. 1982. Serologic evidence for Chlamydia trachomatis myocarditis. Pediatrics 70: 54 56.
83. Rose, L.,, and J. Schachter. 1964. Genitourinary aspects of inclusion conjunctivitis. Invest. Ophthalmol. 3: 680.
84. Saikku, P.,, M. Leinonen,, K. Mattila,, M. R. Ekman,, M. S. Nieminen,, P. H. Makela,, J. K. Huttunen,, and V. Valtonen. 1988. Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet ii: 983 986.
85. Saikku, P.,, M. Leinonen,, L. Tenkanen,, E. Linnanmaki,, M. R. Ekman,, V. Manninen,, M. Manttari,, M. H. Frick,, and J. K. Huttunen. 1992. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Ann. Intern. Med. 116: 273 278.
86. Schachter, J. 1978. Chlamydial infections. N Engl. J. Med. 298: 428 435, 490 495, 540 549. ( In three parts.)
87. Schachter, J., 1997. Chlamydiae, p. 1045 1053. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
88. Schachter, J., 1998. Diagnosis of human chlamydial infections, p. 577 586. In R. S. Stephens,, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection. I nternational Chlamydia Symposium, San Francisco, Calif..
89. Schachter, J.,, and C. R. Dawson. 1978. Human Chlamydial Infections. PSG Publishing Co., Littleton, Mass..
90. Schachter, J.,, and C. R. Dawson. 1990. The epidemiology of trachoma predicts more blindness in the future. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 69: 55 62.
91. Schachter, J.,, and J. T. Grayston,. 1998. Epidemiology of human chlamydial infections, p. 3 10. In R. S. Stephens,, G. I. Byrne,, G. Christiansen,, I. N. Clarke,, J. T. Grayston,, R. G. Rank,, G. L. Ridgway,, P. Saikku,, J. Schachter,, and W. E. Stamm (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infection. International Chlamydia Symposium, San Francisco, Calif..
92. Schachter, J.,, and M. Grossman. 1981. Chlamydial infections. Annu. Rev. Med. 32: 45 61.
93. Schachter, J.,, M. Grossman,, and P. H. Azimi. 1982. Serology of Chlamydia trachomatis in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 146: 530 535.
94. Schachter, J.,, M. Grossman,, R. L. Sweet,, J. Holt,, C. Jordan,, and E. Bishop. 1986a. Prospective study of perinatal transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis. JAMA 255: 3374 3377.
95. Schachter, J.,, L. Hanna,, E. C. Hill,, S. Massad,, C. W. Sheppard,, J. E. Conte, Jr.,, S. N. Cohen,, and K. F. Meyer. 1975a. Are chlamydial infections the most prevalent venereal disease? JAMA 231: 1252 1255.
96. Schachter, J.,, L. Lum,, C. A. Gooding,, and B. Ostler. 1975b. Pneumonitis following inclusion blennorrhea. J. Pediatr. 87: 779 780.
97. Schachter, J.,, and A. O. Osoba. 1983. Lymphogranuloma venereum. Br. Med. Bull. 39: 151 154.
98. Schachter, J.,, H. B. Ostler,, and K. F. Meyer. 1969a. Human infection with the agent of feline pneumonitis. Lancet 1: 1063 1065.
99. Schachter, J.,, G. L. Ridgway,, and L. Collier,. 1998. Chlamydial diseases, p. 977 994. In L. Collier,, A. Balows,, and M. Sussman (ed.), Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
100. Schachter, J.,, D. E. Smith,, C. R. Dawson,, W. R. Anderson,, J. J. Deller, Jr.,, A. W. Hoke,, W. H. Smartt,, and K. F. Meyer. 1969b. Lymphogranuloma venereum. I. Comparison of the Frei test, complement fixation test, and isolation of the agent. J. Infect. Dis. 120: 372 375.
101. Schachter, J.,, and W. E. Stamm,. 1999. Chlamydia, p. 795 806. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
102. Schachter, J.,, E. Stoner,, and J. Moncada. 1983. Screening for chlamydial infections in women attending family planning clinics. West. J. Med. 138: 375 379.
103. Schachter, J.,, N. Sugg,, and M. Sung. 1978. Psittacosis: the reservoir persists. J. Infect. Dis. 137: 44 49.
104. Schachter, J.,, R. L. Sweet,, M. Grossman,, D. Landers,, M. Robbie,, and E. Bishop. 1986b. Experience with the routine use of erythromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 276 279.
105. Scholes, D.,, A. Stergachis,, F. E. Heidrich,, H. AndriUa,, K. K. Holmes,, and W. E. Stamm. 1996. Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease by screening for cervical chlamydial infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1362 1366.
106. Stamm, W. E.,, and K. K. Holmes,. 1990. Chlamydia trachomatis infections of the adult, p. 258. In K. K. Holmes,, P.-A. Mardh,, P. F. Sparling,, and P. J. Wiesner (ed.), Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, N.Y..
107. Stamm, W. E.,, K. F. Wagner,, R. Amsel,, E. R. Alexander,, M. Turck,, G. W. Counts,, and K. K. Holmes. 1980. Causes of the acute urethral syndrome in women. N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 409 415.
108. Stanier, R. Y., 1964. Toward a definition of the bacteria, p. 445 464. In K. Gunsalus, and R. Y. Stanier (ed.), The Bacteria: a Treatise on Structure and Function, vol. 3. Heredity. Academic Press, New York, N.Y..
109. Stary, A.,, B. Najim,, and H. H. Lee. 1997. Vulval swabs as alternative specimens for ligase chain reaction detection of genital chlamydial infection in women. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 836 838.
110. Storz, J. 1971. Chlamydia and Chlamydia-Induced Diseases. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill..
111. T'ang, F.-F.,, H.-L. Chang,, Y.-T. Huang,, and K.-C. Wang. 1957. Trachoma virus in chick embryo. Natl. Med. J. China 43: 81.
112. Taylor, H. R.,, S. L. Johnson,, J. Schachter,, H. D. Caldwell,, and R. A. Prendergast. 1987. Pathogenesis of trachoma: the stimulus for inflammation. J. Immunol. 138: 3023 3027.
113. Taylor-Robinson, D.,, C. B. Gilroy,, B. J. Thomas,, and A. C. Keat. 1992. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in joints of reactive arthritis patients by polymerase chain reaction. Lancet 340: 81 82.
114. Thygeson, P. 1934. The etiology of inclusion blennorrhea. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 17: 1019 1035.
115. Thylefors, B.,, A. D. Negrel,, R. Pararajasegaram,, and K. Y. Dadzie. 1995. Global data on blindness. Bull. W. H. O. 73: 115 121.
116. Toye, B.,, C. Laferriere,, P. Claman,, P. Jessamine,, and R. Peeling. 1993. Association between antibody to the chlamydial heat-shock protein and tubal infertility. J. Infect. Dis. 168: 1236 1240.
117. van der Bel-Kahn, J. M., C Watanakunakorn, M. G. Menefee, H. D. Long, and R. Dieter. 1978. Chlamydia trachomatis endocarditis. Am. Heart J. 95: 627 636.
118. Wagar, E. A.,, J. Schachter,, P. Bavoil,, and R. S. Stephens. 1990. Differential human serologic response to two 60,000 molecular weight Chlamydia trachomatis antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 162: 922 927.
119. Wager, G. P.,, D. H. Martin,, L. Koutsky,, D. A. Eschenbach,, J. R. Dating,, W. T. Chiang,, E. R. Alexander,, and K. K. Holmes. 1980. Puerperal infectious morbidity: relationship to route of delivery and to antepartum Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138: 1028 1033.
120. Wang, S. P.,, and J. T. Grayston. 1970. Immunologic relationship between genital TRIC, lymphogranuloma venereum, and related organisms in a new microliter indirect immunofluorescence test. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 70: 367 374.
121. Wang, S. P.,, and J. T. Grayston,. 1982. Microimmunofluorescence antibody responses in C. trachomatis infection, p. 301 316. In P. A. Mardh,, K. K. Holmes,, J. D. Oriel,, P. Piot,, and J. Schachter (ed.), Chlamydial Infections. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
122. Weiss, S. G.,, R. W. Newcomb,, and M. O. Beem. 1986. Pulmonary assessment of children after chlamydial pneumonia of infancy. J. Pediatr. 108: 659 664.
123. West, S. K.,, N. Congdon,, S. Katala,, and L. Mele. 1991. Facial cleanliness and risk of trachoma in families. Arch. Ophthalmol. 109: 855 857.
124. Westrom, L. 1975. Effect of acute pelvic inflammatory disease on fertility. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121: 707 713.
125. Westrom, L.,, R. Joesoef,, G. Reynolds,, A. Hagdu,, and S. E. Thompson. 1992. Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. A cohort study of 1,844 women with laparoscopically verified disease and 657 control women with normal laparoscopic results. Sex. Transm. Dis. 19: 185 192.
126. World Health Organization. 1962. Expert Committee on Trachoma, Third Report. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
127. World Health Organization. 1996. Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Overview and Estimates. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
128. Yoneda, C.,, C. R. Dawson,, T. Daghfous,, I. Hoshiwara,, P. Jones,, M. Messadi,, and J. Schachter. 1975. Cytology as a guide to the presence of chlamydial inclusions in Giemsa-stained conjunctival smears in severe endemic trachoma. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 59: 116 124.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error