1887

Chapter 12 : Trichomoniasis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Trichomoniasis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

Trichomoniasis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. It has been estimated that more than 180 million people are infected with . Infection with can be asymptomatic or can be associated with acute vaginitis. infects the squamous epithelium of the lower genital tract almost exclusively, in both women and men. In women, the vagina, exocervix, urethra, and Skene’s glands are the main sites of infection. In men, the infection is urethral and usually without symptoms. Some investigators have found an association between infection and prematurity. After successful therapy, recurrent vaginal infection may occur. However, almost never spreads outside the human genitourinary system. Infection with may elicit an inflammation characterized by discharge. Symptoms of vaginal trichomoniasis include abnormal frothy discharge and genital irritation. Observation of live protozoa in specimens from the vagina or urethra is definitive evidence of genital trichomoniasis. Trichomonas culture is the most sensitive diagnostic procedure but will miss up to 15% of infected cases. Monoclonal antibodies to have been used to identify vaginal trichomoniasis. Metronidazole can produce chromosomal alterations in bacteria and may increase the incidence of tumors in susceptible animals. In summary, is likely to be an important factor in prematurity. Better diagnostic tests (amenable to screening use), better therapy, and appropriate clinical trials are needed to determine whether screening and treatment should be used to prevent prematurity.

Citation: Wölner-Hanssen P. 1999. Trichomoniasis, p 209-221. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch12
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818210.chap12
1. Alderete, J. F. 1984. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to Trichomonas vaginalis: use of whole cells and aqueous extract as antigen. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 60: 160 170.
2. Alderete, J. F. 1988. Alternating phenotypic expression of two classes of Trichomonas vaginalis surface markers. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 408.
3. Alderete, J. F.,, L. Kasmala,, E. Metcalfe,, and G. E. Garza. 1986. Phenotypic variation and diversity among Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and correlation of phenotype with trichomonal virulence determinants. Infect. Immun. 53: 285 293.
4. Alderete, J. F.,, E. Newton,, C. Dennis,, J. Engbring,, and K. A. Neale. 1991a. Vaginal antibody of patients with trichomoniasis is to a prominent surface immunogen of Trichomonas vaginalis. Genitourin. Med. 67: 220 225.
5. Alderete, J. F.,, E. Newton,, C. Dennis,, and K. A. Neale . 1991b. Antibody in sera of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis to trichomonad proteinases. Genitourin. Med. 67: 331 334.
6. Alderete, J. F.,, E. Newton,, C. Dennis,, and K. A. Neale. 1991c. The vagina of women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis has numerous proteinases and antibody to trichomonad proteinases. Genitourin. Med. 67: 469 474.
7. Alper, M. M.,, B. N. Barwin,, W. M. McLean,, I. J. McGilverary,, and S. Sved. 1985. Systemic absorption of metronidazole by the vaginal route. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 781 784.
8. Amon, K.,, I. Amon,, and H. Müller,. 1972. Maternal-fetal passage of metronidazole, p. 113 115. In M. Hejzlar,, M. Semonsky,, and S. Masak (ed.), Advances in Antimicrobial Antineoplastic Chemotherapy. University Park Press, Baltimore, Md.
9. Arroyo, R.,, J. Engbring,, and J. F. Alderete. 1992. Molecular basis of host cell recognition by Trichomonas vaginalis. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 853 862.
10. Borchardt, K. A.,, and R. F. Smith. 1991. An evaluation of an InPouch TV culture method for diagnosing Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Genitourin. Med. 67: 149 152.
11. Borchardt, K. A.,, V. Hernandez,, S. Miller, et al. 1992. A clinical evaluation of trichomoniasis in San Jose, Costa Rica, using the InPouch TV test. Genitourin. Med. 68: 328 330.
12. Briselden, A. M.,, and S. L. Hillier. 1994. Evaluation of Affirm VP Microbial Identification Test for Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 148 152.
13. Brown, M. T. 1972. Trichomoniasis. Practitioner 209: 639.
14. Buchvald, D.,, P. Demes, , A. Gombos̈ová,, P. Mráz,, M. Valent, , and J. Stefanovic̈. 1992. Vaginal leukocyte characteristics in urogenital trichomoniasis. APMIS 100: 393 400.
15. Cassell, G. Personal communication.
16. Cotch, M. F., , J. G. Pastorek II,, R. P. Nugent,, D. E. Yerg,, D. H. Martin,, and D. A. Eschenbach. 1991. Demographic and behavioral predictors of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women. Obstet. Gynecol. 78: 1087 1092.
17. Cotch, M. F., , J. G. Pastorek II,, R. P. Nugent,, S. L. Hillier,, R. S. Gibbs,, D. H. Martin,, D. A. Eschenbach,, R. Edelman,, J. C. Carey,, J. A. Regan,, M. A. Krohn,, M. A. Klebanoff,, A. V. Rao,, and G. G. Rhoads. 1997. Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. The Vaginal Infection and Prematurity Study Group. Sex. Transm. Dis. 24: 361 362.
18. DeMeo, L. R.,, D. L. Draper,, J. A. McGregor,, D. F. Moore,, C. R. Peter,, P. S. Kapernick,, and W. M. McCormack. 1996. Evaluation of a deoxyribonucleic acid probe for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal secretions. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 1339 1342.
19. Feinberg, J. G.,, and M. J. A. Whittington. 1957. A culture medium for Trichomonas vaginalis Donne and species of Candida. J. Clin. Pathol. 10: 327 329.
20. Fouts, A. C.,, and S. J. Kraus. 1980. Trichomonas vaginalis: reevaluation of its clinical presentation and laboratory diagnosis. J. Infect. Dis. 141: 137 143.
21. Garber, G. E.,, L. T. Lemchuk-Favel,, and W. R. Bowie. 1989. Isolation of a cell-detaching factor of Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1548 1553.
22. Hardy, P. H.,, J. B. Hardy,, E. E. Nell,, D. A. Graham,, M. R. Spence,, and R. C. Rosenbaum. 1984. Prevalence of six sexually transmitted agents among pregnant inner-city adolescents and pregnancy outcome. Lancet ii: 333 337.
23. Hillier, S. L.,, J. Martius,, M. Krohn,, N. Kiviat,, K. K. Holmes,, and D. A. Eschenbach. 1988. A case-control study of chorioaminiotic infection and histologic chorioamnionitis in prematurity. N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 972 978.
24. Honigberg, B. M.,, and G. Brugerolle,. 1989. Structure, p. 5 35. In B. M. Honigberg (ed.), Trichomonads Parasitic in Humans. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
25. Kent, H. L. 1991. Epidemiology of vaginitis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 165: 1168 1176.
26. Krieger, J. N.,, M. R. Tam,, C. E. Stevens,, I. O. Nielsen,, J. Hale,, N. B. Kiviat, and . K. Holmes. 1988. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis: comparison of conventional wet-mount examination with cytologic studies, cultures, and monoclonal antibody staining of direct specimen. JAMA 259: 1223 1227.
27. Krieger, J. N.,, P. Wölner-Hanssen,, C. Stevens,, and K. K. Holmes . 1990a. Characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from women with and without colpitis macularis. J. Infect. Dis. 161: 307 311.
28. Krieger, J. N.,, B. E. Torian,, J. Hom,, and M. R. Tam . 1990b. Inhibition of Trichomonas aginalis motility by monoclonal antibodies is associated with reduced adherence to HeLa cell monolayers. Infect. Immun. 58: 1634 1639.
29. Lee, N. C.,, G. L. Rubin,, and D. A. Grimes. 1991. Measures of sexual behavior and the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet. Gynecol. 77: 425 430.
30. Legator, M. S.,, T. H. Connor,, and M. Stoekel. 1975. Detection of mutagenic activity of metronidazole and niridazole in body fluid of humans and mice. Science 188: 118 1119.
31. Lehker, M. W.,, and J. F. Alderete. 1990. Properties of Trichomonas vaginalis grown under chemostat controlled growth conditions. Genitourin Med. 66: 193 199.
32. Linstead, D., 1989. Cultivation, p. 91 111. In B. M. Honigberg (ed.), Trichomonads Parasitic in Humans. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
33. Lossick, J. G. 1988. The diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis. JAMA 259: 1230.
34. Lossick, J. G., 1989. Therapy of urogenital trichomoniasis, p. 324 341. In B. M. Honigberg ed.), Trichomonads Parasitic in Humans. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
35. Mantovani, A.,, N. Polentarutti,, G. Peri,, G. Martinotti,, and F. Landolfo. 1981. Cytotoxicity f human peripheral blood monocytes against Trichomonas vaginalis. lin. Exp. Immunol. 46: 391 396.
36. Mason, P. R.,, and M. T. Brown. 1980. Trichomonas in pregnancy. Lancet ii: 1025.
37. Mason, P. R.,, and L. Forman. 1982. Polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis to secretions f pathogenic and nonpathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Parasitol. 68: 457 462.
38. McGregor, J. A.,, J. I. French,, W. Jones,, R. Parker,, E. Patterson,, and D. Draper. 1992. Association of cervicovaginal infections with increased vaginal fluid phospholipase A 2 activity. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167: 1588 1594.
39. McGregor, J. A.,, J. I. French,, R. Parker,, D. Draper,, E. Patterson,, W. Jones,, K. Thorsgard,, and J. McFee. 1995. Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: results of a prospective controlled valuation. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 157 167.
40. McLellan, R.,, M. R. Spence,, M. Brockman,, L. Raffel,, and J. L. Smith. 1982. The clinical diagnosis of trichomoniasis. Obstet. Gynecol. 60: 30 34.
41. Meis, P. J.,, R. L. Goldenberg,, B. Mercer,, A. Moawad,, A. Das,, D. McNellis,, F. Johnson,, J. D. Iams,, E. Thom,, and W. W. Andrews. 1995. The preterm prediction study: significance of vaginal infections. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Units Network. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 173: 1231 1235.
42. Minkoff, H.,, A. N. Grunebaum,, R. H. Schwarz,, J. Feldman,, M. Cummings,, W. Crombleholme,, L. Clark,, G. Pringle,, and W. M. McCormack. 1984. Risk factors for prematurity and premature rupture of membranes: a prospective study of the vaginal flora in pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 965 972.
43. Mirhaghani, A.,, and A. Warton. 1996. An electron microscope study of the interaction between Trichomonas vaginalis and epithelial cells of the human amnion membrane. Parasitol. Res. 82: 43 47.
44. Müller, M.,, J. G. Lossick,, and T. E. Gorrell. 1988. In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole and treatment outcome in vaginal trichomoniasis. Sex. Transm. Dis. 15: 17 24.
45. Nadisauskiene, R.,, S. Bergström,, I. Stankeviciene,, and T. Spukaite. 1995. Endocervical pathogens in women with preterm and term labour. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 40: 179 182.
46. Narcisi, E. M.,, and W. E. Secor. 1996. In vitro effect of tinidazole and furazolidone on metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 1121 1125.
47. Pastorek, J. G. II,, M. F. Cotch,, D. H. Martin, and D. A. Eschenbach for the Vaginal Infection and Prematurity Study Group. 1996. Clinical and microbiological correlates of vaginal trichomoniasis during pregnancy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 1075 1080.
48. Pindak, F. F.,, N. Mora de Pindak,, and W. A. Gardner. 1993. Contact-independent cytotoxocity of Trichomonas vaginalis. Genitourin. Med. 69: 35 40.
49. Piper, J. M.,, E. F. Mitchel,, and W. A. Ray. 1993. Prenatal use of metronidazole and birth defects: no association. Obstet. Gynecol. 82: 348 352.
50. Poch, F.,, D. Levin,, S. Levin,, and M. Dan. 1996. Modified thioglycolate medium: a simple and reliable means for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2630 2631.
51. Read, J. S., and M. A. Klebanoff for the Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. 1993. Sexual intercourse during pregnancy and preterm delivery: effects of vaginal microorganisms. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 168: 514 519.
52. Rein, M. F.,, J. A. Sullivan,, and G. L. Mandell. 1980. Trichomonacidal activity of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils: killing by disruption. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 575 585.
53. Ross, S. M.,, and A. V. Middelkoop. 1983. Trichomonas infection in pregnancy—does it affect perinatal outcome? S. Afr. Med. J. 63: 566.
54. Rust, J. H., 1976. An assessment of metronidazole tumorigenicity: studies in mouse and rat, p. 138 144. In S. Finegold (ed.), Metronidazole. Proceedings of the International Metronidazole Conference. Excerpta Medica, Princeton, N.J.
55. Shaio, M. F.,, P. R. Lin,, J. Y. Liu,, and K. D. Yang. 1995. Generation of interleukin-8 from human monocytes in response to Trichomonas vaginalis stimulation. Infect. Immun. 63: 3864 3870.
56. Street, D. A.,, D. Taylor-Robinson,, J. P. Ackers,, N. F. Hanna,, and A. McMillan. 1982. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to Trichomonas vaginalis in sera and vaginal secretions. Br. J. Vener. Dis. 58: 330 333.
57. Witkin, S. S.,, S. R. Inglis,, and M. Polaneczky. 1996. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction in introital specimens from pregnant women. Am J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175: 165 167.
58. Wölner-Hanssen, P.,, J. N. Krieger,, C. E. Stevens,, N. B. Kiviat,, L. Koutsky,, C. Critchlow,, T. De Rouen,, S. Hillier,, and K. K. Holmes. 1989. Clinical manifestations of vaginal trichomoniasis. JAMA 261: 571 576.
59. Wölner-Hanssen, P. Unpublished data.
60. Yule, A.,, M. C. A. Gelan,, J. D. Oriel,, and J. P. Ackers. 1987. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis antigen in women by enzyme immunoassay. J. Clin. Pathol. 40: 566 568.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error