Chapter 18 : Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap18-2.gif


This chapter reviews two diseases such as chlamydial abortion and chlamydial endometritis, which are likely to be of interest to workers in the field of human chlamydiosis. The causal agent of enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is the ovine abortifacient form of , previously designated biotype 1 and immunotype 1. Most studies have reported a remarkable degree of homogeneity of strains of in molecular terms. When EAE is experimentally reproduced in naive ewes by subcutaneous injection or by dosing via the oropharyngeal route, abortions usually occur in 40 to 50% of animals, with 75 to 90% excreting chlamydiae at lambing or at abortion. A monoclonal antibody against another surface-expressed antigen of , an 89-kDa protein, reduced infection by 60% in a tissue culture model, suggesting that antibodies against this protein may also be involved in acquired immunity. Three principal antigenic preparations have been used in vaccines: (i) inactivated forms of the cultured organism; (ii) a temperature-sensitive, attenuated mutant; and (iii) protein extracted from genetically engineered bacteria expressing the major outer membrane protein. Due to the relatively recent recognition of bovine chlamydial infertility, metritis, and salpingitis, the most reliable descriptions of its clinical expression are provided by experimental infection studies. Both forms of chlamydial infection of ruminants offer useful comparative features for human reproductive tract disease. The bovine disease is still in the very early stages of characterization, and so the full extent of its usefulness as a model for human disease remains to be determined.

Citation: Jones G. 1999. Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants, p 293-310. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch18
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aitken, I. D., 1991. Enzootic (chlamydial) abortion, p. 4349. In W. B. Martin, and I. D. Aitken (ed.), Disease of Sheep. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
2. Aitken, I. D.,, G. W. Robinson,, and I. E. Anderson. 1981. Recent experimental studies on chlamydial abortion in ewes. Sheep Vet. Soc. Proc. 5:553560.
3. Aitken, I. D.,, I. E. Anderson,, and G.W. Robinson,. 1986. Ovine chlamydial abortion: limitations of inactivated vaccine, p. 5565. In I. D. Aitken (ed.), Chlamydial Disease of Ruminants. CEC publication EUR 10056 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
4. Amin, J. D.,, and A. J. Wilsmore. 1995. Studies on the early phase of the pathogenesis of ovine enzootic abortion in the non-pregnant ewe. Br. Vet. J. 151:141155.
5. Anderson, I. E. Personal communication.
6. Anderson, I. E.,, S. I. F. Baxter,, S. Dunbar,, A. G. Rae,, H. L. Philips,, M. J. Clarkson,, and A. J. Herring. 1996. Analyses of the genomes of chlamydial isolates from ruminants and pigs support the adoption of the new species Chlamydia pecorum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:245251.
7. Appino, S.,, and I. E. Anderson. Unpublished data.
8. Appleyard, W. T.,, I. D. Aitken,, and I. E. Anderson. 1985. Attempted venereal transmission of Chlamydia psittaci in sheep. Vet. Rec. 116:535538.
9. Baghian, A.,, K. Kousoulas,, R. Truax,, and J. Storz. 1996. Specific antigens of Chlamydia pecorum and their homologues in C. psittaci and C. trachomatis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57:17201725.
10. Beatty, W. L.,, G. L. Byrne,, and R. P. Morrison. 1993. Morphologic and antigenic characterization of interferon γ-mediated persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:39984002.
11. Bernstein, M.,, and J. Yaakobowitz. 1990. The identification and prevention of venereal transmission of C. psittaci in sheep. Isr. J. Vet. Med. 45:192.
12. Blewett, D. A.,, F. Gisemba,, J. K. Miller,, F. W. A. Johnson,, and M. J. Clarkson. 1982. Ovine enzootic abortion: the acquisition of infection and consequent abortion within a single lambing season. Vet. Rec. 111:499501.
13. Bowen, R. A.,, P. Spears,, J. Storz,, and G. E. Seidel. 1978. Mechanisms of infertility in genital tract infections due to C. psittaci transmitted through contaminated semen. J. Infect. Dis. 138:9598.
14. Brade, L.,, S. Schramek,, U. Schade,, and H. Brade. 1986. Chemical, biological and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 54:568574.
15. Buxton, D. 1986. Potential danger to pregnant women of Chlamydia psittaci from sheep. Vet. Rec. 118:510511.
16. Buxton, D.,, R. M. Barlow,, J. Finlayson,, I. E. Anderson,, and A. Mackellar. 1990. Observations on the pathogenesis of Chlamydia psittaci infection of pregnant sheep. J. Comp. Pathol. 102:221237.
17. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, and A. Rodolakis. 1983. A mouse model to compare virulence of abortive and intestinal ovine strains of Chlamydia psittaci: influence of the route of inoculation. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 134A:9199.
18. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, A. Rodolakis,, and M. Plommet. 1987. T cell mediated and humoral immunity in a mouse Chlamydia psittaci systemic infection. Res. Vet. Sci. 43:5963.
19. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, F. Bernard,, A. Andersen,, and A. Rodolakis. 1990. Protective effect of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against abortion in mice infected by Chlamydia psittaci. Vaccine 8:342346.
20. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, L. Guilloteau,, F. Bernard,, S. Bernard,, T. Chardes,, and A. Rocca. 1992. Protection against Chlamydia psittaci in mice conferred by Lyt-2+ T cells. Immunology 77:284288.
21. Carlin, J. M.,, E. C. Borden,, and G. I. Byrne. 1989. Interferon-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity inhibits Chlamydia psittaci replication in human macrophages. J. Interferon Res. 9:329337.
22. Cevenini, R.,, M. Donati,, E. Brocchi,, F. de Simone,, and M. la Placa. 1991. Partial characterization of an 89-kDa highly immunoreactive protein from Chlamydia psittaci A/22 causing abortion. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 81:111116.
23. Chalmers, W. S. K.,, J. Simpson,, S. J. Lee,, and W. Baxendale. 1997. Use of a live chlamydial vaccine to prevent ovine enzootic abortion. Vet. Rec. 141:6367.
24. Clarkson, M. J.,, and H. L. Philips. 1997. Isolation of faecal chlamydia from sheep in Britain and their characterization by cultural properties. Vet. J. 153:307311.
25. Dawson, M.,, A. Zaghloul,, and A. J. Wilsmore. 1986. Ovine enzootic abortion: experimental studies of immune responses. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:5964.
26. Dayer, J. M.,, B. Beutler,, and A. Cerami. 1985. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor stimulates collagenase and prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial cells and dermal fibroblasts. J. Exp. Med. 162:21632168.
27. Denamur, E.,, C. Sayada,, A. Souriau,, J. Orfila,, A. Rodolakis,, and J. Elion. 1991. Restriction pattern of the major outer-membrane protein gene provides evidence for a homogeneous invasive group among ruminant isolates of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:25252530.
28. Dohoo, I. R.,, R. A. Curtis,, and G. G. Finlay. 1985. A survey of sheep disease in Canada. Can. J. Comp. Med. 49:239247.
29. Foggie, A. 1959. The duration of immunity in ewes following vaccination against ovine enzootic abortion virus. Vet. Rec. 71:741742.
30. Fukushi, H.,, and K. Hirai. 1992. Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia strains derived from ruminants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42:306308.
31. Fukushi, H.,, and K. Hirai. 1993. Chlamydia pecorum—the fourth species of genus Chlamydia. Microbiol. Immunol. 37:515522.
32. Graham, S. P.,, G. E. Jones,, M. Livingstone,, and G. Entrican. 1995. Recombinant ovine interferon gamma inhibits the multiplication of Chlamydia psittaci in ovine cells. J. Comp. Pathol. 112:185195.
33. Greig, J. R. 1936. Enzootic abortion in ewes. Vet. Rec. 48:12251227.
34. Greig, A.,, and K. A. Linklater. 1985. Field studies on the efficacy of a long acting preparation of oxytetracycline in controlling outbreaks of enzootic abortion of sheep. Vet. Rec. 117:627628.
35. Griffiths, P. C.,, H. L. Philips,, M. Dawson,, and M. J. Clarkson. 1992. Antigenic and morphological differentiation of placental and intestinal isolates of Chlamydia psittaci of ovine origin. Vet. Microbiol. 30:165177.
36. Hansen, D. E.,, O. R. Hedstrom,, R. J. Sonn,, and S. P. Snyder. 1990. Efficacy of a vaccine to prevent Chlamydia- or Campylobacter-induced abortions in ewes. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196:731734.
37. Herring, A. J. 1993. Typing Chlamydia psittaci—a review of methods and recent findings. Br. Vet. J. 149:455475.
38. Holliman, A.,, R. G. Daniel,, J. G. Parr,, P. C. Griffiths,, B. J. Bevan,, T. C. Martin,, R. G. Hewinson,, M. Dawson,, and R. Munro. 1994. Chlamydiosis and abortion in a dairy herd. Vet. Rec. 134:500502.
39. Holtmann, H.,, Y. Shemer-Avni,, K. Wessel,, I. Sarov,, and D. Wallach. 1990. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by tumor necrosis factor is accompanied by increased prostaglandin synthesis. Infect. Immun. 58:31683172.
40. Huang, H.-S.,, D. Buxton,, and I. E. Anderson. 1990. The ovine immune response to Chlamydia psittaci: histopathology of the lymph node. J. Comp. Pathol. 102:8997.
41. Hughes, S. 1997. Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
42. Johnson, F. W. A.,, and M. J. Clarkson,. 1986. Ovine abortion isolates: antigenic variations detected by mouse infection, p. 129132. In I. D. Aitken (ed.), Chlamydial Diseases of Ruminants. CEC publication EUR 10056 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
43. Johnson, F. W. A.,, and D. Hobson. 1986. Intracerebral infection of mice with ovine strains of Chlamydia psittaci: an animal screening test for the assay of vaccines. J. Comp. Pathol. 96:497505.
44. Jones, G. E. Manuscript in preparation.
45. Jones, G. E. Unpublished data.
46. Jones, G. E.,, and I. E. Anderson. 1988. Chlamydia psittaci: is tonsillar tissue the portal of entry in ovine enzootic abortion? Res. Vet. Sci. 44:260261.
47. Jones, G. E.,, and I. E. Anderson. Unpublished data.
48. Jones, G. E.,, and M. Livingstone. Unpublished data.
49. Jones, G. E.,, A. J. Herring,, J. Machell,, T. W. Tan,, I. E. Anderson,, and S. Dunbar,. 1992. Preliminary studies with a recombinant major outer membrane protein vaccine: clinical efficacy of several vaccine formulations against experimental enzootic abortion of ewes, p. 63. In P.-A. Mardh,, M. la Placa,, and M. Ward (ed.), Proceedings of the European Society of Chlamydial Research, vol. 2. Uppsala University Centre for STD Research, Uppsala, Sweden.
50. Jones, G. E.,, K. A. Jones,, J. Machell,, J. Brebner,, I. E. Anderson,, and S. How. 1995. Efficacy trials with tissue-culture grown, inactivated vaccines against chlamydial abortion in sheep. Vaccine 13:715723.
51. Jones, G. E.,, A. Donn,, J. Machell,, and B. Biolatti. Manuscript in preparation.>
52. Jones, G. E.,, J. Machell,, S. Hughes,, and M. Livingstone. Unpublished data.
53. Keppie, J.,, A. E. Williams,, K. Witt,, and H. Smith. 1965. The role of erythritol in the tissue localization of the Brucellae. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 46:104108.
54. Kwapien, R. P.,, S. D. Lincoln,, D. E. Reed,, C. E. Whiteman,, and T. L. Chow. 1970. Pathologic changes of placentas from heifers with experimentally induced epizootic bovine abortion. Am. J. Vet. Res. 31:9991015.
55. Lacy, D.,, G. I. Byrne,, and D. Paulnock,. 1992. Chlamydia-induced immunosuppression in mice is the result of multiple mechanisms, p. 86. In P.-A. ,, M. la Placa,, and egive Ward (ed.), Proceedings of the European Society of Chlamydial Research, vol. 2. Uppsala University Centre for STD Research, Uppsala, Sweden.
56. Leaver, H. A.,, A. Howie,, I. D. Aitken,, B. W. Appleyard,, I. E. Anderson,, G. Jones,, L. A. Hay,, G. E. Williams,, and D. Buxton. 1989. Changes in progesterone, oestradiol 17?, and intrauterine prostaglandin E2 during late gestation in sheep experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:565573.
57. Leonard, C.,, G. L. Caldow,, and G. J. Gunn. 1993. An estimate of the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in Scotland. Vet. Rec. 133:180183.
58. Livingstone, M.,, G. Jones,, and N. Poyser. Unpublished data.
59. Lozano, E. A. 1986. Etiologic significance of bacterial isolates from rams with palpable epidydimitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:11531156.
60. Mayer, J.,, M. L. Woods,, Z. Vavrin,, and J. B. Hibbs, Jr. 1993. Gamma interferon-induced nitric oxide production reduces Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity in Mc-Coy cells. Infect. Immun. 61:491497.
61. McCafferty, M. C. 1990. Immunity to Chlamydia psittaci with particular reference to sheep. Vet. Microbiol. 25:8799.
62. McCafferty, M. C.,, and I. E. Anderson. Personal communication.
63. McClenaghan, M.,, A. J. Herring,, and I. D. Aitken. 1984. Comparison of Chlamydia psittaci isolates by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis. Infect. Immun. 45:384389.
64. McClenaghan, M.,, N. F. Inglis,, and A. J. Herring. 1991. Comparison of isolates of Chlamydia psittaci of ovine, avian and feline origin by analysis of polypeptide profiles from purified elementary bodies. Vet. Microbiol. 26:269278.
65. McEwen, A. D.,, A. I. Littlejohn,, and A. Foggie. 1951. Enzootic abortion in ewes. Some aspects of infection and resistance. Vet. Rec. 63:489492.
66. McEwen, A. D.,, J. B Dow,, and R. D. Anderson. 1955. Enzootic abortion in ewes. An adjuvant vaccine prepared from eggs. Vet. Rec. 67:393394.
67. Nabeya, M.,, K. Kaneko,, H. Ogino., D. Nakabayashi, T. Watanabe, J. Murayama, K. Hayashi, H. Fukushi, T. Yamagushi, K. Hirai, Y. Inaba, and M. Matumoto. 1991. Abortion in Japanese cows caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Vet. Microbiol. 29: 261265.
68. Papadopoulos, O.> Personal communication.
69. Papp, J. R.,, and P. E. Shewen. 1996a. Pregnancy failure following vaginal infection of sheep with Chlamydia psittaci prior to breeding. Infect. Immun. 64:11161125.
70. Papp, J. R.,, and P. E. Shewen. 1996b. Localization of chronic C. psittaci infection in the reproductive tract of sheep. J. Infect. Dis. 174:12961302.
71. Papp, J. R.,, P. E. Shewen,, and C. J. Gartley. 1993. Chlamydia psittaci infection and associated infertility in sheep. Can. J. Vet. Res. 57:185189.
72. Papp, J. R.,, P. E. Shewen,, and C. J. Gartley. 1994. Abortion and subsequent excretion of chlamydiae from the reproductive tract of sheep during estrus. Infect. Immun. 62:37863792.
73. Perez-Martinez, J. A.,, and J. Storz. 1985. Antigenic diversity of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin determined by microimmunofluorescence. Infect. Immun. 50:905910.
74. Rank, R. G.,, K. H. Ramsey,, E. A. Pack,, and D. M. Williams. 1992. Effect of gamma interferon on resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection. Infect. Immun. 60:44274429.
75. Rodolakis. A. 1983. In vitro and in vivo properties of chemically induced temperature-sensitive mutants of Chlamydia psittaci var. ovis: screening in a murine model. Infect. Immun. 42:525530.
76. Rodolakis, A.,, and K. Bernard. 1977. Isolation of Chlamydia ovis from genital organs of rams with epidydimitis. Bull. Acad. Vet. France 50:6569.
77. Rodolakis, A.,, and F. Bernard. 1984. Vaccination with temperature-sensitive mutant of Chlamydia psittaci against enzootic abortion of ewes. Vet. Rec. 114:193194.
78. Rodolakis, A.,, and A. Souriau. 1983. Response of ewes to temperature-sensitive mutants of Chlamydia psittaci (var ovis) obtained by NTG mutagenesis. Ann. Rech. Vet. 14:155161.
79. Rodolakis, A.,, and A. Souriau. 1989. Variations in the virulence of strains of Chlamydia psittaci for pregnant ewes. Vet. Rec. 125:87190.
80. Rodolakis, A.,, F. Bernard,, and F. Lantier. 1989a. Mouse models for evaluation of virulence of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from ruminants. Res. Vet. Sci. 46:3439.
81. Schutte, A. P.,, and J. G. Pienaar. 1977. Chlamydiosis in sheep and cattle in South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 48:261265.
82. Shemer-Avni, Y.,, D. Wallach,, and I. Sarov. 1989. Reversion of the antichlamydial effect of tumor necrosis factor by tryptophan and antibodies to beta interferon. Infect. Immun. 57:34843490.
83. Siarkou, V. 1992. Ph.D. thesis. Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
84. Smith, H.,, A. E. Williams,, J. H. Pearce,, J. Keppie,, P. W. Harris-Smith,, R. B. Fitzgeorge,, and K. Witt. 1962. Fetal erythritol: a cause of the localization of Brucella abortus in bovine contagious abortion. Nature 193:4749.
85. Spears, P.,, and J. Storz. 1979. Biotyping of Chlamydia psittaci based on inclusion morphology and response to diethylaminoethyl-dextran and cycloheximide. Infect. Immun. 24:224232.
86. Stamp, J. T.,, A. D. McEwen,, J. A. A. Watt,, and D. I. Nisbet. 1950. Enzootic abortion in ewes. 1. Transmission of the disease. Vet. Rec. 62:251254.
87. Steven, D. H.,, K. A. Mallon,, and P. W. Nathanielsz. 1980. Sheep trophoblast in monolayer cell culture. Placenta 1:209221.
88. Storz, J.,, and D. G. McKercher. 1962. Etiological studies on epizootic bovine abortion. Zen. Veterinaer-med. 9:411427.
89. Storz, J.,, E. J. Carroll,, E. H. Stephenson,, L. Bull,, and A. K. Eugster. 1976. Urogenital infection and seminal excretion after inoculation of bulls and rams with chlamydiae. Am. J. Vet. Res. 37:5175200.
90. Tan, T. W.,, A. J. Herring,, I. E. Anderson,, and G. E. Jones. 1990. Protection of sheep against Chlamydia psittaci infection with a subcellular vaccine containing the major outer membrane protein. Infect. Immun. 58:31013108.
91. Thomas, S. M.,, L. F. Garrity,, C. R. Brandt,, C. S. Schobert,, G.-S. Feng,, M. W. Taylor,, J. M. Carlin,, and G. I. Byrne. 1993. IFN-γ-mediated antimicrobial response. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-deficient mutant host cells no longer inhibit intracellular Chlamydia spp. or Toxoplasma growth. J. Immunol. 150:55295534.
92. Thorburn, G. D. 1991. The placenta, prostaglandins and parturition: a review. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 3:277294.
93. VIDA. 1992. Veterinary Investigation Diagnosis Analysis II(VIDA),1992 and 1985-92. MAFF, CVL, Weybridge, England.
94. Vretou, E.,, H. Loutrari,, L. Mariani,, K. Costelidou,, P. Eliades,, G. Conidou,, S. Karamanou,, O. Mangana,, V. Siarkou,, and O. Papadopoulos. 1996. Diversity among abortion strains of C. psittaci demonstrated by inclusion morphology, polypeptide profiles and monoclonal antibodies. Vet. Microbiol. 51:275289.
95. Waldhalm, D. G.,, W. J. DeLong,, and R. F. Hall. 1982. Efficacy of a bacterin prepared from Chlamydia psittaci grown in cell culture for experimental immunization of ewes. Vet. Microbiol. 7:493498.
96. Williams, D. M.,, D. M. Magee,, L. F. Bonewald,, J. G. Smith,, C. A. Bleicker,, G. I. Byrne,, and J. Schachter. 1990. A role in vivo for tumor necrosis factor alpha in host defense against Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 58:15721576.
97. Wilsmore, A. J.,, V. Parsons,, and M. Dawson. 1984. Experiments to demonstrate routes of transmission of ovine enzootic abortion. Br. Vet. J. 140:380391.
98. Wilsmore, A. J.,, B. C. Wilsmore,, G. J. R. Dagnall,, K. A. Izzard,, R. M. Woodland,, M. Dawson,, and C. Venables. 1990. Clinical and immunological responses of ewes following vaccination with an experimental formalin-inactivated Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) vaccine and subsequent challenge with the live organism during pregnancy. Br. Vet. J. 146:341348.
99. Wittenbrink, M. M.,, H. A. Schoon,, D. Schoon,, R. Mansfeld,, and W. Bisping. 1993. Endometritis in cattle experimentally induced by Chlamydia psittaci. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B. 40:437450.
100. Wong, S. Y.,, E. S. Gray,, D. Buxton,, J. Finlayson,, and F. W. A. Johnson. 1985. Acute placentitis and spontaneous abortion caused by Chlamydia psittaci of sheep origin: a histological and ultrastructural study. J. Clin. Pathol. 38:707711.
101. Woollen, N.,, E. K. Daniels,, T. Yeary,, H. W. Leipold,, and R. M. Phillips. 1990. Chlamydial infection and perinatal mortality in a swine herd. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 197:600601.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error