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Chapter 19 : Bovine Trichomoniasis

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Abstract:

Bovine trichomoniasis has many similarities to human trichomoniasis. Both protozoan infections are sexually transmitted and are characterized by clinical signs that vary from asymptomatic to purulent discharge after weeks to months of infection. Since bovine trichomoniasis is a naturally occurring sexually transmitted infection, it can better serve as a model for human trichomoniasis. The bovine infection causes significant economic loss due to reproductive failure and consequently has been well studied. The use of this model to help understand human infection may be quite productive for two reasons: (i) the similarities in host-pathogen relationships may imply similarities in immune mechanisms of protection; and (ii) the early loss of pregnancy in bovine trichomoniasis should stimulate research on adverse outcomes in the first and second trimester of pregnancy in women with trichomoniasis. The clinical picture and the pathogenesis of bovine trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are very similar in that these two extracellular pathogens are transmitted exclusively by sexual contact. Evidence suggests that vaccination with the purified adherence antigen may prevent pregnancy failure. In the future, control of bovine trichomoniasis may rely on immunoprophylaxis, but currently, accurate diagnosis and management are the basis of prevention and control efforts. Several observations on bovine trichomoniasis are of interest to researchers investigating the control of human trichomoniasis. The commercially available vaccine for bovine trichomoniasis consists of whole cells.

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19
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Figures

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Figure 1

Giemsa stain of The tear-shaped motile protozoa have a single nucleus, three anterior flagella, and an undulating membrane with a protruding single posterior flagellum. Courtesy of John Thomford, University of California, San Diego.

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Clearance of after vaginal inoculation of 106 organisms in heifers vaccinated with adherence antigen in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant alone (A) or with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant and dextran sulfate (B). Controls were vaccinated with adjuvant but no antigen. Positive animals were determined by weekly cultures of vaginal mucus. There were eight animals per group. Modified from ).

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19
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Figure 3

Uterine mucosa of a heifer systemically primed and vaginally boosted with antigen. Intravaginal challenge with 10 organisms was performed 10 weeks prior to euthanasia. The arrow indicates a lymphoid follicle adjacent to an endometrial gland. , an anaerobe, is often found in the lumen of such glands, perhaps owing to decreased oxygen tension in this locale. Modified from ) with the permission of the publisher. Courtesy of M. L. Anderson, University of California, Davis.

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19
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Figure 4

Vaginal mucosa of an animal systemically primed and vaginally boosted with antigen. Intravaginal challenge with 10 organisms was performed 10 weeks prior to euthanasia and tissue collection. Arrows indicate modified epithelium overlying diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes, as well as plasma cells with fewer neutrophils and eosinophils. Arrowheads show lymphoid follicular nodules in the submucosa. Modified from ) with permission of the publisher. Courtesy of M. L. Anderson, University of California, Davis.

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Prevalence of bovine trichomoniasis

Citation: Corbeil L, BonDurant R. 1999. Bovine Trichomoniasis, p 311-328. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch19

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