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Chapter 13 : Fish Microsporidia

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Abstract:

Microsporidia of fishes are widely distributed by both host species and geographic location. Whereas most fish microsporidia are host specific, at least at the genus level, a few show broad host specificity. This chapter provides a general overview of economic importance, immunology, and treatment, and reviews the most important genera. Shaperclaus, 1941, well known to fish hobbyists as the source of neon tetra disease, is one of the most common parasites of aquarium fishes. Presently, hostparasite relationships of fish microsporidia can be broadly classified into two groups: those associated with xenoma formation (e.g., Glugea) and those associated with non-xenoma forming microsporidia (e.g., ). Species of are among the most intensively studied fish microsporidia. They infect the submucosal intestinal cells of a variety of wild and cultured fish. spp., like most fish microsporidia, are transmitted directly via ingestion. In recent years there has been increased research interest in fish microsporidia along with an increase in the economic importance of microsporidia in fish culture.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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Humoral Immune Response
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

infection in skeletal muscle of a neon tetra (). Scale bar, 14 μm.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

A sp. infecting the central nervous system of a zebra fish (). Arrows denote xenomas. Scale bar, 35 μm.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Wet mount of a ruptured xenoma filled with spores of an undescribed sp. from the gill of a ling cod (). Scale bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

in the musculature of a plaice (). (Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher from .)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Heavy infection of (white xenomas) in fresh gill of a wild spawning sockeye salmon () from Babine Lake, British Columbia, Canada. (Reprinted with permission from Mark Higgins.)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Wet mount of spores from an undescribed microsporidian from mountain whitefish (). Arrow indicates large posterior vacuole. Scale bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Electron micrograph of phagocytic cell with prominent nucleus (N) and remnants of spore walls within a food vacuole (FV). Scale bar, 2 μm. (Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher from .)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Large cysts of in a stickleback (). (Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher from .)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Abdominal cysts of (arrows) in rainbow smelts (). (Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher from Noga, 1992.)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

in a winter flounder (). (a) Heavy infection of cysts in the intestine; (b) close-up showing pebbled, chalky white appearance of intestine in the same individual. (Reprinted with the permission of the author and publisher from .)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Various stages of microsporidian development represented by in coho salmon gills, (a) Young xenoma in secondary lamellae (arrow), (b) Mature xenoma with few remnants of host cell nuclei (arrow). Scale bar, 4 5 μm. (c) Proliferative inflammatory response (arrows) associated with infection in the primary lamellae, (d) Granuloma resulting from a ruptured xenoma with a few remaining spores (arrow) in macrophages. Scale bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

(arrows) in skeletal musculature of a turbot (). (Reprinted with permission of the publisher from Matthews and Matthews, 1980.)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

in a golden shiner (). (Reprinted with permission from G. Hoffman.)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Sporophorocysts of in the musculature of an angelfish (). Scale bar, 20 μm. (Reprinted with permission of the publisher from Michel et al., 1989.)

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

(a) in the heart of a sockeye salmon Scale bar, 4 mm. (Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher from Canning and Lom, 1986.) (b) in musculature of a rainbow trout (Reproduced with permission of the authors and publisher from )

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

Renosplenomegaly in a chinook salmon infected with K, kidney; S, spleen.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE17
FIGURE17

(a) (arrows) in the nuclei of hemoblasts from the retrobulbar tissue of the eye of a chinook salmon () in histological section. Scale bar, 5 μm. (b) Gram stain of the same tissue, showing four spores in nucleus remnant (arrows) and free spores (arrowheads). Scale bar, 5 um.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 18
FIGURE 18

Electron micrograph of in the nucleus of a hemoblast.

Citation: Shaw R, Kent M. 1999. Fish Microsporidia, p 418-446. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch13
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