Chapter 15 : Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818227/9781555811471_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818227/9781555811471_Chap15-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. The coverage of the chapter includes prevalence and geographic distribution, case demographics and populations at risk, and five potential modes of transmission: zoonotic infections, waterborne transmission, airborne transmission, respiratory tract acquisition and direct person-to-person transmission. Surveys for antibodies to microsporidia in human sera have focused exclusively on human exposure to species. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy is a promising treatment regimen for prevention of microsporidiosis in patients with AIDS, long-term follow-up is clearly needed to assess whether these patients are actually free of the intracellular stages of microsporidia or are temporarily in remission with an inactive infection.

Citation: Bryan R, Schwartz D. 1999. Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis, p 502-516. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Geographic distribution of human microsporidiosis. Shaded regions indicate countries with confirmed human cases. The figure is based on a literature review as of May 1998.

Citation: Bryan R, Schwartz D. 1999. Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis, p 502-516. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Albrecht, H.,, and D. A. Schwartz. 1998. Unpublished data.
2. Albrecht, H.,, and I. Sobottka. 1997. Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in patients who are not infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:344.
3. Albrecht, H.,, I. Sobottka,, H. J. Stellbrink,, and H. Greten. 1995. Does the choice of Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis influence the prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis in AIDS-patients? AIDS 9:302303.
4. Anderson, D. C.,, S. A. Klumpp,, A. J. Da Silva,, N. J. Pieniazek,, H. M. McClure,, and D. A. Schwartz. 1997. Naturally-acquired Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporida) hepatobiliary infection in rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV): a possible animal model of disease, abstr. K-120b, p. 349. In Abstracts of the 37th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
5. Aoun, K.,, A. Bouratbine,, A. Datry,, S. Biligui,, and R. Ben Ismail. 1997. Presence of intestinal microsporidia in Tunisia: apropos of 1 case. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 90:176.
6. Avery, S. W.,, and A. H. Undeen. 1987.The isolation of microsporidia and other pathogens from concentrated ditch water. J. Am. Mosquito Control Assoc. 3:5458.
7. Bergquist, R.,, L. Morfeldt-Mansson,, P. O. Pherson,, B. Petrini,, and J. Wasserman. 1984. Anti-body against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Swedish homosexual men. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 16:389391.
8. Birthistle, K.,, P. Moore,, and P. Hay. 1996. Microsporidia: a new sexually transmissible cause of urethritis. Genitourin. Med. 72:445.
9. Black, S. S.,, L. A. Steinohrt,, D. C. Bertucci,, L. B. Rogers,, and E. S. Didier. 1997. Encephalitozoon hellem in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Vet. Pathol. 34:189198.
10. Bornay-Llinares, F. J.,, A. J. Da Silva,, H. Moura,, D. A. Schwartz,, G. S. Visvesvara,, N. J. Pieniazek,, A. Cruz-Lopez,, P. Hernandez-Jauregui,, and J. Enriquez. 1998. Immunological, microscopic and molecular evidence of Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis infection in mammals other than man. J. Infect. Dis. 178:820826.
11. Brasil, P.,, F. C. Sodre,, T. Cuzzi-Maya,, M. C. Gutierrez,, H. Mattos,, and H. Moura. 1996. Intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-positive patients with chronic unexplained diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: diagnosis, clinical presentation, and follow-up. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 38:97102.
12. Bretagne, S.,, F. Foulet,, W. Alkassoum,, J. Fleury-Feith,, and M. Develoux. 1993. Prévalence des spores d' Enterocytozoon bieneusi dans les selles de patients sidéens et d' enfants africains non infectés par le VIH. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot. 86:351357.
13. Bryan, R. T. 1995a. Microsporidiosis as an AIDS related opportunistic infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21(Suppl.):S62S65.
14. Bryan, R. T., 1995b. Microsporidia, p. 25132524. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
15. Bryan, R. T.,, A. Cali,, R. L. Owen ,, and H. C. Spencer,. 1991. Microsporidia: opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS, p. 126. In T. Sun (ed.), Progress in Clinical Parasitology, vol. 2. Field and Wood, Philadelphia.
16. Bryan, R. T.,, R. Weber,, and D. A. Schwartz. 1997. Microsporidiosis in persons without HIV. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:534535. (Letter.)
17. Cali, A.,, D. P. Kotler,, and J. M. Orenstein. 1993. Septata intestinalis n. g., n. sp., an intestinal microsporidian associated with chronic diarrhea and dissemination in AIDS patients. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 40:101112.
18. Canning, E. U.,, and W. S. Hollister. 1987. Microsporidia of mammals: widespread pathogens or opportunistic curiosities? Parasitol. Today 3:267273.
19. Carville, A.,, K. Mansfield,, K. C. Lin,, J. McKay,, L. Chalifoux,, and A. Lackner. 1997. Genetic and ultrastructural characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in simian immunodeficiency virus infected and immunocompetent rhesus macaques. Vet. Pathol. 34:515.
20. Cegielski, J. P.,, Y. R. Ortega,, S. McKee,, J. F. Madden,, L. Gaido,, D. A. Schwartz,, K. Manji,, A. F. Jorgensen,, S. E. Miller,, U. P. Pulipaka,, A. E. Msengi,, D. H. Mwakyusa,, C. R. Sterling,, and L. B. Reller. 1998. Unpublished data.
21. Cislakova, L.,, H. Prokopcakova,, M. Stefkovic,, and M. Halanova. 1997. Encephalitozoon cuniculi, clinical and epidemiologic significance: results of a preliminary serologic study in humans. Epidemiol. Mikrobiol. Imunol. 46:3033.
22. Conteas, C. N.,, O. G.W. Berlin,, M. J. Lariviere,, S. S. Pandhumas,, C. E. Speck,, R. Porschen,, and T. Nakaya. 1998a. Examination of the prevalence and seasonal variation of intestinal microsporidiosis in the stools of persons with chronic diarrhea and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:559561.
23. Conteas, C. N.,, O. G. W. Berlin,, C. E. Speck,, S. S. Pandhumas,, M. J. Lariviere,, and C. Fu. 1998b. Modification of the clinical course of intestinal microsporidiosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by immune status and anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:555558.
24. Corcoran, G. D.,, J. R. Isaacson,, C. Daniels,, and P. L. Chiodini. 1996. Urethritis associated with disseminated microsporidiosis: clinical response to albendazole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:592593.
25. Cotte, L.,, M. Rabodonirina,, C. Raynal,, F. Chapuis,, M. A. Piens,, and C. Trepo. 1998. Outbreak of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected and noninfected patients, abstr. 483. In Abstracts of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
26. Cox, J. C.,, R. C. Hamilton,, and H. D. Attwood. 1979. An investigation of the route and progression of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in adult rabbits. J. Protozool. 26:260265.
27. Coyle, C. M.,, M. Wittner,, D. P. Kotler,, C. Noyer,, J. M. Orenstein,, H. B. Tanowitz,, and L. M. Weiss. 1996. Prevalence of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis among patients with AIDS-related diarrhea: determination by polymerase chain reaction to the microsporidian small-subunit rRNA gene. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:10021006.
28. De Groote, M. A.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, M. L. Wilson,, N. J. Pieniazek,, S. B. Slemenda,, A. J. Da Silva,, G. J. Leitch,, R. T. Bryan,, and R. Reves. 1995. Polymerase chain reaction and culture confirmation of disseminated Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a patient with AIDS: successful therapy with albendazole. J. Infect. Dis. 171:13751378.
29. Deplazes, P.,, A. Mathis,, R. Baumgartner,, I. Tanner,, and R. Weber. 1996a. Immunologic and molecular characteristics of Encephalitozoon-like microsporidia isolated from humans and rabbits indicate that Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a zoonotic parasite. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:557559.
30. Deplazes, P.,, A. Mathis,, C. Muller,, and R. Weber. 1996b. Molecular epidemiology of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and first detection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in faecal samples of pigs. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 43:93S.
31. Desportes, I.,, Y. Le Charpentier,, A. Galian,, F. Bernard,, B. Cochand-Priollet,, A. Lavergne,, P. Ravisse,, and R. Modigliani. 1985. Occurrence of a new microsporidian: Enterocytozoon bieneusi n. g., n. sp., in the enterocytes of a human patient with AIDS. J. Protozool. 32:250254.
32. Didier, E. S.,, P. J. Didier,, D. N. Friedberg,, S. M. Stenson,, J. M. Orenstein,, R. W. Yee,, F. W. Tio,, R. M. Davis,, C. Vossbrinck,, N. Millichamp,, and J. A. Shadduck. 1991. Isolation and characterization of a new human microsporidian, Encephalitozoon hellem (n. sp.), from three AIDS patients with keratoconjunctivitis. J. Infect. Dis. 163:617621.
33. Didier, E. S.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, M. D. Baker,, L. B. Rogers,, D. C. Bertucci,, M. A. DeGroote,, and C. R. Vossbrinck. 1996. A microsporidian isolated from an AIDS patient corresponds to Encephalitozoon cuniculi III, originally isolated from domestic dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:28352837.
34. Didier, E. S.,, C. R. Vossbrinck,, M. D. Baker,, L. B. Rogers,, D. C. Bertucci,, and J. A. Shadduck. 1995a. Identification and characterization of three Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains. Parasitology 111:411421.
35. Didier, P. J.,, E. S. Didier,, and M. Murphey-Corb. 1995b. Experimental microsporidiosis in immunodeficient monkeys, FASEB J. 9:A967, abstr. 5614.
36. Dore, G. J.,, D. J. Marriott,, M. C. Hing,, J . L. Harkness,, and A. S. Field. 1995. Disseminated microsporidiosis due to Septata intestinalis in nine patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: response to therapy with albendazole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:7076.
37. Drobniewski, F.,, P. Kelly,, A. Carew,, B. Ngwenya,, N. Luo,, C. Pankhurst,, and M. Farthing. 1995. Human microsporidiosis in African AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea. J. Infect. Dis. 171:515516.
38. Dunand, V. A.,, S. M. Hammer,, R. Rossi,, M. Poulin,, M. A. Albrecht,, J. P. Doweiko,, P. C. DeGirolami,, E. Coakley,, E. Piessens,, and C. A. Wanke. 1997. Parasitic sinusitis and otitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: report of five cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:267272.
39. Enriquez, F. J.,, D. Taren,, A. Cruz-López,, M. Muramoto,, J. D. Palting,, and P. Cruz. 1998. Prevalence of intestinal encephalitozoonosis in Mexico. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:12271229.
40. Foudraine, N. A.,, G. J. Weverling,, T. van Gool,, M. T. L. Roos,, F. de Wolf,, P. P. Koopmans,, P. J. van den Broek,, P. L. Meenhorst,, R. van Leeuwen,, J. M. A. Lange,, and P. Reiss. 1998. Improvement of chronic diarrhoea in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection during potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 12:3541.
41. Fuentealba, I. C.,, N. T. Mahoney,, J. A. Shadduck,, J. Harvill,, V. Wicher,, and K. Wicher. 1992. Hepatic lesions in rabbits infected with Encephalitozoon cuniculi administered per rectum. Vet. Pathol. 29:536540.
42. Goguel, J.,, C. Katlama,, C. Sarfati,, C. Maslo,, C. Leport,, and J. M. Molina. 1997. Remission of AIDS-associated intestinal microsporidiosis with highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 11:16581659.
43. Goodman, H.,, R. T. Bryan,, and D. A. Schwartz. 1998. Unpublished data.
44. Hautvast, J. L. A.,, J. J. M. Tolboom,, T. J. M. M. Derks,, P. Beckers,, and R. W. Sauerwein. 1997. Asymptomatic intestinal microsporidiosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative, immunocompetent Zambian child. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16:415416.
45. Hollister, W. S.,, and E. U. Canning. 1987. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies to E. cuniculi and its use in determination of infections in man. Parasitology 94:209219.
46. Hutin, Y. J. F.,, M .-N. Sombardier,, O. Liguory,, C. Sarfati,, F. Derouin,, J. Modaï,, and J.-M. Molina. 1998. Risk factors for intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case-control study. J. Infect. Dis. 178:904907.
47. Kelkar, R.,, P. S. Sastry,, S. S. Kulkarni,, T. K. Saikia,, P. M. Parikh,, and S. H. Advani. 1997. Pulmonary microsporidial infection in a patient with CML undergoing allogenic marrow transplant. Bone MarrowTransplant. 19:179182.
48. Kyaw, T.,, A. Curry,, V. Edwards-Jones,, J. Craske,, and B. K. Mandal. 1997. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients from the northwest of England: 1992-1995. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 54:186191.
49. Lucas, S. B.,, L. Papadaki,, C. Conlon,, N. Sewankambo,, R. Goodgame,, and D. Serwadda. 1989. Diagnosis of intestinal microsporidiosis in patients with AIDS. J. Clin. Pathol. 42:885890.
50. Lucas, S. B.,, D. A. Schwartz,, and P. A. Hasleton,. 1996. Pulmonary parasitic diseases, p. 316319. In P. S. Hasleton (ed.), Spencer's Pathology of the Lung, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
51. Maiga, I.,, O. Doumba,, M. Dembele,, H. Traore,, I. Desportes-Livage,, I. Hilmarsdottir,, E. Giboyau,, L. Maiga,, L. Kassambara,, Y. el Fakhry,, A. Datry,, M. Gentilini,, and E. Pichard. 1997. Human intestinal microsporidiosis in Bamako (Mali): the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV seropositive patients. Sante 7:257262.
52. Mansfield, K. G. 1998. Personal communication.
53. Mansfield, K. G.,, A. Carville,, D. Shvetz,, J. MacKey,, S. Tzipori,, and A. A. Lackner. 1997. Identification of an Enterocytozoon bieneusi-like microsporidian parasite in simian-immunodeficiency-virus-inoculated macaques with hepatobiliary disease. Am. J. Pathol. 150:13951405.
54. Mathis, A.,, M. Michel,, H. Kuster,, C. Muller,, R. Weber,, and P. Deplazes. 1997. Two Encephalitozoon cuniculi strains of human origin are infectious to rabbits. Parasitology 1146: 2935.
55. Molina, J. M.,, E. Oksenhendler,, B. Beauvais,, C. Sarfati,, A. Jaccard,, F. Derouin,, and J. Modaï. 1995. Disseminated microsporidiosis due to Septata intestinalis in patients with AIDS: clinical features and response to albendazole therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 171:245249.
56. Morakote, N.,, P. Siriprasert,, S. Piangjai,, P. Vitayasai,, B. Tookyan,, and P. Uparanukraw. 1995. Microsporidium and Cyclospora in human stools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 26:799800.
57. Pospisilova, Z.,, O. Ditrich,, M. Stankova,, and P. Kodym. 1997. Parasitic opportunistic infections in Czech HIV-infected patients: a prospective study. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health 5:208213.
58. Pulparampil, N.,, D. Graham,, D. Phalen,, and K. Snowden. 1998. Encephalitozoon hellem infection in an eclectus parrot: zoonotic potential? p. 64. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, Ga.
59. Rabodonirina, M.,, M. Bertocchi,, I. Desportes-Livage,, L. Cotte,, H. Levrey,, M. A. Piens,, G. Monneret,, M. Celard,, J. F. Mornex,, and M. Mojon. 1996. Enterocytozoon bieneusi as a cause of chronic diarrhea in a heart-lung transplant recipient who was seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:114117.
60. Raynaud, L.,, F. Delbac,, V. Broussolle,, M. Rabodonirina,, V. Girault,, M. Wallon,, G. Cozon,, C. P. Vivares,, and F. Peyron. 1998. Identification of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in travelers with chronic diarrhea by specific PCR amplification. J. Clin. Microbiol 36:3740.
61. Reetz, J. 1994. Natürliche Übertragung von Mikrosporidien (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) über das Hühnerei. Tierärztl Prax. 22:147150.
62. Sandfort, J.,, A. Hannerman,, H. Gelderblom,, K. Stark,, R. L. Owen,, and B. Ruf. 1994. Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in an immunocompetent patient who had acute diarrhea and who was not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:514516.
63. Sax, P. E.,, J. D. Rich,, W. S. Pieciak,, and Y. M. Trnka. 1995. Intestinal microsporidiosis occurring in a liver transplant recipient. Transplantation. 60:617618.
64. Scaglia, M.,, S. Gatti,, L. Sacchi,, S. Corona,, G. Chichino,, A. M. Bernuzzi,, G. Barbarini,, G. P. Croppo,, A. J. Da Silva,, N. J. Pieniazek,, and G. S. Visvesvara. 1998. Asymptomatic respiratory tract microsporidiosis due to Encephalitozoon hellem in three patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:174176.
65. Schmidt, W.,, T. Schneider,, W. Heise,, J. D. Schulzke,, T. Weinke,, R. Ignatius,, R. L. Owen,, M. Zeitz,, E. O. Riecken,, and R. Ullrich. 1997. Mucosal abnormalities in microsporidiosis. AIDS 11:15891594.
66. Schwartz, D. A.,, D. C. Anderson,, S. A. Klumpp,, and H. M. McClure. 1998a. Ultrastructure of atypical (teratoid) sporogonial stages of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporidia) in naturally infected rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta). Arch. Pathol Lab. Med. 122:423429.
67. Schwartz, D. A.,, R. T. Bryan,, K. O. Hewan-Lowe,, G. S. Visvesvara,, R. Weber,, A. Cali,, and P. Angritt. 1992. Disseminated microsporidiosis (Encephalitozoon hellem) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: autopsy evidence for respiratory acquisition. Arch. Pathol Lab. Med. 116:660668.
68. Schwartz, D. A.,, M. Flepp,, G. S. Visvesvara,, R. T. Bryan,, and R. Weber. 1998b. Unpublished data.
69. Schwartz, D. A.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, M. C. Diesenhouse,, R. Weber,, R. L. Font,, L. A. Wilson,, G. Corrent,, D. F. Rosberger,, P. C. Keenen,, H. E. Grossniklaus,, K. O. Hewan-Lowe,, and R. T. Bryan. 1993a. Ocular pathology of microsporidiosis: role of immunofluorescent antibody for diagnosis of Encephalitozoon hellem in biopsies, smears, and intact globes from seven AIDS patients. Am. J. Ophthalmol 115:285292.
70. Schwartz, D. A.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, G. J. Leitch,, L. S. Tashjian,, M. Pollack,, and R. T. Bryan. 1993b. Pathology of symptomatic microsporidial (Encephalitozoon hellem) bronchiolitis in AIDS: a new respiratory pathogen diagnosed by biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, sputum cytology, and tissue culture. Hum. Pathol 24:937943.
71. Schwartz, D. A.,, G. S. Visvesvara,, R. Weber,, and R. T. Bryan. 1994. Male genital tract microsporidiosis and AIDS: Prostatic abscess due to Encephalitozoon hellem. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 41:61S.
72. Seibold, H. R.,, and E. N. Fussell. 1973. Intestinal microsporidiosis in Callicebus moloch. Lab. Anim. Sci. 23:115118.
73. Shadduck, J. A.,, and G. Baskin. 1989. Serologic evidence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in a colony of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 39:328330.
74. Silverstein, B. E.,, E. T. Cunningham,, T. P. Margolis,, V. Cevallos,, and I. G. Wong. 1997. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a patient without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am.J. Ophthalmol. 124:395396.
75. Singh, M.,, G. J. Kane,, L. MacKinlay,, I. Quaki,, E. H. Yap,, B. C. Ho,, L. C. Ho,, and L. C. Kim. 1982. Detection of antibodies to Nosema cuniculi (protozoa: microsporidia) in human and animal sera by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 13:110113.
76. Sobottka, I.,, H. Albrecht,, J. Schottelius,, C. Schmetz,, M. Bentfield,, R. Laufs,, and D. A. Schwartz. 1995. Self-limited traveller's diarrhea due to a dual infection with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium parvum in an immunocompetent HIV-negative child. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:919920.
77. Sparfel, J. M.,, C. Sarfati,, O. Ligoury,, B. Caroff,, N. Dumoutier,, B. Gueglio,, E. Billaud,, F. Raffi,, J. M. Molina,, M. Miegeville,, and F. Derouin. 1997. Detection of microsporidia and identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in surface water by filtration followed by specific PCR. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44:78S.
78. Tzipori, S.,, A. Carville,, G. Widmer,, D. Kotler,, K. Mansfield,, and A. Lackner. 1997. Transmission and establishment of a persistent infection of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, derived from a human with AIDS, in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys. J. Infect. Dis. 175:10161020.
79. Van Gool, T.,, E. Luderhoff,, K. J. Nathoo,, C. F. Kiire,, J. Dankert,, and P. R. Mason. 1995. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infections among HIV-positive individuals with persistent diarrhea in Harare, Zimbabwe. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:478480.
80. Van Gool, T.,, J. C. M. Vetter,, B. Weinmayr,, A. Van Dam,, F. Derouin,, and J. Dankert. 1997. High seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon species in immunocompetent subjects. J. Infect. Dis. 175:10201024.
81. Voglino, M. C.,, G. Donelli,, P. Rossi,, A. Ludovisi,, V. Rinaldi,, F. Goffredo,, R. Paloscia,, and E. Pozio. 1996. Intestinal microsporidiosis in Italian individuals with AIDS. Ital. J. Gastroenterol. 28:381386.
82. Waller, T. 1980. Sensitivity of Encephalitozoon cuniculi to various temperatures, disinfectants and drugs. Lab.Anim. Sci. 13:277280.
83. Wanke, C. A.,, P. DeGirolami,, and M. Federman. 1996. Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection and diarrheal disease in patients who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:816818.
84. Watson, D. A. R.,, D. Asmuth,, and C. A. Wanke. 1996. Environmental risk factors for acquisition of microsporidia in HIV-infected persons. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:903.
85. Weber, R.,, R. T. Bryan,, D. A. Schwartz,, and R. L. Owen. 1994. Human microsporidial infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:426461.
86. Weiser, J. 1964. On the taxonomic position of the genus Encephalitozoon Levaditi, Nicolau & Schoen, 1923 (Protozoa: Microsporidia). Parasitology 54:749751.
87. Weiser, J. 1965. Microsporidian infections of mammals and the genus Encephalitozoon. Int. Congr. Parasitol. 1:445446.
88. Weitz, J. C.,, R. Botehlo,, and R. T. Bryan. 1995. Microsporidiosis in patients with chronic diarrhea and AIDS, in H IV asymptomatic patients and in patients with acute diarrhea. Rev. Med. Chile 123:849856. (In Spanish.)
89. Wicher, V.,, R. E. Baughn,, C. Fuentealba,, J. A. Shadduck,, F. Abbruscato,, and K. Wicher. 1991. Enteric infection with an obligate intracellular parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in an experimental model. Infect. Immun. 59:22252231.
90. Wright, J. H., and E. M. Craighead. 1922. Infectious motor paralysis in young rabbits. J. Exp. Med. 36:135140.
91. Wuhib, T.,, T. M. J. Silva,, R. D. Newman,, L. S. Garcia,, M. L. D. Pereira,, C. S. Chaves,, S. P. Wahlquist,, R. T. Bryan,, R. L. Guerrant,, A. Q. de Sousa,, T. R. B. S. de Queiroz,, and C. L. Sears. 1994. Cryptosporidial and microsporidial infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in northeastern Brazil. J. Infect. Dis. 170:494497.
92. Zemen, D. H., and G. B. Baskin. 1985. Encephalitozoonosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Vet. Pathol. 22:2431.


Generic image for table

Non-HIV-associated microsporidiosis: self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts

yo, years old; M, male; F, female.

Citation: Bryan R, Schwartz D. 1999. Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis, p 502-516. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch15
Generic image for table

Potential zoonotic reservoirs for human infection

Budgerigar (Mclopsittacus undulatus).

Eclectus roratus.

Rhesus macaque (Macaco mulatta).

Citation: Bryan R, Schwartz D. 1999. Epidemiology of Microsporidiosis, p 502-516. In Wittner M, Weiss L (ed), The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818227.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error