Chapter 1 : Introduction to the Pathogen

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This chapter begins with the history of . By the end of the 19th century three seminal observations had been made regarding . First, the organism had been recovered from lesions in humans and animals, establishing its potential to cause disease. Second, the organism had been recovered from the environment, establishing that it was free-living. Finally, the organism was propagated in the laboratory and shown to cause disease in laboratory animals. Many of the early clinical reports of cryptococcosis included animal experiments with the organism isolated from patients. Examination of by light microscopy reveals yeast-like cells that reproduce by budding and are of variable size. has been extensively studied by electron microscopy, which shows that cells have morphological features typical of eukaryotic cells. There are many reports in the literature of cells with germ tube-like structure, hyphal forms, pseudohyphae, and sporulation. For an extensive discussion of the effect of various environmental conditions on the survival the effect of temperature, pH, sunlight, and moisture are briefly discussed in the chapter.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Introduction to the Pathogen, p 1-27. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch1

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Microtubule Organizing Centers
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
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Figure 1

Transmission electron micrograph of . The cytoplasm shows typical eukaryotic cellular structures such as a nucleus, mitochondria, and various vesicles. Several vesicles contain low-electron-density material that may be lipid. Note the thick cell wall. N, nucleus; M, mitochondria; V, vacuole; C, cell wall. The arrow indicates a new bud. In this preparation the polysaccharide capsule is not apparent. Magnification, × 12,000. Reprinted with permission from A. Casadevall, Cryptococcosis: the case for immunotherapy. 4(4):2, 1993, Lawrence Della-Corte Publications, Inc.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Introduction to the Pathogen, p 1-27. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch1
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Idealized diagram of a cell based on electron microscopic studies. In cells grown with the appropriate substrate, melanin is found in the cell wall (see chapter 4).

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Introduction to the Pathogen, p 1-27. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch1
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Table 1

Some names used to refer to and cyptococcosis in the literature

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Introduction to the Pathogen, p 1-27. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch1

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