Chapter 10 : Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap10-2.gif


has been reported to cause infection in a wide variety of mammalian hosts. The clinical history of both natural and experimental animal cryptococcosis began over 100 years ago with the initial description of the pathogenic yeast. It was at this time in the late 19th century that experimental animal models of cryptococcosis were first used. Several pathological findings in this study were of further interest. Mice are extremely attractive for the study of cryptococcosis for two very important reasons. First, they provide both a very uniform set of immune responses and a wide variety of these responses in a series of inbred strains. The second reason that mice are attractive for the study of cryptococcosis is the ability to immunologically alter them, either genetically or through immunological reagents. Mouse models have also been used to dissect the importance of specific cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. The rabbit is an interesting model for the study of cryptococcosis and has both positive and negative features for the study of cryptococcal pathogenesis. Although much of the discussion on animal model systems has emphasized the four major models, has also been inoculated into other animals.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis, p 325-350. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch10

Key Concept Ranking

Feline immunodeficiency virus
Feline leukemia virus
Feline immunodeficiency virus
Feline leukemia virus
Feline immunodeficiency virus
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Allen, V. K.,, and L. Lowbeer. 1945. Rectal ulcers with perirectal fistula as a port of entrance for Toruda encephalitis. South. Med. J. 38:564569.
2. Baro, T.,, J. M. Torres-Rodriquez,, M. Hermosa de Mendoza,, Y. Morera,, and C. Alia. 1998. First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:458461.
3. Barrie, M. T.,, and C. K. Stadler. 1995. Successful treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in an Allen’s swamp monkey (Allenopithecus nigroviridis) using fluconazole and flucytosine. J. Zool. Wildlife Med. 26:109114.
4. Barron, C. N. 1955. Cryptococcosis in animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 127:125132.
5. Barton, M. D.,, and I. Knight 1972. Cryptococcal meningitis of a horse. Aust. Vet. J. 48:534.
6. Beehler, B. A. 1982. Oral therapy for nasal cryptococcosis in a cheetah. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181:14001401.
7. Bennett, J. E.,, W. Dismukes,, R. J. Duma,, G. Medoff,, M. A. Sande,, H. Gallis,, J. Leonard,, B. T. Fields,, M. Bradshaw,, H. Haywood,, Z. A. McGee,, T. R. Cate,, C. G. Cobbs,, J. F. Warner,, and D. W. Ailing. 1979. A comparison of amphotericin B alone and combined with flucytosine in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 301:126131.
8. Bergman, F. 1966. Effect of temperature on intratesticular cryptococcal infection in rabbits. Sabouraudia 5:5458.
9. Betty, M. J. 1977. Spontaneous cryptococcal meningitis in a group of guinea pigs caused by a hyphae-producing strain, J. Comp. Pathol. 87:377382.
10. Bistner, S.,, A. DeLahunta,, and M. Lorenz. 1971. Generalized cryptococcosis in a dog. Cornell Vet. 61:440457.
11. Blovin, P.,, and R. M. Cello. 1980. Experimental ocular cryptococcosis. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 19:2130.
12. Bollinger, A.,, and E. S. Finckh. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in thekoala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Med. J. Aust. 14:545547.
13. Bonacini, M.,, J. Nussbaum,, and C. Ahluwalia. 1990. Gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic involvement with Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 12:296297.
14. Boulton, C. H.,, and L. Williamson. 1984. Cryptococcal granuloma associated with jejunal intussusception in a horse. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 16:548551.
15. Bovee, K. C.,, J. D. Conroy,, and S. A. Rosenthal. 1966. Cryptococcosis in a dog and treatment with amphotericin B. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 149:4955.
16. Buchanan, K. L.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1994. Regulation of cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect. Immun. 62:29302939.
17. Cabanes, F. J.,, M. L. Abarca,, R. Bonavia,, M. R. Bragulat,, G. Castella,, and L. Ferrer. 1995. Cryptococcosis in a cat seropositive for feline immunodeficiency virus. Mycoses 38:131133.
18. Carter, H. S.,, and J. L. Young. 1950. Note on the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from a sample of milk. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 62:271273.
19. Cauley, L. K.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1979. Response of congenital athymic (nude) and phenotypically normal mice to Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect. Immun. 23:644651.
20. Chang, Y. C.,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1994. Complementation of a capsule-deficiency mutation of Cryptococcus neoformans restores its virulence. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:49124919.
21. Chapman, H. M.,, W. F. Robinson,, J. R. Bolton,, and J. R Robertson. 1990. Cryptococcus neoformans infection in goats. Aust. Vet. J. 67:263265.
22. Clemons, K. V.,, R. Azzi,, and D. A. Stevens. 1996. Experimental systemic cryptococcosis in SCID mice. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34:331335.
23. Clipsham, R. C.,, and J. O. Britt, Jr. 1983. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a macaw. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183:13031305.
24. Collett, M. G.,, A. S. Doyle,, F. Reyers,, T. Kruse,, and B. Fabian. 1987. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis and concurrent ehrlichiosis in a dog. J. South Afr. Vet. Assoc. 58:197202.
24a. Cox, G. M.,, and J. R. Perfect. Unpublished data.
25. Crose, E.,, C. J. Marin-Kelle,, and C. Striegel. 1968. The use of tissue cultures in the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans from Columbia bats. Sabouraudia 6:127132.
26. Curtis, A. J. 1951. A case of torulosis in a domestic cat. Aust. J. Med. Tech. 1:71.
27. Curtis, F. 1895. Note sur un nouveau parasite humain, megalococcus myxoides, trouvé dans un néoplasme de la région inguino-crurole. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 1895:715718.
28. Curtis, F. 1896. Contribution a l’étude de la saccharomycose humaine. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 10:449468.
29. Daly, J. S.,, K. A. Porter,, F. K. Chong,, and R. J. Robillard. 1990. Disseminated non-meningeal gastrointestinal cryptococcal infection in an HIV-negative patient. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 85:14211424.
30. Denning, D.W.,, R. M. Tucker,, J. S. Hostetler,, S. Gill,, and D. A. Stevens,. 1990. Oral itraconazole therapy of cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS, p. 305324. In H. Vanden Bossche (ed.), Mycoses in AIDS Patients. Plenum Press, New York.
31. Diamond, R. D. 1977. Effects of stimulation and suppression of cell-mediated immunity on experimental cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 17:187194.
32. Diamond, R. D.,, J. E. May,, and M. A. Kane. 1974. The role of the classical and alternative complement pathways in host defense against Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Immunol. 112:22602270.
33. Dixon, D. M.,, and A. Polak. 1986. In vivo and in vitro studies with an atypical, rhinotrophic isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 96:3340.
34. Dromer, F.,, C. Perronne,, J. Borge,, J. L. Vilde,, and P. Yeni. 1989. Role of IgG and complement component C5 in the initial course of experimental cryptococcosis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 78:412417.
35. Duke, S. S.,, and R. A. Fromtling. 1984. Effects of diethyl-stilbestrol and cyclophosphamide on the pathogenesis of experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infections. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 22:125135.
36. Duperval, R., R E. Hermans, N. S. Brewer, and G. D. Roberts. 1977. Cryptococcosis, with emphasis on the significance of isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from the respiratory tract. Chest 72:1319.
37. Emmons, C. W. 1955. Saprophytic sources of Cryptococcus neoformans associated with the pigeon. Am. J. Hyg. 62:227232.
38.Ensley, R K., C. E. Davis, M. P. Anderson, and K. C. Fletcher. 1979. Cryptococcosis in a male Beccari’s crowned pidgeon. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 175:992994.
39. Faggi, E.,, G. Gargani,, C. Pizzirani,, S. Pizzirani,, and N. Saponetto. 1993. Cryptococcosis in domestic mammals. Mycoses 36:165170.
40. Felton, F. G.,, W. E. Maldonado,, H. G. Muchmore,, and E. R. Rhoades. 1966. Experimental cryptococcal infection in rabbits. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 94:589594.
41. Fen wick, B.,, K. Takushita,, and A. Wong. 1985. A moluccan cockatoo with disseminated cryptococcosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 187:12181219.
42. Flatland, B.,, R. T. Greene,, and M. R. Lappin. 1996. Clinical and serologic evaluation of cats with cryptococcosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209:11101113.
43. Fromtling, R. A.,, G. K. Abruzzo,, and A. Ruiz. 1988. Cryptococcus neoformans: a central nervous system isolate from an AIDS patient that is rhinotropic in a normal mouse model. Mycopathologia 102:7286.
44. Frothingham, L. 1902. A tumor-like lesion in the lung of a horse caused by a blastomyces (torula). J. Med. Res. 3:3143.
45. Fujita, N. 1983. Experimental hematogenous endophthalmitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 24:368375.
46. Gadebusch, H. H.,, and P. W. Gikas. 1965. The effect of cortisone upon experimental pulmonary cryptococcosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 92:6474.
47. Gales, N.,, G. Wallace,, and J. Dickson. 1985. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). J. Wildlife Dis. 21:443446.
48. Gelatt, K. N.,, L. D. McGill,, and V. Perman. 1973. Ocular and systemic cryptococcosis in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 162:370375.
49. Gerds-Grogan, S.,, and B. Dayrell-Hart. 1997. Feline cryptococcosis: a retrospective evaluation. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 33:118122.
50. Goldman, D.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the rat. Infect. Immun. 62:47554761.
51. Graybill, J. R.,, and D. J. Drutz. 1978. Host defense in cryptococcosis. II. Cryptococcosis in the nude mouse. Cell. Immunol. 40:263274.
52. Graybill, J. R.,, and L. Mitchell. 1978. Cyclophosphamide effects on murine cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 21:674677.
53. Green, J. R.,, and G. S. Bulmer. 1979. Gastrointestinal inoculation of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Sabouraudia 17:233240.
54. Greenlee, P. G.,, and E. Stephena. 1984. Meningeal cryptococcosis and ingestive cardiomyopathy in a ferret. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 184:840841.
55. Griner, L. A.,, and H. A. Walch. 1978. Cryptococcosis in Columbiformes at the San Diego Zoo. J. Wildlife Dis. 14:389394.
56. Hidore, M. R.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1986. Natural cellular resistance of beige mice against Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol.. 137:36243631.
57. Hubert, B. J.,, C. R. Huxtable,, and S. E. Pawley. 1980. Cryptococcal pneumonia in a horse. Aust. Vet. J. 56:391392.
58. Hill, F. I.,, A. J. Woodgyer,, and M. A. Lintott. 1995. Cryptococcosis in a North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) in New Zealand. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 33:305309.
59. Hill, J. O. 1992. CD4+ T cells cause multinucleated giant cells to form around Cryptococcus neoformans and confine the yeast within the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract. J. Exp. Med. 175:16851695.
60. Hill, J. O.,, and K. M. Aquirre. 1994. CD4+ T cell-dependent acquired state of immunity that protects the brain against Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 152:23442350.
61. Hill, J. O.,, and P. C. Dunn. 1993. A T-cell independent protective response against Cryptococcus neoformans expressed at the primary site of infection in the lung. Infect. Immun. 61:53025308.
62. Holzworth, J. 1952. Cryptococcosis in a cat. Cornell Vet. 42:1215.
63. Huffnagle, G. B.,, M. F. Lipscomb,, J. A. Lovchik,, K. A. Hoag,, and N. E. Street. 1994. The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the protective inflammatory response to a pulmonary cryptococcal infection. J. Leukocyte Biol. 55:3542.
64. Huffnagle, G. B.,, J. L. Yates,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1991. T cell-mediated immunity in the lung: a Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection model using SCID and athymic nude mice. Infect. Immun. 59:14231433.
65. Hutto, J. O.,, C. S. Bryan,, F. L. Greene,, C. J. White,, and J. I. Gallin. 1988. Cryptococcosis of the colon resembling Crohn’s disease in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection (Job’s) syndrome. Gastroenterology 94:808812.
66. Jacobs, D. H.,, A. M. Mâcher,, R. Handler,, J. E. Bennett,, M. J. Collern,, and J. I. Gallin. 1984. Esophageal cryptococcosis in a patient with the hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection (Job’s) syndrome. Gastroenterology 87:201203.
67. Jacobs, G. J.,, L. Medleau,, C. Calvert,, and J. Brown. 1997. Cryptococcal infection in cats: factors influencing treatment outcome, and results of sequential serum antigen titers in 35 cats. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 11:14.
68. Kligman, A. M.,, A. P. Crane,, and R. F. Norris. 1951. Effect of temperature on survival of chick embryos infected intravenously with Cryptococcus neoformans (Torula histolytica). Am. J. Med. Sci. 221:273278.
69. Kligman, A. M.,, and F. D. Weidman. 1949. Experimental studies on treatment of human torulosis. Arch. Dermatol. Syph. 60:726741.
70. Kock, N. D.,, E. P. Lane,, F. Rowbotham,, A. Pawandiwa,, and F. W. Hill. 1991. Concurrent systemic cryptococcosis and haemangiosarcoma in a dog. J. Comp. Pathol. 104:117120.
71. Krick, J. A. 1981. Familial cryptococcal meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 143:133.
72. Kuttin, E. S.,, M. Feldman,, A. Nyska,, B. A. Weissman,, J. Muller,, and H. B. Levine. 1988. Cryptococcosis of the nasophauynx in mice and rats. Mycopathologia 101:99104.
73. Lichtensteiger, C. A.,, and L. E. Hilf. 1994. Atypical cryptococcal lymphadenitis in a dog. Vet. Pathol. 31:493496.
74. Lim, T. S.,, J. W. Murphy,, and L. K. Cauley. 1980. Host etiological agent interactions in intranasally and intraperitoneally induced cryptococcosis in mice. Infect. Immun. 29:633641.
75. Littman, M. L.,, and R. Borok. 1968. Relation of the pigeon to cryptococcosis: natural carrier state, heat resistance and survival of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 35:329345.
76. Littman, M. L.,, R. Borok,, and T. J. Dalton. 1965. Experimental avian cryptococcosis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 82:197207.
77. Littman, M. L.,, and L. E. Zimmerman. 1956. Cryptococcosis, Torulosis or European Blastomycosis, p. 3846. Grune and Stratton, New York.
78. Lodge, J. K.,, E. Jackson-Machelski,, D. L. Toffaletti,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. I. Gordon. 1994. Targeted gene replacement demonstrates that myristoyl CoA: protein N-myristoyl-transferase is essential for the viability of Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:1200812012.
79. Louria, D. B.,, N. Fallon,, and H. G. Browne. 1960. The influence of cortisone on experimental fungus infections in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 39:14351449.
80. Lovchik, J.,, J. Wilder,, M. F. Lipscomb,, R. Riblet,, and R. C. Lyons. 1996. The clearance rate of a pulmonary cryptococcal infection is determined by a gene on chromosome 12, abstr. 2:15. 3rd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, Paris.
81. Lutsky, I.,, and J. Brodish. 1964. Experimental canine cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 114:273276.
82. MacDonald, D. W.,, and H. C. Stretch. 1982. Canine cryptococcosis associated with prolonged corticosteriod therapy. Can. J. Vet. Res. 23:200202.
83. Malik, R.,, E. Dill-Mackey,, P. Martin,, D. I. Wigney,, D. B. Muir,, and D. N. Love. 1995. Cryptococcis in dogs: a retrospective study of 20 consecutive cases. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 33:291297.
84. Malik, R.,, D. I. Wigney,, D. B. Muir,, D. J. Gregory,, and D. N. Love. 1992. Cryptococcosis in cats: clinical and mycological assessment of 29 cases and evaluation of treatment using orally administered fluconazole. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30:133144.
85.Malik, R, D. I. Wigney, D. B. Muir, and D. N. Love. 1997. Asymptomatic carriage of Cryptococcus neoformans in the nasal cavity of dogs and cats. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35:2731.
86.Mancianti, E, C. Giannelli, M. Bendinelli, and A. Poli. 1992. Mycological findings in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30:257259.
87. Marcato, P. S. 1966. A case of Hodgkin’s disease associated with cryptococcosis in a dog. J. Small Anim. Pract. 7:649650.
88. Marquis, G.,, S. Montplaisir,, and M. Pelletier. 1985. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: the beige mutation (Chediak-Higashi syndrome) in mice. Infect. Immun. 47:288293.
89. Marquis, G.,, S. Montplaisir,, M. Pelletier,, S. Mousseau,, and P. Auger. 1985. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice. Infect. Immun. 47:282287.
90. McGrath, J. T. 1954. Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system in domestic animals. Am. J. Pathol. 30:651.
91. McNamara, T. S., R A. Cook, J. L. Behler, L. Ajello, and A. A. Padhye. 1994. Cryptococcosis in a common anaconder (Eunectes murinus). J. Zool. Wildlife Med. 25:128132.
92. Medleau, L.,, C. E. Greene,, and P. M. Rakich. 1990. Evaluation of ketoconazole and itraconazole for treatment of disseminated cryptococcosis in cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 51:14541458.
93. Medleau, L.,, G. J. Jacobs,, and M. A. Marks. 1995. Itraconazole for the treatment of cryptococcosis in cats. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 9:3942.
94. Mehrotra, B. S. 1983. Cryptococcal mastitis in dairy animals. Mykosen 26:615616.
95. Mendoza, M. H.,, A. M. Garcia,, and L. Vizcaino. 1984. Spontaneous cryptococcosis in a pigeon. Arch. Zootech. 33:2741.
96. Meyer, K. F. 1914. A pathogenic blastomyces from the horse. Proc. Pathol. Soc. Phil. 16:28.
97. Migaki, G.,, R. D. Gunnels,, and H. W. Casey. 1978. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Lab. Anim. Sci. 28:603606.
97a.. Mitchell, T. G.,, and J. R. Perfect 1995. Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS—100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:515548.
98. Miyake, T.,, T. Veda,, and Y. Matsuura. 1978. A case of cryptococcosis in a sooty mangabey, Cercocebus torquatus atys. J. Jpn. Assoc. Zool. Gardens Aquariums 20:46.
99. Mody, C. H.,, G. H. Chen,, C. Jackson,, J. L. Curtis,, and G. B. Toews. 1994. In vivo depletion of murine CD8 positive T-cells impairs survival during infection with a highly virulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 125:717.
100. Mody, C. H.,, M. F. Lipscomb,, N. E. Street,, and -G. B. Toews. 1990. Depletion of CD4+ (L3T4+) lymphocytes in vivo impairs murine host defenses to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 144:14721477.
101. Mody, C. H.,, G. B. Toews,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1988. Cyclosporin A inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model. Infect. Immun. 56:712.
102. Mody, C. H.,, G. B. Toews,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1989. Treatment of murine cryptococcosis with cyclosporin-A in normal and athymic mice. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 139:813.
103. Nishimura, K.,, and M. Miyaji. 1979. Histopathological studies on experimental cryptococcosis in nude mice. Mycopathologia 68:143153.
104. Odom, A.,, M. Del Poeta,, J. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 1997. The immunosuppressant FK506 and its non-immunosuppressive analog L-685,818 are toxic to Cryptococcus neoformans by inhibition of a common target protein. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:156161.
105. Odom, A.,, S. Muir,, E. Lim,, D. L. Toffaletti,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 1997. Calcineurin is required for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. EMBO J. 16:25762589.
106. Pal, M. 1991. Feline meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and review of feline cryptococcosis. Mycoses 34:313316.
107. Pal, M.,, G. D. Dube,, and B. S. Mehrota. 1984. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in a rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta). Mykosen 27:309312.
108. Pal, M.,, K. Ono,, R. Goitsuka,, and A. Hasegawa. 1990. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from canine otitis. Mycoses 33:465467.
108a.. Perfect, J. R. Unpublished data.
109. Perfect, J. R. 1990. Fluconazole therapy for experimental cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the rabbit. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12(Suppl. 3):299302.
110. Perfect, J. R.,, and D. T. Durack. 1985. Effects of cyclosporine in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Infect. Immun. 50:2226.
111. Perfect, J. R.,, and D. T. Durack. 1985. Chemotactic activity of cerebrospinal fluid in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 23:3745.
112. Perfect, J. R.,, and D. T. Durack. 1985. Comparison of amphotericin B and N-D-ornithyl amphotericin B methyl ester in experimental crytococcal meningitis and Candida albicans endocarditis with pyelonephritis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:751755.
113. Perfect, J. R.,, M. M. Hobbs,, D. L. Granger,, and D. T. Durack. 1988. Cerebrospinal fluid macrophage cytotoxicity: in vitro and in vivo correlation. Infect. Immun. 56:849854.
114. Perfect, J. R.,, S. D. R. Lang,, and D. T. Durack. 1981. Influence of agglutinating antibody in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 62:595599.
115. Perfect, J. R.,, S. D. R. Lang,, and D. T. Durack. 1980. Chronic cryptococcal meningitis: a new experimental model in rabbits. Am. J. Pathol. 101:177194.
116. Perfect, J. R.,, and T. H. Rude. 1993. Identifying Cryptococcus neoformans by differential expression at the site of infection, abstr. L3, p. 24. 2nd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, Milan.
117. Perfect, J. R.,, D. V. Savani,, and D. T. Durack. 1986. Comparison of itraconazole and fluconazole in treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and Candida pyelonephritis in rabbits. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:579583.
118. Perfect, J. R.,, D. L. Toffaletti,, and T. H. Rude. 1993. The gene encoding for phosphori-bosylaminoimidazole carboxylase (ADE2) is essential for growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid. Infect. Immun. 61:44464451.
119. Perfect, J. R.,, and K. A. Wright. 1994. Amphotericin B lipid complex in the treatment of experimental cryptococcal meningitis and disseminated candidiasis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33:7381.
120. Perfect, J. R.,, K. A. Wright,, M. M. Hobbs,, and D. T. Durack. 1989. Treatment of experimental cryptococcal meningitis and disseminated candidiasis with SCH 39304. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:17351740.
121. Petrites-Murphy, M. B.,, L. A. Robbins,, J. M. Donahue,, and B. Smith. 1996. Equine cryptococcal endometritis and placentitis with neonatal cryptococcal pneumonia. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 8:383386.
122. Pounden, W. D.,, J. M. Amberson,, and R. F. Jaeger. 1952. A severe mastitis problem associated with Cryptococcus neoformans in a large dairy herd. Am. J. Vet. Res. 13:121128.
123. Ramadan, R. D.,, A. A. Faged,, and A. M. El-Hassan. 1989. Cryptococcosis in a camel (Camelus dromedanus). Vet. Med. J. Giza 37:7782.
124. Ramos-Vara, J. A.,, L. Ferrer,, and J. Visa. 1994. Pathological findings in a cat with cryptococcosis and feline immunodeficiency virus infection. Histol. Histopathol. 9:305308.
125. Rebhun, W. C, and N. J. Edwards. 1977. Cryptococcosis involving the orbit of a dog. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 72:14471450.
126.Reiss, E, and G. Szilagyi. 1965. Ecology of yeast-like fungi in a hospital population. Arch. Dermatol. 91:611614.
127. Rhodes, J. C. 1985. Contribution of complement component C5 to the pathogenesis of experimental murine cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia 23:225234.
128. Rhodes, J. C, L. S. Wicker, and W. J. Urba. 1980. Genetic control of susceptibility to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 29:494499.
129. Rippon, J. W. 1988. Medical Mycology. The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
130. Rosskopf, W. J., Jr.,, and R. W. Woespel. 1984. Cryptococcosis in a thick-billed parrot. Avian/Exotic Pract. 1:1418.
131.Roussilhon, C, J. . Postal, and P. Rauisse. 1987. Spontaneous cryptococcosis of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in French Guyana. J. Med. Primatol. 16:3947.
132. Ruiz, A.,, J. B. Neilson,, and G. S. Bulmer. 1982. Control of cryptococcus in nature by biotic factors. Sabouraudia 20:2129.
133. Saag, M. S.,, W. G. Powderly,, G. A. Cloud,, P. Robinson,, M. H. Grieco,, P. K. Sharkey,, S. E. Thompson,, A. Sugar,, C. U. Tuazon,, J. F. Fisher,, N. Hyslop,, J. M. Jacobson,, R. Hafner,, and W. F. Dismukes. 1992. Comparison of amphotericin B with fluconazole in the treatment of acute AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:8389.
134. Saez, H.,, J. Rinjard,, and M. R. Battesti. 1978. Cryptococcosis in a fennec, Fennecus zerda. Characteristics and differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans. Bull. Soc. Fr. Mycol. Med. 7:6972.
135. Salkowski, C. A.,, and E. Balish. 1990. Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans in congenitally immunodeficient beige athymic mice. Infect. Immun. 58:33003306.
136. Salkowski, C. A.,, and E. Balish. 1991. Inflammatory responses to cryptococcosis in congenitally athymic mice. J. Leukocyte Biol. 49:533541.
137. Salkowski, C. A.,, and E. Balish. 1991. Cutaneous cryptococcosis in athymic and beige-athymic mice. Infect. Immun. 59:17851789.
138. Salkowski, C. A.,, and E. Balish. 1991. Cryptococcosis in beige mice: the effect of congenital defects in innate immunity on susceptibility. Can. J. Microbiol. 37:128135.
139. Salkowski, C. A.,, K. F. Bartizal, Jr.,, M. J. Balish,, and E. Balish. 1987. Colonization and pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans in gnotobiotic mice. Infect. Immun. 55:20002005.
140. Sanfelice, F. 1894. Uber eine neuen Pathogenen Blastomyceten welcher innerhalb der Gewebe unter Bildung, kalkartig aussehender massendegeneriert. Zentralbl. Baktenol. Parasitol. Infekt. Hyg. 18:521526.
141. Sanfelice, F. 1895. Sull’azione patogena dei blastomiceti. Ann. Ig. 5:239262.
142. Scott, E. A.,, J. R. Duncan,, and J. E. McCormack. 1974. Cryptococcosis involving the postorbital area and frontal sinus in a horse. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 165:626627.
143. Seibold, H. R.,, C. S. Roberts, and E. M. Jordan. 1953. Cryptococcosis in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 122:213215.
144. Sethi, K. K.,, H. S. Randhawa,, S. Abraham,, and R. Viswanathan. 1967. Primary pulmonary canine cryptococcosis. Indian J. Chest Dis. 9:222224.
145. Sethi, K. K.,, and J. Schwartz. 1966. Experimental ocular cryptococcosis in pigeons. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 62:9598.
146. Siman, J.,, R. E. Nichols,, and E. V. Morse. 1953. An outbreak of bovine cryptococcosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 122:3135.
147. Singh, M.,, P. P. Gupta,, J. S. Rana,, and S. K. Jand. 1994. Clinico-pathological studies on experimental cryptococcal mastitis in goats. Mycopathologia 126:147155.
148. Skulski, G.,, and W. S. C. Symmers. 1954. Actiomycesis and torulosis in the ferret (Mustek furo). J. Comp. Pathol. Ther. 64:306311.
149. Sly, D. L.,, W. T. London,, A. E. Palmer,, and J. M. Rice. 1977. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas). Lab. Anim. Sci. 27:694699.
150. Smith, G. W.,, W. H. Mosberg,, L. O. J. Manganiello,, and J. A. Alvarez de Choudens. 1953. Torulosis of the central nervous system in the laboratory animal. Bull. Sch. Med. 38:3241.
151. Spencer, A.,, C. Ley,, P. Canfield,, P. Martin,, and R. Perry. 1993. Meningeocephalitis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) due to Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii infection. J. Zool. Wildlife Med. 24:51922.
152. Staib, F. 1962. Cryptococcus neoformans beim Kanarienvogel. Zentralbl. Baktenol. 185:129134.
153. Staib, F.,, W. Weller,, S. Brem,, R. Schindlmayr,, and E. Schmittdial. 1985. A Cryptococcus neoformans strain from the brain of a wildlife fox (Vulpes vulpes) suspected of rabies: mycological observations and comments. Zentralbl. Baktenol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. 260:566571.
154. Stoddard, J. L.,, and E. C. Cutler. 1916. Torula Infection in Man, p. 198. Monograph no. 6. Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York.
155. Strippoli, V.,, N. Simonetti,, and A. Cassone. 1978. Effect of a tetracycline antibiotic on experimental pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Chemotherapy 24:290296.
156. Swinne, D.,, K. Kayembe,, and M. Niyimi. 1986. Isolation of saprophytic Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 66:5761.
157. Swinne-Desgain, D. 1976. Cryptococcus neoformans in the crops of pigeons following its experimental administration. Sabouraudia 14:313317.
158. Takos, M. J. 1956. Experimental cryptococcosis produced by the ingestion of virulent organisms. N. Engl. J. Med. 254:598601.
159. Takos, M. J.,, and N. W. Elton. 1953. Spontaneous cryptococcosis of marmoset monkeys in Panama. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 55:403407.
160. Tell, L.,, and M. Bush. 1993. Cryptococcosis in tree shrews (tupaia tana and tupaia minor) and elephant shrews (macroscelides proboscides), p. 4950. Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet.
161. Tell, L. A.,, D. K. Nichols,, W. P. Fleming,, and M. Bush. 1997. Cryptococcus in tree (Tupaia tana and Tupaia minor) and elephant shrews (Macroscelides proboscides). J. Zool. Wildlife Med. 28:175181.
162. Tortelly, R.,, A. Grune,, G. M. D. Paiva,, and M. D. Rossi. 1979. Spontaneous cryptococcosis in the laboratory mouse. Cientifica Brazil 6:125127.
163. Van Cutsem, J.,, J. Fransen,, F. Van Gerven,, and P. A. J. Janssen. 1986. Experimental cryptococcosis: dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatropism in guinea pigs. Mykosen 29:561575.
164. Van der Gaag, L.,, M. H. van Niel,, B. E. Belshaw,, and W. T. Wolvekamp. 1991. Gastric granulomatous cryptococcosis mimicking gastric carcinoma in a dog. Vet. Q. 13:185190.
165. Vuillemin, P. 1901. Les blastomycetes pathogenes. Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 12:732751.
166. Walker, C.,, R. Malik,, and P. J. Canfield. 1995. Analysis of leucocytes and lymphocytes in cats with naturally-ocaimng cryptococcosis, but differing feline immunodeficiency virus status. Aust. Vet. J. 72:9397.
167. Weidman, F. D.,, and H. L. Ratcliffe. 1934. Extensive generalized torulosis in a cheetah or hunting leopard (Crynaelurus jabatus). Arch. Pathol. 18:362369.
168. Weiss, C.,, I. H. Perry,, and M. C. Sheury. 1948. Infections of the human eye with Cryptococcus neoformans: a clinical and experimental study with a new diagnostic method. Arch. Ophthalmol. 39:739751.
169. Weitzman, I.,, P. Bonaparte,, V. Guevin,, and M. Crist. 1973. Cryptotoccosis in a field mouse. Sabouraudia 11:7779.
170. Welsh, R. D.,, and E. L. Stair. 1995. Cryptococcal meningitis in horse. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 15:8082.
171. Yinnon, A. M.,, B. Rudensky,, E. Sagi,, G. Brever,, C. Brautbar,, I. Polacheck,, and J. Halevy. 1997. Invasive cryptococcosis in a family with epidermodysplasia verruciformis and idiopathic CD4 cell depletion. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:12521253.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Cryptococcosis in mammals (natural infection)

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis, p 325-350. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2

Animal model characteristics for cryptococcosis of the four major species

Abbreviations: MNCs, mononuclear cells; NK, natural killer cells; PMNs, polymorphonuclear cells.

There are numerous references in the literature in which a variety of mouse strains were used, from outbred Swiss mice to a series of inbred strains.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis, p 325-350. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 3

Advantages and disadvantages of the primary animal models for cryptococosis

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Animal Models and Veterinary Aspects of Cryptococcosis, p 325-350. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error