Chapter 11 : Epidemiology

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The epidemiology of cryptococcal infection is an important undertaking because it provides clues as to the pathogenesis of infections and permits an assessment of infection risk in a given population. Knowledge of how and where infects the human host is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. In a study the mean time that patients were on immunosuppressive therapy before the onset of cryptococcal infection was 48 months, and mortality was 30%. Among neoplastic disorders, disseminated cryptococcal infection has been historically associated with lymphoproliferative malignancies. Cryptococcosis is a relatively common infection among renal transplant patients despite the fact that renal transplantation has the lowest incidence of fungal infection among solid organ transplantation procedures. Insights on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection have resulted from comparative studies of cryptococcosis in various geographic regions. Researchers have interpreted the genetic diversity of strains as consistent with the theory of adaptive polymorphism, which predicts that the genetic diversity of a species is proportional to the diversity of ecological sites occupied.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11

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Generic image for table
Table 1

Prevalence of cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected patients in the United States

Yеаr the study was published. All studies were retrospective.

Prevalence of infection is the number of cases of cryptococcosis divided by the number of HIV-infected patients.

The authors of this study suggested that the drier climate of southern California may contribute to a lower prevalence of infection relative to other regions of the United States.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2

Prevalence of cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected patients in several countries

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3

Predominance of male patients in studies of clinical cryptococcosis

Many of the patients in this study had lymphoproliferative neoplasms.

This study reviewed several previous studies, and the total number of patients reported is shown here.

All or most of the patients in these studies had been infected with the HIV virus.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 4

Conditions associated with predisposition to infections

Diabetes mellitus has historically been considered a risk factor for cryptococcal infection. However, diabetes is a common disease, and it is unclear whether this condition is truly a risk factor for cryptococcosis.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11

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