1887

Chapter 11 : Epidemiology

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epidemiology, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap11-2.gif

Abstract:

The epidemiology of cryptococcal infection is an important undertaking because it provides clues as to the pathogenesis of infections and permits an assessment of infection risk in a given population. Knowledge of how and where infects the human host is crucial for understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. In a study the mean time that patients were on immunosuppressive therapy before the onset of cryptococcal infection was 48 months, and mortality was 30%. Among neoplastic disorders, disseminated cryptococcal infection has been historically associated with lymphoproliferative malignancies. Cryptococcosis is a relatively common infection among renal transplant patients despite the fact that renal transplantation has the lowest incidence of fungal infection among solid organ transplantation procedures. Insights on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection have resulted from comparative studies of cryptococcosis in various geographic regions. Researchers have interpreted the genetic diversity of strains as consistent with the theory of adaptive polymorphism, which predicts that the genetic diversity of a species is proportional to the diversity of ecological sites occupied.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4071832
0.4071832
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818241.chap11
1. Abrahan, M.,, V. Mathews,, A. Ganesh,, J. John,, and M. S. Mathews. 1997. Infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype B in an AIDS patient in India. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35: 283 284.
2. Allen, V. K.,, and L. Lowbeer. 1945. Rectal ulcers with perirectal fistula as a port of entrance for torula encephalitis. South. Med. J. 38: 564 569.
3. Allende, M.,, R. A. Pizzo,, M. Horowitz,, H. I. Pass,, and T. J. Walsh. 1993. Pulmonary cryptococcosis presenting as metastases in children with sarcomas. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 12: 240 243.
4. Ammassari, A.,, A. Linzalone,, R. Muni,, G. Marasca,, G. Morace,, and A. Antinori. 1995. Fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of AIDS-associated cryptococcosis: a case-control study. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27: 235 237.
5. Andreu, C. F.,, G. M. Machin,, L. P. A. Bernai,, R. Morales,, and C. A. Herrera. 1990. Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolated in Havana City. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 85: 245.
6. Ansheng, L.,, K. Nishimura,, H. Taguchi,, R. Tanaka,, W. Shaoxi,, and M. Miyaji. 1993. The isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings and serotyping of naturally and clinically sourced isolates in China. Mycopathologia 124: 1 5.
7. Arasteh, K.,, F. Staib,, G. Crosse,, U. Futh,, and M. L'age. 1996. Cryptococcosis in HIV infection in man: an epidimiological and immunological indicator? Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 284: 1563 163.
8. Atkinson, A. J.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1968. Experience with a new skin test antigen prepared from Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 97: 637 643.
9. Bacellar, H.,, A. Muñoz,, E. N. Miller,, B. A. Cohen,, D. Besley,, O. A. Seines,, J. T. Becker,, and J. C. McArthur 1994. Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1-related neurologic diseases. Neurology 44: 1892 1900.
10. Baker, R. D. 1976. The primary pulmonary lymph node complex of cryptococcosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 65: 83 92.
11. Bava, A. J.,, R. Negroni,, and M. Bianchi. 1993. Cryptococcosis produced by a urease negative strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 31: 87 89.
12. Benard, G.,, R. C. B. Gryscheck,, A. J. S. Duarte,, and M. A. Shikanai-Yasuda. 1996. Cryptococcosis as an opportunistic infection in immunodeficiency secondary to paracoccidioidomycosis. Mycopathologia 133: 65 69.
13. Beng Bee, O.,, T. Tan,, and R. Pang. 1981. A case of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis successfully treated with miconazole. Arch. Dermatol. 117: 290 291.
14. Bennett, J. E.,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, and D. H. Howard. 1977. Epidemiologic differences among serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105: 582 586.
15. Beyt, B. E.,, and S. R. Waltman. 1978. Cryptococcal endoththalmitis after corneal transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 825 826.
16. Bindford, C. H. 1941. Torulosis of the central nervous system. Review of recent literature and report of a case. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 11: 242 251.
17. Bloomfield, N.,, M. A. Gordon,, and D. F. Elmendorf, Jr. 1963. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans antigen in body fluids by latex particle agglutination. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 114: 64 67.
18. Bogaerts, J.,, H. Taelman,, J. Batungwanayo,, P. Van de Perre,, and D. Swinne. 1993. Two cases of HIV-associated cryptococcosis due to variety gattii in Rwanda. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 63: 64.
19. Bonacini, M.,, J. Nussbaum,, and C. Ahluwalia. 1990. Gastrointestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic involvement with Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 12: 296 297.
20. Bottone, E. J.,, I. F. Salkin,, N. J. Hurd,, and G. P. Wormser. 1987. Serogroup distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 156: 242.
21. Brandt, M.,, S. L. Bragg,, and W. R. Pinner. 1993. Multilocus enzyme typing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2819 2823.
22. Brandt, M.,, L. C. Hutwagner,, L. A. Klug,, W. S. Baughman,, D. Rimland,, E. A. Graviss,, R. J. Hamill,, C. Thomas,, P. G. Pappas,, A. L. Reingold,, and R. W. Pinner. 1996. Molecular subtype distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in four areas of the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 912 917.
23. Brandt, M. E.,, L. C. Hutwagner,, R. J. Kuykendall,, R. W. Pinner, and The Cryptococcal Disease Active Surveillance Group. 1995. Comparison of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplifed polymorphic DNA analysis for molecular sub-typing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1890 1895.
24. Brandt, M. E.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. A. Hajjeh,, E. A. Graviss,, J. Rees,, E. D. Spitzer,, R. W. Pinner,, and L. W. Mayer. 1996. Molecular subtypes and antifungal susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 812 820.
25. Brandt, M. E.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. A. Hajjeh,, and R. W. Pinner. 1995. DNA subtypes and antifungal susceptibilities in recurrent cryptococcosis, abstr. E-77. Program Abstr. 35th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 1995.
26. Campbell, G. D.,, R. D. Currier,, and J. F. Busey. 1981. Survival in untreated cryptococcal meningitis. Neurology 31: 1154 1157.
27. Casadevall, A.,, L. Freundlich,, L. Marsh,, and M. D. Scharff. 1992. Extensive allelic variation in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1080 1084.
28. Casadevall, A.,, J. Mukherjee,, Y. RuiRong,, and J. Perfect 1994. Management of Cryptococcus neoformans contaminated needle injuries. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 951 953.
29. Casadevall, A.,, and A. Spitzer. 1995. Involvement of multiple Cryptococcus neoformans strains a single episode of cryptococcosis and reinfection with novel strains in recurrent infection demonstrated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and DNA fingerprinting, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1682 1683.
30. Casadevall, A.,, E. D. Spitzer,, D. Webb,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1993. Susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1383 1386.
31. Chariyalertsak, S.,, T. Sirisanthana,, K. Supparatpinyo,, and K. E. Nelson. 1996. Seasonal variation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infections in Northern Thailand: a clue to the reservoir? J. Infect. Dis. 173: 1490 1493.
32. Chen, E.,, B. P. Currie,, L.-C. Chen,, S. G. Spitzer,, E. D. Spitzer,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Genetic relatedness of Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates grouped with the repetitive DNA probe CNRE-1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2818 1822.
33. Chen, S. C. A.,, A. G. Brownlee,, T. C. Sorrell,, P. Ruma,, D. H. Ellis,, T. Pfeiffer,, B. R. Speed,, and G. Nimmo. 1996. Identification by random amplification of polymorphic DNA of a common molecular type of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in patients with AIDS or other immunosuppressive conditions. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 754 758.
34. Cherniak, R.,, L. C. Morris,, T. Belay,, E. D. Spitzer,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Variation in the structure of glucuronoxylomannan in isolates from patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Infect. Immun. 63: 1899 1905.
35. Chuck, S. L.,, and M. A. Sande. 1989. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 794 799.
36. Clark, R. A.,, D. Greer,, W. Atkinson,, G. T. Valianis,, and N. Hyslop. 1990. Spectrum of Cryptococcus neoformans infection on 68 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 768 777.
37. Clumeck, N.,, J. Sonnet,, H. Taelman,, E. Mascart-Lemont,, M. De Bruyère,, P. Vande-perre,, J. Dasnoy,, L. Marcelis,, M. Lamy,, C. Jonas,, L. Eyckmans,, H. Noel,, M. Vanhaeverbeek,, and J.-P. Butzler. 1984. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in African patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 492 497.
38. Collins, V. P.,, A. Gellhorn,, and J. R. Trimble. 1995. The coincidence of cryptococcosis and disease of the reticulo-endothelial and lymphatic systems. Cancer 4: 883 889.
39. Cox, L. B.,, and J. C. Tolhurst. 1946. Human Torulosis. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
40. Crowe, S. M.,, J. B. Carlin,, K. I. Stewart,, C. R. Lucas,, and J. F. Hoy. 1991. Predictive value of CD4 lymphocyte numbers for the development of opportunistic infections and malignancies in HIV-infected persons, J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 4: 770 776.
41. Currie, B.,, H. Sanati,, A. S. Ibrahim,, J. E. Edwards,, A. Casadevall,, and M. A. Ghannoum. 1995. Sterol compositions and susceptibilities to amphotericin B of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates are changed by murine passage. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 1934 1937.
42. Currie, B. P.,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Estimation of the prevalence of cryptococcal infection among HIV infected individuals in New York City. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 1029 1033.
43. Currie, B. P.,, L. F. Freundlich,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from environmental (pigeon excreta) and clinical isolates in New York City. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1188 1192.
44. Daly, J. S.,, K. A. Porter,, F. K. Chong,, and R. J. Robillard. 1990. Disseminated, nonmeningeal gastrointestinal cryptococcal infection in an HIV-negative patient. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 85: 1421 1424.
45. De Wytt, C.,, P. L. Dikson,, and G. Holt. 1982. Cryptococcal meningitis. A review of 32 years experience. J. Neurol. Sci. 53: 283 292.
46. DeShaw, M.,, and L.-A. Pirofski. 1995. Antibodies to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan are ubiquitous in serum from HIV+ and HIV- individuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99: 425 432.
47. Desmet, P.,, K. D. Kayembe,, and C. De Vroey. 1989. The value of cryptococcal antigen screening among HIV-positive/AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Zaire. AIDS 3: 77 78.
48. Dev, D.,, G. S. Basran,, D. Slater,, P. Taylor,, and M. Wood. 1994. Consider HIV negative immunodeficiency in cryptococcosis. Br. Med. J. 308: 1436.
49. Devi, S. J. N.,, P. G. Reddy,, C. A. Lyman,, T. I. Walsh,, C. E. Frasch,, and A. C. Bush. 1996. Immimohistochemical properties of a polysaccharide antigen of Trichosporon beigelii that cross-reacts with the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. Immunol. Infect. Dis. 6: 87 92.
50. Diamond, R. D.,, and J. E. Bennett 1974. Prognostic factors in cryptococcal meningitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 80: 176 181.
51. Dixon, D. M.,, M. M. McNeil,, M. L. Cohen,, B. G. Gellin,, and J. R. LaMontagne. 1996. Fungal infections. A growing threat. Public Health Rep. 111: 226 235.
52. Driver, J. A.,, C. A. Saunders,, B. Heinze-Lacey,, and A. M. Sugar. 1995. Cryptococcal pneumonia in AIDS: is cryptococcal meningitis preceded by clinically recognizable pneumonia. J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 9: 168 171.
53. Dromer, E.,, S. Mathoulin,, B. Dupont,, and A. Laporte. 1996. Epidemiology of cryptococcosis in France: a 9-year survey (1985-1993). Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 82 90.
54. Dromer, F.,, S. Mathoulin,, B. Dupont,, L. Letenneur,, and O. Ronin. 1996. Individual and environmental factors associated with infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 91 96.
55. Dromer, F.,, O. Ronin,, and B. Dupont. 1992. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from an Asian patient in France: evidence for dormant infection in healthy subjects. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30: 395 397.
56. Dromer, E.,, A. Vanna,, O. Ronin,, S. Mathoulin,, and B. Dupont 1994. Molecular typing of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2364 2371.
57. Drutz, D. J.,, M. Huppert,, S. H. Sun,, and W. L. McGuire. 1981. Human sex hormones stimulate the growth and maturation of Coccidioides immitis. Infect. Immun. 32: 897 907.
57a. Dummer, I. M.,, C. G. Montero,, B. P. Griffith,, R. L. Hardesty,, I. L. Paradis,, and M. Ho. 1986. Infections in heart-lung transplant recipients. Transplantation 41: 725 728.
58. Duncan, R. A.,, C. Fordhan von Reyn,, G. M. Alliegro,, Z. Toosi,, A. M. Sugar,, and S. M. Levitz. 1993. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia—four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 393 398.
59. Duperval, R.,, P. E. Hermans,, N. S. Brewer,, and G. S. Roberts. 1977. Cryptococcosis, with emphasis on the significance of isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from the respiratory tract. Chest 72: 13 19.
60. Edwards, V. E.,, J. M. Sutherland,, and J. H. Tyrer. 1970. Cryptococcosis of the central nervous system. Epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic features. J. Neurol . Neuro-surg. Psychiatr. 33: 415 425.
61. Ellis, D.,, and T. J. Pfeiffer. 1992. The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 8: 321 325.
62. Ellis, D. H. 1987. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Australia, ƒ. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 430 431.
63. Ellis, D. H.,, and T. J. Pfeiffer. 1990. Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Lancet 336: 923 925.
64. Ellis, D. H.,, and T. J. Pfeiffen 1990. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 1642 1644.
65. Emanuel, B.,, E. Ching,, A. D. Leiberman,, and M. Goldin. 1961. Cryptococcus meningitis in a child successfully treated with amphotericin B, with a review of the pediatric literature. J. Pediatr. 59: 577 591.
66. Emmons, W. W., III,, S. Luchsinger,, and L. Miller. 1995. Progressive pulmonary cryptococcosis in a patient who is immunocompetent. South. Med. J. 88: 657 660.
67. Eng, R. H. K.,, E. Bishburg,, S. M. Smith,, and R. Kapila. 1986. Cryptococcal infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am. J. Med. 81: 19 23.
68. Feldmesser, M.,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Effect of serum IgGl against murine pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 158: 790 799.
69. Fisher, D.,, J. Burrow,, D. Lo,, and B. Currie. 1993. Cryptococcus neoformans in tropical northern Australia: predominantly variant gattii with good outcomes. Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 23: 678 682.
70. Flickinger, F. W.,, M. D. Sathyanarayana,, J. E. Whote,, E. J. Stinger,, and R.-M. Fincher. 1993. Cryptococcocal pneumonia presenting as an infiltrative mass simulating carcinoma in an immunocompetent host: plain film, CT, and MRI. South. Med. J. 86: 450 452.
71. Franzot, S. P.,, J. S. Hamdan,, B. P. Currie,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Brazil and the United States: evidence for both local genetic differences and a global clonal population structure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2243 2251.
71a. Freeman, W. 1931. Torula infection of the central nervous system. J. Psychol. Neurol. 43: 236 345.
72. Friedman, G. D. 1983. The rarity of cryptococcosis in Northern California: the 10-year experience of a large defined population. Am. J. Epidemiol. 117: 230 234.
73. Friedman, M.,, A. Brenski,, and L. Taylor. 1994. Treatment of aphthous ulcers in AIDS patients. Laryngoscope 104: 566 570.
74. Fries, B. C.,, F. Chen,, B. P. Currie,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Karyotype instability in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1531 1534.
75. Frisch, M.,, and D. R. Gnepp. 1995. Primary cryptococcal infection of the larynx: report of a case. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 113: 477 480.
76. Fromtling, R. A.,, A. M. Fromtling,, S. Staib,, and S. Muller. 1981. Effect of uremia on lymphocyte transformation and chemiluminescence by spleen cells of normal and Cryptococcus neoformans-miected mice. Infect. Immun. 32: 1073 1078.
77. Gallis, H. A.,, R. A. Berman,, T. R. Cate,, J. D. Hamilton,, J. C. Gunnells,, and D. L. Stickel. 1975. Fungal infection following renal transplantation. Arch. Intern. Med. 135: 1163 1171.
78. Gendel, B. R.,, M. Ende,, and S. L. Norman. 1950. Cryptococcosis. A review with special reference to apparent association with Hodgkin's disease. Am. J. Med. 9: 343 355.
79. Gezuele, E.,, L. Calegari,, D. Sanabria,, G. Davel,, and E. Civila. 1993. Isolation in Uruguay of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from a nest of the wasp Polybia occidental. Rev. Voer. Micol. 10: 5 6.
80. Glaser, J. B.,, and A. Garden. 1985. Inoculation of cryptococcosis without transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 266.
81. Goldman, D.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the rat. Infect. Immun. 62: 4755 4761.
82. Goldstein, E.,, and O. N. Rambo. 1962. Cryptococcal infection following steroid therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 56: 114 120.
83. Gordon, M. A.,, and D. K. Vedder. 1966. Serologic tests in diagnosis and prognosis of cryptococcosis. JAMA 197: 131 137.
84. Granier, E.,, J. Kanitakis,, C. Hermier,, Y. Y. Zhu,, and J. Thivolet. 1987. Localized cutaneous cryptococcosis successfully treated with ketoconazole. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 16: 243 249.
85. Gupta, S.,, M. Ellis,, T. Cesario,, M. Ruhling,, and B. Vayuvegula. 1987. Disseminated cryptococcal infection in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia and normal T-cell function. Am. J. Med. 82: 129 131.
86. Hamagami, S.,, T. Miyagawa,, T. Ochi,, I. Tsuyuguchi,, and S. Kishimoto. 1992. A raised level of soluble CD8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Japan. Chest 101: 1044 1049.
87. Haugen, R. K.,, and R. D. Baker. 1954. The pulmonary lesions in cryptococcosis with special reference to subpleural nodules. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 24: 1381 1390.
88. Haynes, K. A.,, D. J. Sullivan,, D. C. Coleman,, J. C. K. Clarke,, R. Emilianus,, and K. J. Cann. 1995. Involvement of multiple Cryptococcus neoformans strains in a single episode of cryptococcosis and reinfection with novel strains in recurrent infection demonstrated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA and DNA fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 99 102.
89. Hibbeid, P. L.,, and R. H. Rabin. 1994. Clinical aspects of fungal infections in organ transplant patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19( Suppl. 1): S33 S44.
90. Houpt, D. C.,, G. S. T. Pfrommer,, B. J. Young,, T. A. Larson,, and T. R. Kozel. 1994. Occurrences, immunoglobulin classes, and biological activities of antibodies in normal human serum that are reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Infect. Immun. 62: 3857 2864.
91. Hsu, M. M.,, J.-C. Chang,, K. Yokoyama,, K. Nishimura,, and M. Miyaji. 1994. Serotypes and mating types of clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in Taiwan. Myco-pathologia 125: 77 81.
92. Huffnagle, G. B.,, J. L. Yates,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1991. Immunity to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 173: 793 800.
93. Hunter, P. R.,, and C. A. M. Fraser. 1990. Application of the theory of adaptive polymorphism to the ecology and epidemiology of pathogenic yeasts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 2219 2222.
94. Hutto, J. O.,, C. S. Bryan,, F. L. Greene,, C. J. White,, and J. I. Gallin. 1988. Cryptococcosis of the colon resembling Crohn's disease in a patient with the hyperimmuno-globulinemia E-recurrent infection (Job's) syndrome. Gastroenterology 94: 808 812.
95. Iarobellis, F. W.,, M. I. Jacobs,, and R. P. Cohen. 1984. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis. Arch. Dermatol. 23: 673 675.
96. Imwidthaya, P. 1994. One year's experience with Cryptococcus neoformans in Thailand. Trans. R. Soc. Trans. Med. Hyg. 88: 208.
97. Imwidthaya, P.,, P. Dithaprasop,, and C. Egtasaeng. 1989. Clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans in Bangkok (Thailand). Mycopathologia 108: 65 67.
98. Jabbouç, N.,, J. Reyes,, S. Kusne,, M. Martin,, and J. Fung. 1996. Cryptococcal meningitis after liver transplantation. Transplantation 61: 156 167.
99. Jacobs, D. H.,, A. M. Macher,, R. Handler,, J. E. Bennett,, M. J. Collen,, and J. I. Gallin. 1984. Esophageal cryptococcosis in a patient with the hyperimmunoglobulin E-recurrent infection (Job's) syndrome. Gastroenterology 87: 201 203.
100. John, G. T.,, M. Mathew,, E. Snehalatha,, V. Anandi,, A. Date,, C. K. Jacob,, and J. C. M. Shastry. 1994. Cryptococcosis in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 58: 855 856.
101. Jones, E. L. 1927. Torula infection of the nasopharynx. South. Med. J. 20: 120 126.
102. Kanj, S. S.,, K. Welty-Wolf,, J. Madden,, V. Tapson,, M. A. Baz,, R. D. Davis,, and J. R. Perfect. 1996. Fungal infections in lung and heart-lung transplant recipients. Medicine 75: 142 156.
103. Kapend'a, K.,, K. Komichelo,, D. Swinne,, and J. Vandepitte. 1987. Meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans biovar gattii in a Zairean AIDS patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6: 320 321.
104. Kaplan, M. H.,, P. P. Roses,, and D. Armstrong. 1977. Cryptococcosis in a cancer hospital. Clinical and pathological correlates in forty-six patients. Cancer 39: 2265 2274.
105. Katlama, C.,, C. Leport,, F. Brun-Vezinet,, C. Rouzioux,, D. Vittecoq,, T. Lambolez,, P. Lebras,, P. Petitprez,, G. Offendstadt,, F. Vachon,, J. L. Vilde,, J. P. Coulaud,, and A. G. Saimot 1984. Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africans. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 64: 379 389.
106. Kaufman, L.,, and S. Blumer. 1977. Cryptococcosis: the awakening giant, abstr. 176-182. Proc. Fourth International Conference on the Mycoses. PAHO Scientific Publication no. 356.
107. Keller, R. G.,, G. S. Pfrommer,, and T. R. Kozel. 1994. Occurrences, specificities, and functions of ubiquitous antibodies in human serum that are reactive with the Cryptococcus neoformans cell wall. Infect. Immun. 62: 215 220.
108. Keye, J. D.,, and W. E. Magee. 1956. Fungal diseases in a general hospital. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 26: 1235 1253.
109. Knight, F. R.,, D. W. Mackenzie,, B. G. Evans,, K. Porter,, N. J. Barrett,, and G. C. White. 1993. Increasing incidence of cryptococcosis in the United Kingdom. J. Infect. 27: 185 191.
110. Kohno, S.,, A. Varma,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, and K. Hara. 1994. Epidemiology studies of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans of Japan by restriction fragment length polymorphism, J. Jpn. Assoc. Infect. Dis. 68: 1512 1517.
111. Kovacs, J. A.,, A. A. Kovacs,, M. Polis,, W. C. Wright,, V. J. Gill,, C. U. Tuazon,, E. P. Gelmann,, H. C. Lane,, R. Longfield,, G. Overturf,, A. M. Mâcher,, A. S. Fauci,, J. E. Parrillo,, J. E. Bennett,, and H. Masur. 1985. Cryptococcosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 103: 533 538.
112. Krick, J. A. 1981. Familial cryptococcal meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 143: 133.
113. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1984. Epidemiologic differences between the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 120: 123 130.
114. Kyong, C. U.,, G. Virella,, H. H. Fudenberg,, and C. P. Darby. 1978. X-linked immunodeficiency with increased IgM: clinical, ethnic, and immunologic heterogeneity. Pediatr. Res. 12: 1024 1026.
115. Lazer, M. S.,, B. Wanke,, and M. M. Nishikawa. 1993. Isolation of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans from saprophytic sources in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 31: 449 454.
116. Leggiadro, R. J.,, F. F. Barrett,, and W. T. Hughes. 1992. Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompromised infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 43 47.
117. Leggiadro, R. J.,, M. W. Kline,, and W. T. Hughes. 1991. Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 10: 658 662.
118. Levin, E. A. 1937. Torula infection of the central nervous system. Arch. Intern. Med. 59: 667 684.
119. Lewis, J. L.,, and S. Rabinovich. 1972. The wide spectrum of cryptococcal infections. Am. J. Med. 53: 315 322.
120. Littman, M. L. 1959. Cryptococcosis (torulosis). Am. J. Med. 27: 976 998.
121. Littman, M. L. 1968. Cryptococcosis: current status. Am. J. Med. 45: 922 932.
122. Littman, M. L.,, and S. S. Schneierson. 1959. Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta in New York City. Am. J. Hyg. 69: 49 59.
123. Littman, M. L.,, and L. E. Zimmerman. 1956. Cryptococcosis, Torulosis or European Blastomycosis. Grune & Stratton, New York.
124. Lo, D. 1976. Cryptococcosis in the northern territory. Med. J. Aust. 27: 825 826.
125. Mabee, C. L.,, S. W. Mabee,, R. B. Kirkpatrick,, and S. L. Koletar. 1995. Cirrhosis: a risk factor for cryptococcal peritonitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90: 2042 2045.
126. Magee, J. T.,, C. Philpot,, J. Yang,, and I. K. Hosein. 1994. Pyrolysis typing of isolates from a recurrence of systemic cryptococcosis, J. Med. Microbiol. 40: 165 169.
127. Maher, D.,, and H. Mwandumba. 1994. Cryptococcal meningitis in Lilongwe and Blantyre, Malawi. J. Infect. 28: 59 64.
128. Manfredi, R.,, G. Rezza,, V. G. Coronado,, A. C. Lepri,, O. V. Coronado,, A. Mastroianni,, and F. Chiodo. 1995. Is AIDS-related cryptococcosis more frequent among men? AIDS 9: 397 398.
129. Mansoor, G. A.,, and D. B. Ornt. 1997. Cryptococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a case report. Clin. Nephrol. 41: 230 232.
130. Mare, M.,, M. T. Sartori,, M. Carretta,, A. Bertaggia,, and A. Girolami. 1990. Thino-phyma-like cryptococcal infection as an early manifestation of AIDS in a hemophilia B patient. Acta Haematol. 84: 101 103.
131. Marquis, G.,, S. Montplaisir,, M. Pelletier,, S. Mousseau,, and P. Auger. 1985. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice. Infect. Immun. 47: 282 287.
132. Martinez, A. J.,, M. Sell,, T. Mitrovics,, G. Stoltenburg-Didinger,, J. R. Iglesias-Rozas,, M. A. Giraldo-Velasquez,, G. Gosztonyi,, V. Schneider,, and J. Cervos-Navarro. 1995. The neuropathology and epidimiology of AIDS. A Berlin experience. A review of 200 cases. Pathol. Res. Pract. 191: 427 443.
133. McGehee, J. L.,, and I. D. Michelson. 1926. Torula infection in man, report of a case. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 42: 803 808.
134. McManus, E. J.,, and J. M. Jones. 1985. Detection of a Trichosporon beigelii antigen cross-reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide in serum from a patient with disseminated Trichosporon infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 681 685.
135. McNeill, J. I.,, and V. L. Kan. 1995. Decline in the incidence of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients. J. Acquired Immune Oefic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 9: 206 208.
136. McNulty, A.,, J. M. Kaldoç,, A. M. McDonald,, K. Baumgart,, and D. A. Cooper. 1994. Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection: national retrospective survey. Br. Med. J. 308: 825 826.
138. Miyagawa, T.,, S. Hamagami,, T. Ochi,, T. Osugi,, M. Kikui,, and H. Takahashi. 1982. Japanese summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis: studies using Cryptococcus antigen. Clin. Allergy 12: 343 354.
139. Miyagawa, T.,, T. Ochi,, and H. Takahashi. 1978. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Allergy 8: 501 509.
140. Mody, C. H.,, G. B. Toews,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1988. Cyclosporin A inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans on a murine model. Infect. Immun. 56: 7 12.
141. Mody, C. H.,, G. B. Toews,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1989. Treatment of murine cryptococcosis with cyclosporin-A in normal and athymic mice. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 139: 8 13.
142. Murphy, J. J.,, F. D. McDonald,, M. Dawson,, A. Reite,, J. Turcotte,, and R. Fekety. 1976. Factors affecting the frequency of infection in renal transplant recipients. Arch. Intern. Med. 136: 670 677.
143. Newberry, W. M.,, J. Walter,, J. W. Chandler,, and F. E. Tosh. 1967. Epidemiologic study of Cryptococcus neoformans. Ann. Intern. Med. 67: 727 732.
144. Newton, J. A.,, S. A. Tasker,, W. D. Bone,, E. C. Oldfield III,, P. E. Olson,, and M. T. Nguyen. 1995. Weekly fluconazole for the suppression of recurrent thrush in HTV-se-ropositive patients: impact on the incidence of disseminated cryptoccal infection. AIDS 9: 1286 1287.
145. Nightingale, S. D.,, S. X. Cal,, D. M. Peterson,, S. D. Loss,, B. A. Gamble,, D. A. Watson,, C. P. Manzone,, J. E. Baker,, and J. D. Jockusch. 1992. Primary prophylaxis with fluconazole against systemic fungal infections in HIV-positive patients. AIDS 6: 191 194.
146. Nishikawa, M. M.,, O. D. Sanf anna,, M. S. Lazera,, and B. Wanke. 1996. Use of D-proline assimilation and CGB medium for screening Brazilian Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34: 365 366.
147. Noble, R. C.,, and L. F. Fajardo. 1972. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 57: 13 22.
148. Nottenbart, H. C.,, R. F. McGehee,, and J. P. Utz. 1973. Cryptococcosis complicating sarcoidosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 107: 1060 1063.
149. Odom, A.,, M. Del Poeta,, J. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 1997. The immunosuppressant FK506 and its nonimmunosuppressive analog L-685,818 are toxic to Cryptococcus neoformans by inhibition of a common target protein. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 156 161.
150. Olson, P. E.,, K. C. Earhart,, R. J. Rossetti,, J. A. Newton,, and M. R. Wallace. 1997. Smoking and risk of cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS. JAMA 277: 629.
151. Ooi, B.,, B. T. M. Chen,, C. H. Lim,, O. T. Khoo,, and K. T. Chan. 1971. Survival of a patient transplanted with a kidney infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. Transplantation 11: 428 429.
152. Ostrowski, M.,, I. E. Salit,, W. L. Gold,, D. Sutton,, M. L. Montpetit,, D. Lepine,, and T. Salas. 1993. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in two patients. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 149: 1679 1683.
153. Paya, C. V. 1993. Fungal infections in solid-organ transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16: 677 688.
154. Perfect, J. R. 1993. Antifungal prophylaxis: to prevent or not. Am. J. Med. 94: 233 234.
155. Perfect, J. R.,, and D. T. Durack. 1985. Effects of cyclosporine in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Infect. Immun. 50: 22 26.
156. Perfect, J. R.,, N. Ketabchi,, G. M. Cox,, C. W. Ingram,, and C. L. Beiser. 1993. Karyotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans as an epidemiological tool. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 3305 3309.
157. Perfect, J. R.,, B. B. Magee,, and P. T. Magee. 1989. Separation of chromosomes of Cryptococcus neoformans by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Infect. Immun. 57: 2624 2627.
158. Perriens, J. H.,, M. Mussa,, M. K. Luabeya,, K. Kayembe,, B. Kapita,, C. Brown,, P. Piot,, and R. Janssen. 1992. Neurological complications of HIV-l-seropositive internal medicine in patients in Kinshasa, Zaire. J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 5: 333 340.
159. Piot, P.,, T. C. Quinn,, H. Telman,, F. M. Feinsod,, K. B. Minlangu,, O. Wobin,, N. Mbendi,, P. Mazebo,, K. Ndandi,, W. Stevens,, K. Kalambayi,, S. Mitchell,, C. Bridts,, and J. B. McCormick. 1984. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a heterosexual population in Zaire. Lancet ii: 65 68.
160. Polacheck, I.,, and G. Lebens. 1989. Electrophoretic karyotype of the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 65 71.
161. Polacheck, I.,, G. Lebens,, and J. B. Hicks. 1992. Development of DNA probes for early diagnosis and epidemiological study of cryptococcosis in AIDS patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 925 930.
162. Powell, K. E.,, B. A. Dahl,, R. J. Weeks,, and F. E. Tosh. 1972. Airborne Cryptococcus neoformans: particles from pigeon excreta compatible with alveolar deposition. J. Infect. Dis. 125: 412 415.
163. Rebers, P. A.,, S. A. Barker,, M. Heidelberger,, Z. Dische,, and E. E. Evans. 1958. Precipitation of the specific polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans A by types II and XIV antipneumococcal antisera. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80: 1135 1137.
164. Restrepo, A.,, M. E. Salazar,, L. E. Cano,, E. P. Stover,, D. Feldman,, and D. A. Stevens. 1984. Estrogens inhibit mycelium-to-yeast transformation in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: implications for resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis. Infect. Immun. 46: 346 353.
165. Rinaldi, M. G.,, D. J. Drutz,, A. Howell,, M. A. Sande,, C. B. Wofsy,, and W. K. Hadley. 1986. Serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 642.
166. Rippon, J. W. 1988. Medical Mycology. The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Acti-nomycetes, p. 582. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
167. Rogers, M. E.,, P. Thomas,, E. T. Starcher,, M. C. Noa,, T. J. Bush,, and H. W. Jaffe. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children: report of the Centers for Disease Control national surveillance, 1982 to 1985. Pediatrics 79: 1008 1014.
168. Rozenbaum, R.,, and A. J. Goncalves. 1994. Clinical epidemiological study of 171 cases of cryptococcosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18: 369 380.
169. Rozenbaum, R.,, A. J. Goncalves,, B. Wanke,, and W. Viera. 1990. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in a Brazilian AIDS patient. Mycopathologia 112: 33 34.
170. Rozenbaum, R.,, A. J. Goncalves,, B. Wanke,, M. J. Caiuby,, H. Clemente,, M. D. S. Lazera,, P. C. F. Monteiro,, and A. T. Londero. 1992. Cryptococcus neoformans varieties as agents of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Mycopathologia 119: 133 136.
171. Ruane, R. J.,, L. J. Walker,, and W. L. George. 1988. Disseminated infection caused by urease-negative Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2224 2225.
172. Ruiz, A.,, and G. S. Bulmer. 1981. Particle size of airborne Cryptococcus neoformans in a tower. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 1225 1229.
173. Ruiz, A.,, D. Velez,, and R. A. Fromtling. 1989. Isolation of saprophytic Cryptococcus neoformans from Puerto Rico: distribution and variety. Mycopathologia 106: 167 170.
174. Salkowski, C. A.,, K. F. Bartizal,, M. Balish,, and E. Balish. 1987. Colonization and pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans in gnotobiotic mice. Infect. Immun. 55: 2000 2005.
175. Salvin, S. B. 1959. Current concepts of diagnostic serology and skin hypersensitivity in the mycoses. Am. J. Med. 27: 97 114.
176. Salyer, W. R.,, D. C. Salyer,, and R. D. Baker. 1974. Primary complex of Cryptococcus and pulmonary lymph nodes, J. Infect. Dis. 130: 74 77.
177. Sarosi, G. A.,, J. D. Parker,, I. L. Doto,, and F. E. Tosh. 1992. Amphotericin B in cryptococcal meningitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 71: 1079 1087.
178. Sarosi, G. A.,, P. M. Silberfarb,, and F. E. Tosh. 1971. Cutaneous cryptococcosis: a sentinel of disseminated disease. Arch. Dermatol. 104: 1 3.
179. Schimpff, S. C.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1975. Abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity in patients with Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 55: 430 441.
180. Sekhon, A. S.,, S. N. Banneijee,, B. M. Mielke,, H. Idikio,, G. Wood,, and J. M. S. Dixon. 1990. Current status of cryptococcosis in Canada. Mycoses 33: 73 80.
181. Shaariah, W.,, Z. Morad,, and A. B. Suleiman. 1992. Cryptococcosis in renal transplant recipients. Transplant. Proc. 24: 1898 1899.
182. Shimazu, W.,, M. Ando,, T. Sakata,, C. Yoshida,, and S. Araki. 1984. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Trichosporon cutaneum. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 130: 407 411.
183. Shimizu, R. Y.,, D. H. Howard,, and M. N. Clancy. 1986. The variety of Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 154: 1042.
184. Siewers, C. M. E.,, and H. G. Cramblett. 1964. Cryptococcosis (torulosis) in children. A report of four cases. Pediatrics 34: 393 400.
185. Singh, N. 1997. Clinical and environmental factors associated with cryptococcosis in liver transplant patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24: 744 745.
186. Smith, D. K.,, J. J. Neal,, and S. D. Holmberg. 1993. Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 373 379.
187. Smith, J. H.,, M. M. Nichols,, A. Goldman,, F. C. Schmalstieg,, and R. M. Goldblum. 1982. Disseminated cryptococcosis in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency. Hum. Pathol. 13: 500 503.
188. Smith, J. W.,, and W. C. Arnold. 1988. Cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with peritoneal dialysis. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 11: 430 433.
189. Sokolowski, J. W.,, R. F. Schillaci,, and T. E. Motley. 1969. Disseminated cryptococcosis complicating sarcoidosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 100: 717 722.
190. Sorrell, T. C.,, S. C. Chen,, P. Ruma,, W. Meyer,, T. J. Pfeiffer,, D. H. Ellis,, and A. G. Brownlee. 1996. Concordance of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis and PCR fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1253 1260.
191. Sorvillo, E.,, G. Beall,, P. A. Turner,, V. L. Beer,, A. A. Kovacs,, and P. R. Kemdt. 1997. Incidence and factors associated with extrapulmonary cryptococcosis among persons with HIV infection in Los Angeles County. AIDS 11: 673 679.
192. Speed, B.,, and D. Dunt. 1995. Clinical and host differences between infections with the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 28 34.
193. Speed, B. R.,, and J. Kaldor. 1997. Rarity of cryptococcal infection in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16: 536 537.
194. Speed, B. R.,, L. Strawbridge,, and D. H. Ellis. 1993. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis in an Australian patient with AIDS. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 31: 395 399.
195. Spickard, A.,, W. T. Butler,, V. Andriole,, and J. P. Utz. 1963. The improved prognosis of cryptococcal meningitis with amphotericin B therapy. Ann. Intern. Med. 58: 66 83.
196. Spira, T. J.,, B. M. Jones,, J. K. A. Nicholson,, R. B. Lala,, T. Rowe,, A. C. Mawle,, C. B. Lauter,, J. A. Shulman,, and R. A. Monson. 1993. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocy-topenia—an analysis of five patients with unexplained opportunistic infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 328: 386 392.
197. Spitzer, E. D.,, and S. G. Spitzer. 1992. Use of a dispersed repetitive DNA element to distinguish clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1094 1097.
198. Spitzer, E. D.,, S. G. Spitzer,, L. F. Freundlich,, and A. Casadevall. 1993. Persistence of the initial infection in recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Lancet 341: 595 596.
199. Stamm, A. M.,, R. B. Diasio,, W. E. Dismukes,, S. Shadomy,, G. A. Cloud,, C. A. Bowles,, and G. H. Karam. 1987. Toxicity of Amphotericin B plus flucytosine in 194 patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Am. J. Med. 83: 236 242.
200. St.-Germain, G.,, G. Noel,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1988. Disseminated cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii in a Canadian patient with AIDS. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 587 588.
201. Stone, B. D.,, and J. G. Wheeler. 1990. Disseminated cryptococcal infection in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulmemia E syndrome. J. Pediatr. 117: 92 95.
202. Sullivan, D.,, K. Haynes,, G. Moran,, D. Shanley,, and D. Coleman. 1996. Persistence, replacement, and microevolution of Cryptococcus neoformans strains in recurrent meningitis in AIDS patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1739 1744.
203. Summerbell, R. C.,, F. Staib,, R. Dales,, N. Nolard,, J. Kane,, H. Zwanenburg,, R. Burnett,, S. Kradjen,, D. Fung,, and D. Leong. 1992. Ecology of fungi in human dwellings. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30( Suppl. l): 279 285.
204. Sussman, E. J.,, F. MacMahon,, D. Wright,, and H. M. Friedman. 1984. Cutaneous cryptococcosis without evidence of systemic involvement, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 11: 371 374.
205. Swinne, D.,, M. Deppner,, S. Maniratunga,, R. Laroche,, J.-J. Floch,, and P. Kadende. 1991. AIDS-associated cryptococcosis in Bujumbura, Burundi: an epidimiological study. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 29: 25 30.
206. Swinne, D.,, K. Kayembe,, and M. Niyimi. 1986. Isolation of saprophytic Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in Kinshasa, Zaire. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 66: 57 61.
207. Swinne, D.,, J. B. Nkurikiyinfura,, and T. L. Muyembe. 1986. Clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Zaire. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 5: 50 51.
208. Tabone, M.-C.,, G. Leverger,, J. Landman,, C. Aznar,, L. Boccon-Gibod,, and G. Lasfar-gues. 1994. Disseminated lymphonodular cryptococcosis in a child with X-linked hyper-IgM immunodeficiency. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 77 79.
209. Taelman, H.,, J. Clerinx,, A. Kagame,, J. Batungwanayo,, A. Nyirabareja,, and J. Bogaerts. 1991. Cryptococcosis, another growing burden in central Africa. Lancet 338: 761.
210. Takos, M. J. 1956. Experimental cryptococcosis produced by the ingestion of virulent organisms. N. Engl. J. Med. 254: 598 601.
211. Tanphaichitra, D.,, S. Sahaphongs,, and S. Srimuang. 1988. Cryptococcal antigen survey among racing pigeon workers and patients with cryptococcosis, pythiosis, histoplasmosis, and penicilliosis. Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. 8: 433 439.
212. Ting, S. E.,, B. E. Glader,, and C. G. Prober. 1991. Cryptococcus infection in a nine-year-old child with hemophilia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 10: 76 77.
214. Van de Perre, P.,, P. Lepage,, P. Kestelyn,, A. Hekker,, D. Rouvroy,, J. Bogaerts,, J. Kayihigi,, and J.-P. Butzler. 1984. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Rwanda. Lancet ii: 62 65.
215. Varma, A.,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1989. Restriction fragment polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 3353 3362.
216. Varma, A.,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1992. DNA probe for typing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2960 2967.
217. Varma, A.,, D. Swinne,, F. Staib,, J. E. Bennett,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1995. Diversity of DNA fingerprints in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1807 1814.
218. Villanueva, E.,, M. Mendoza,, E. Torres,, M. B. Albornoz,, M. E. Cavazza,, and G. Urbina. 1989. Serotipificacion de 27 cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans aisladas en Venezuela. Acta Científica Venezolana 40: 151 154.
219. Wang, E.,, Y. So,, E. Vittinghoff,, H. Malani,, A. Reingold,, E. Lewis,, J. Giordano,, and R. Janssen. 1995. Incidence proportion of and risk factors for AIDS patients diagnosed with HIV dementia, central nervous system toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcal meningitis. ƒ. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. 8: 75 82.
220. White, M.,, C. Cirrincione,, A. Blevins,, and D. Armstrong. 1992. Cryptococcal meningitis: outcome in patients with AIDS and patients with neoplastic disease. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 960 963.
221. Wickes, B. L.,, D. E. Moore,, and K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1994. Comparison of the electro-phoretic karyotypes and chromosomal location of ten genes in the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 140: 543 555.
222. Yamamoto, Y.,, S. Kohno,, H. Koga,, H. Kakeya,, K. Tomono,, M. Kaku,, T. Yamazaki,, M. Arisawa,, and K. Hara. 1995. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of clinically and environmentally isolated Cryptococcus neoformans in Nagasaki, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 3328 3332.
223. Yinnon, A. M.,, A. Solages,, and J. J. Treanor. 1993. Cryptococcal peritonitis: report of a case developing during continuous peritoneal dialysis and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 736 741.
224. Zimmerman, L. E.,, and H. Rappaport 1954. Occurrence of cryptococcosis in patients with malignant disease of reticuloendothelial system. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 24: 1050 1072.
225. Zimmermann, B., III,, M. Spiegel,, and E. V. Lally. 1992. Cryptococcal meningitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 22: 18 24.
226. Zuger, A.,, E. Louie,, R. S. Holzman,, M. S. Simberkoff,, and J. J. Rahal. 1986. Cryptococcal disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnostic features and outcome of treatment. Ann. Intern. Med. 104: 234 240.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Prevalence of cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected patients in the United States

Yеаr the study was published. All studies were retrospective.

Prevalence of infection is the number of cases of cryptococcosis divided by the number of HIV-infected patients.

The authors of this study suggested that the drier climate of southern California may contribute to a lower prevalence of infection relative to other regions of the United States.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 2

Prevalence of cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected patients in several countries

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 3

Predominance of male patients in studies of clinical cryptococcosis

Many of the patients in this study had lymphoproliferative neoplasms.

This study reviewed several previous studies, and the total number of patients reported is shown here.

All or most of the patients in these studies had been infected with the HIV virus.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11
Generic image for table
Table 4

Conditions associated with predisposition to infections

Diabetes mellitus has historically been considered a risk factor for cryptococcal infection. However, diabetes is a common disease, and it is unclear whether this condition is truly a risk factor for cryptococcosis.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Epidemiology, p 351-380. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch11

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error