1887

Chapter 15 : Prevention of Human Infection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Prevention of Human Infection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

The benefits of prevention are obvious given that cryptococcal infections require prolonged therapy, have high mortality and morbidity despite appropriate therapy, and are virtually incurable in patients with severely impaired immune function. The inadequacy of existing therapies is further exemplified by their inability to eradicate most cryptococcal infections in patients with severe immunological impairment, such as those with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HTV) infection. Chemoprophylaxis involves the administration of antifungal drugs to high-risk patients to reduce the probability of primary infection or recurrence of infection. The introduction of safe and effective oral azole drugs in the early 1990s made feasible the design of effective, low-toxicity regimens for preventing cryptococcal infections. The experience with infections in patients with AIDS is different from that in other patient groups in that cryptococcal infection in patients with AIDS is seldom curable. It is important to consider that non-antifungal drugs and/or dietary practices may conceivably reduce the risk of cryptococcal infection in some patients. The availability of a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for infection in the form of the cryptococcal antigen detection assay suggests the feasibility of screening high-risk populations for early signs of cryptococcosis. Several studies have shown that screening of high-risk patients for cryptococcal antigen can identify some cases of cryptococcal infection. The conjugate vaccine is based on the premise that a vaccine that elicits a strong antibody response will protect against infection in susceptible hosts.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Prevention of Human Infection, p 519-530. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818241.chap15
1. Ammassari, A.,, A. Linzalone,, R. Muni,, G. Marasca,, G. Morace,, and A. Antinori. 1995. Fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of AIDS-associated cryptococcosis: a case-control study. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27: 235 237.
2.Anonymous. 1980. Garlic in cryptococcal meningitis. A preliminary report of 21 cases. Chin. Med. J. 93: 123 126.
3.Anonymous. 1994. Case 7-1994. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 490 496.
4. Bacellar, H.,, A. Munoz,, E. N. Miller,, B. A. Cohen,, D. Besley,, O. A. Seines,, J. T. Becker,, and J. C. McArthur. 1994. Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-l-related neurologic diseases. Neurology 44: 1892 1900.
5. Barchiesi, F.,, M. Del Poeta,, V. Morbiducci,, F. Ancarani,, and G. Scalise. 1994. Effect of pentamidine on the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33: 1229 1232.
6. Bozette, S. A.,, R. A. Larsen,, J. Chie,, M. A. Leal,, J. Jacobsen,, P. Rothman,, P. Robinson,, G. Gilbert,, J. A. McCutchan,, J. Tilles,, J. M. Leedom,, and D. D. Richman. 1991. A placebo-controlled trial of maintenance therapy with fluconazole after treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 324: 580 584.
7. Brandt, M. E.,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. A. Hajjeh,, E. A. Graviss,, J. Rees,, E. D. Spitzer,, R. W. Pinner,, and L. W. Mayer. 1996. Molecular subtypes and antifungal susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 812 820.
8. Caporaso, N.,, S. M. Smith,, and R. K. Eng. 1983. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 23: 700 702.
9. Casadevall, A.,, J. Mukherjee,, S. J. N. Devi,, R. Schneerson,, J. B. Robbins,, and M. D. Scharff. 1992. Antibodies elicited by a Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxyloman-nan-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine have the same specificity as those elicited in infection. J. Infect. Dis. 65: 1086 1093.
10. Casadevall, A.,, J. Mukherjee,, Y. RuiRong,, and J. Perfect. 1994. Management of Cryptococcus neoformans contaminated needle injuries. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 951 953.
11. Casadevall, A.,, E. D. Spitzer,, D. Webb,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1993. Susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1383 1386.
12. Chin, N.-X.,, I. Weitzman,, and P. Della-Latta. 1997. In vitro activity of fluvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering agent, and synergy with fluconazole and itraconazole against Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 850 852.
13. Cox, L. B.,, and J. C. Tolhurst 1946. Human Torulosis. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
14. Cruz, M. C.,, M. S. Bartlett,, and T. D. Edlind. 1994. In vitro susceptibility of the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to anthelmintic benzimidazoles. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38: 378 380.
15. Currie, B. P.,, M. A. Ghannoum,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Decreased fluconazole susceptibility of a relapse Cryptococcus neoformans isolate after fluconazole treatment. Infect. Dis. Clin. Pract. 4: 318 319.
16. Davis, L. E.,, J.-K. Shen,, and Y. Cai. 1990. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 651 653.
17. Desmet, P.,, K. D. Kayembe,, and C. De Viroey. 1989. The value of cryptococcal antigen screening among HIV-positive/AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Zaire. AIDS 3: 77 78.
18. Devi, S. J. N. 1996. Preclinical efficacy of a glucuronoxylomannan-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model. Vaccine 14: 841 842.
19. Devi, S. J. N.,, R. Schneerson,, W. Egan,, T. J. Ulrich,, D. Bryla,, J. B. Robbins,, and J. E. Bennett. 1991. Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccines: synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity. Infect. Immun. 59: 3700 3707.
20. Duarte, A.,, N. Ordonez,, and E. Castañeda. 1994. Association de levaduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santa Fe de Bogota. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 36: 125 130.
21. Eilam, Y.,, I. Polacheck,, G. Ben-Gigi,, and D. Chernichovsky. 1987. Activity of phe-nothiazines against medically important yeasts. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31: 834 836.
22. Ellis, D. H.,, and T. J. Pfeiffer. 1990. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 1642 1644.
23. Feldmesser, M.,, C. Harris,, S. Reichberg,, S. Khan,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Serum cryptococcal antigenemia in patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 827 830.
24. Fries, B. C.,, F. Chen,, B. P. Currie,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Karyotype instability in Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1531 1534.
25. Gallani, J. E.,, R. D. Moore,, and R. E. Chaisson. 1994. Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in patients with early HIV infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 120: 932 944.
26. Glaser, J. B.,, and A. Garden. 1985. Inoculation of cryptococcosis without transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 313: 266.
27. Goldman, D.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the rat. Infect Immun. 62: 4755 4761.
28. Gordon, M. A.,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Serum therapy of cryptococcal meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 1477 1479.
29. Hoffmann, S.,, J. Stenderup,, and L. R. Mathiesen. 1991. Low yield of screening for cryptococcal antigen by latex agglutination assay on serum and cerebrospinal fluid from Danish patients with AIDS or ARC. Scand. J. Immunol. 23: 697 702.
30. Kitchen, L. W. 1996. Adjunctive immunologic therapy for Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 209 210.
31. Kitchen, L. W.,, J. A. Ross,, J. E. Hernandez,, A L. Zarraga,, and F. J. Mather. 1992. Effect of administration of diethylcarbamazine on experimental bacterial and fungal infections in mice. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 1: 259 268.
32. Kitchen, L. W.,, J. A. Ross,, B. S. Turner,, J. E. Hernandez,, and F. J. Mather. 1995. Diethylcarbamazine enhances blood microbicidal activity. Adv. Ther. 12: 22 29.
33. Kovacs, J. A.,, A. A. Kovacs,, M. Polis,, W. C. Wright,, V. J. Gill,, C. U. Tuazon,, E. P. Gelmann,, H. C. Lane,, R. Longfíeld,, G. Overturf,, A. M. Macher,, A. S. Fauci,, J. E. Parrillo,, J. E. Bennett,, and H. Masur. 1985. Cryptococcosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 103: 533 538.
34. Larsen, R. A.,, S. Bozette,, A. McCutchan,, J. Chiu,, M. A. Leal,, and D. D. Richman. 1989. Persistent Cryptococcus neoformans infection of the prostate after successful treatment of meningitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 111: 125 128.
35. Leggiadro, R. J.,, F. F. Barrett,, and W. T. Hughes. 1992. Extrapulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompromised infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11: 43 47.
36. Levitz, S. M.,, T. S. Harrison,, A. Tabuni,, and X. Liu. 1997. Chloroquine induces human nononuclear phagocytes to inhibit and kill Cryptococcus neoformans by a mechanism independent of iron deprivation, J. Clin. Invest. 100: 1640 1646.
37. Licea, B. A.,, D. G. Garza,, and M. T. Zuniga. 1996. Aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii de Eucalyptus tereticornis. Rev. Iber. Micol. 13: 27 28.
38. McNeill, J. I.,, and V. L. Kan. 1995. Decline in the incidence of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients. J. Acquired Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 206: 207.s
39. Mukherjee, J.,, L. Pirofski,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1993. Antibody mediated protection in mice with lethal intracerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 3636 3640.
40. Mukherjee, J.,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1992. Protective murine monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60: 4534 4541.
41. Negroni, R.,, C. Cendoya,, A. I. Arechavala,, A. M. Robles,, M. Bianchi,, A. J. Bava,, and S. Helou. 1995. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide antigen in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 37: 385 389.
42. Nelson, M. R.,, M. Fisher,, J. Cartledge,, T. Rogers,, and B. G. Gazzard. 1994. The role of azoles in the treatment and prophylaxis of cryptococcal disease in HIV infection. AIDS 8: 651 654.
43. Newton, J. A.,, P. Olson,, S. A. Tasker,, W. D. Bone,, M. T. Nguyen,, and E. C. Oldfield. 1993. Weekly fluconazole for the suppression of recurrent thrush in HIV seropositive patients: impact on the incidence of disseminated cryptococcal infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 563. (Abstract 194.)
44. Newton, J. A.,, S. A. Tasker,, W. D. Bone,, E. C. Oldfield III,, P. E. Olson,, and M. T. Nguyen. 1995. Weekly fluconazole for the suppression of recurrent thrush in HIV-seropositive patients: impact on the incidence of disseminated cryptoccal infection. AIDS 9: 1286 1287.
45. Nightingale, S. D.,, S. X. Cal,, D. M. Peterson,, S. D. Loss,, B. A. Gamble,, D. A. Watson,, C. P. Manzone,, J. E. Baker,, and J. D. Jockusch. 1992. Primary prophylaxis with fluconazole against systemic fungal infections in HIV-positive patients. AIDS 6: 191 194.
46. Olson, P. E.,, K. C. Earhart,, R. J. Rossetti,, J. A. Newton,, and M. R. Wallace. 1997. Smoking and risk of cryptococcosis in patients with AIDS. JAMA 277: 629.
47. Paugam, A.,, J. Dupouy-Camet,, P. Blanche,, J. P. Gangneux,, C. T. Schaefer,, and D. Sicard. 1994. Decreased fluconazole resistance of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from a patient with AIDS and recurrent meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 975 976.
48. Perfect, J. R. 1993. Antifungal prophylaxis: to prevent or not. Am. J. Med. 94: 233 234.
49. Pfeiffer, T. J.,, and D. H. Ellis. 1992. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus tereticornis. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30: 407 408.
50. Pinner, R. W.,, R. A. Hajjeh,, and W. G. Powderly. 1995. Prospects forpreventing cryptococcosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21( Suppl.1): S103 S107.
51. Pirofski, L.,, R. Lui,, M. DeShaw,, A. B. Kressel,, and Z. Zhong. 1995. Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies elicited by vaccination with a Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Infect. Immun. 63: 3005 3014.
52. Powderly, W.G. 1996. Recent advances in the managementof cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect.Dis. 22( Suppl. 2): S119 S123.
53. Powderly, W.G.,, D. M. Finkelstein,, J. Feinberg,, P. Frame,, W. He,, C. van der hosrt,, S. L. Koletar,, M. E. Eyster,, J. Carey,, H. Wskin,, T. M. Hooton,, N. Hyslop,, S. A. Spector,, and S. A. Bozette. 1995. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with clotrimazole troches for the prevention of fungal infections in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 700 705.
54. Powderly, W. G.,, E. J. Keath,, M. Sokol-Anderson,, D. Kitz,, J. Russell Little,, and G. Kobayashi. 1992. Amphotericin B-resistant Cryptococcus neoformans in a patient with AIDS. Infect. Dis. Clin. Pract. 1: 314 316.
55. Reardon, C. C.,, S. J. Kim,, R. P. Wagner,, H. Koziel,, and H. Kornfeld. 1996. Phagocytosis and growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by human alveolar macrophages: effects of HTV-1 infection. AIDS 10: 613 618.
56. Rogers, M.E.,, P. Thomas,, E. T. Starcher,, M. C. Noa,, T. J. Bush,, and H. W. Jaffe. 1987. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in children: report of the Centers for Disease Control national surveillance, 1982 to 1985. Pediatrics 79: 1008 1014.
57. Spitzer, E. D.,, S. G. Spitzer,, L. F. Freundlich,, and A. Casadevall. 1993. Persistence of the initial infection in recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Lancet 341: 595 596.
58. Sugar, A. M.,, and C. Saunders. 1988. Oral fluconazole as suppressive therapy of disseminated cryptococcosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. J. Med. 85: 481 489.
59. Walter, J. E.,, and E. G. Coffee. 1968. Control of Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon coops by alkalinization. Am. J. Epidemiol. 87: 173 178.
60. Wang, Y.,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Susceptibility of melanized and non-melanized Cryptococcus neoformans to the melanin-binding compounds trifluoperazine and chloroquine. Antimicrób. Agents Chemother. 40: 541 545.
61. Williamson, P. R.,, J. E. Bennett,, M. A. Polis,, J. B. Robbins,, and R. Schneerson. 1993. Immunogenicity and safety of a conjugate glucuronoxylomannan-tetanus conjugate vaccine in volunteers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17: 540. (Abstract 56.)
62. Williamson, P. R.,, J. E. Bennett,, J. B. Robbins,, and R. Schneerson. 1993. Vaccination for prevention of cryptococcosis, abstr. L22, p. 60. 2nd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, Milan.
63. Yamada, Y.,, and K. Azuma. 1977. Evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity of allicin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 11: 743 749.
64. Yoshida, S.,, S. Kausga,, N. Hayashi,, T. Ushiroguchi,, H. Matssura,, and S. Nakagawa. 1987. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 615 617.
65. Zuger, A.,, E. Louie,, R. S. Holzman,, M. S. Simberkoff,, and J. J. Rahal. 1986. Cryptococcal disease in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnostic features and outcome of treatment. Ann. Intern. Med. 104: 234 240.
66. Zuger, A.,, M. Shuster,, M. S. Simberkoff,, J. J. Rahal,, and R. S. Holzman. 1988. Maintenence amphotericin B for cryptococcal meningitis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann. Intern. Med. 109: 592 593.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Strategies for the prevention of infection

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Prevention of Human Infection, p 519-530. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error