1887

Chapter 8 : Specific Immunity and Cytokines

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Specific Immunity and Cytokines, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818241/9781555811075_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

Specific immune mechanisms are composed of humoral and cellular arms. Specific immunity develops in response to infection or immunization with products and functions to contain and/or eradicate infection. The human antibody response to consists of antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule and to protein antigens. The antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide antigen has been extensively studied. The conjugate vaccine strategy is based on the premise that high-titer antibody responses in patients at risk for infection can enhance the efficacy of nonspecific (e.g., macrophage, neutrophil, natural killer cell) and cellular immunity to prevent clinical infection. In summary, the role of humoral immunity in defense against is complex and incompletely understood. There is convincing evidence that administration of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)-binding monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can protect mice. The study of cytokines in mice is aided by the availability of many murine reagents and several mouse strains deficient in specific cytokines. Many cytokines have now been shown to have an important role in host defense against cryptococcal infection.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II
0.40713513
0.40713513
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Effect of antibody administration (MAb 2H1, IgG1) on survival of mice given lethal cryptococcal infection by various routes. The degree to which antibody prolongs survival is dependent on the route of infection. For details of individual models, see the following references: intraperitoneal ( ), intravenous ( ), intracerebral ( ), and intratracheal ( ). Part of this figure was published previously ( ) and is reproduced here with permission from Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Schematic diagram highlighting the fact that antibody molecules serve as a bridge between host effector cells and yeast cells. The antibody molecule is multifunctional, with the Fc portion being responsible for several biological effects, including half-life, phagocytosis, and complement activation. The Fv portion is composed of the variable region and is responsible for binding to antigen. For details of interactions of effector cells with , see references , and . For details of the relative efficacy of Fc region isotypes, see references , and . For details of the variable regions responsible for antigen-binding region Fv, see references , and . For details about differences in passive antibody protection depending on the strain, see reference .

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Direct interaction between a Τ lymphocyte and a cell. Photograph kindly provided by Stuart Levitz (Boston, Mass.). Details of this experiment can be found in reference . Τ lymphocytes have been shown to inhibit the replication of in vitro ( ). For a review of this phenomenon, see reference .

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818241.chap8
1. Abrahams, I.1966. Further studies on acquired resistance to murine cryptococcosis: enhancing effect of Bordetella pertussis. J. Immunol 96:525529.
2. Abrahams, I.,, and T. G. Gilleran. 1990. Studies on actively acquired resistance to experimental cryptococcosis in mice. J. Immunol. 86:629635.
3. Adamson, D. M.,, and G. C. Cozad. 1969. Effect of antilymphocyte serum on animals experimentally infected with Histoplasma capsulatum or Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bactenol. 100:12711276.
4. Aguirre, K.,, E. A. Havell,, G. W. Gibson,, and L. L. Johnson. 1995. Role of tumor necrosis factor and gamma interferon in acquired resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans in the central nervous system of mice. Infect. Immun. 63:17251731.
5. Aguirre, K. M.,, and L. L. Johnson. 1997. A role for B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Infect. Immun. 65:525530.
5a. Atkinson, A. J.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1968. Experience with a new skin test antigen prepared from Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 97:637643.
6. Allen, J. E.,, and R. M. Maizels. 1997. Thl-Th2: reliable paradigm or dangerous dogma. Immunol. Today 18:387392.
7. Alspaugh, J. A.,, and D. L. Granger. 1991. Inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans replication by nitrogen oxide supports the role of these molecules as effectors of macrophage-mediated cystostasis. Infect. Immun. 59:22912296.
8. Aronson, M.,, and J. Kletter. 1973. Aspects of the defense against a large-sized parasite, the yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. Isr. J. Med. Sci. 1:132162.
9. Baker, R. J. 1990. Regulation of magnitude of antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens by thymus-derived lymphocytes. Inject. Immun. 58:34653468.
10. Benham, R. W. 1935. Cryptococci—their identification by morphology and by serology. J. Infect. Dis. 57:255274.
11. Bennett, J. E. 1981. Cryptococcal skin test antigen: preparation variables and characterization. Infect. Immun. 32:373380.
12. Biron, C. A.,, and R. T. Gazzinelli. 1995. Effects of IL-12 on immune responses to microbial infections: a key mediator in regulating disease outcome. Curt Opin. Immunol. 7:485496.
13. Blasi, E.,, R. Barluzzi,, R. Mazzola,, L. Pitzurra,, M. Puliti,, S. Saleppico,, and F. Bistoni. 1995. Biomolecular events involved in anticryptococcal resistance in the brain. Infect. Immun. 63:12181222.
14. Blumer, S. O.,, and L. Kaufman. 1977. Characterization of immunoglobulin classes of human antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 61:5560.
15. Breen, J. F.,, I. C. Lee,, F. R. Vogel,, and H. Friedman. 1982. Cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide-induced modulation of murine immune responses. Infect. Immun. 36:4751.
16. Brummer, E.,, F. Nassar,, and D. A. Stevens. 1994. Effect of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on anticryptococcal activity of bronchoalveolar macrophages: synergy with fluconazole for killing. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:21582161.
17. Brummer, E.,, and D. A. Stevens. 1994. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induction of enhanced macrophage anticryptococcal activity: synergy with fluconazole for killing. J. Infect. Dis. 170:173179.
18. Buchanan, K. L.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1993. Characterization of cellular infiltrates and cytokine production during the expression of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect. Immun. 61:28542865.
19. Buchanan, K. L.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1994. Regulation of cytokine production during the expression phase of the anticryptococcal delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Infect. Immun. 62:29302939.
20. Casadevall, A. 1995. Antibody immunity and invasive fungal infections. Infect. Immun. 63:42114218.
21. Casadevall, A.,, M. DeShaw,, M. Fan,, F. Dromer,, T. R. Kozel,, and L. Pirofski. 1994. Molecular and idiotypic analysis of antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Infect. Immun. 62:38643872.
22. Casadevall, A.,, J. Mukherjee,, S. J. N. Devi,, R. Schneeison,, J. B. Robbins,, and M. D. Scharff. 1992. Antibodies elicited by a Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxyloman-nan-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine have the same specificity as those elicited in infection. J. Infect. Dis. 65:10861093.
23. Casadevall, A.,, and M. D. Scharff. 1991. The mouse antibody response to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans: VH and VL usage in polysaccharide binding antibodies. J. Exp. Med. 174:151160.
24. Casadevall, A.,, and M. D. Scharff. 1994. "Serum therapy" revisited: animal models of infection and the development of passive antibody therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:16951702.
25. Cauley, L. K.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1979. Response of congenitally athymic (nude) and phenotypically normal mice to Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect. Immun. 23:644651.
26. Chen, G.-H.,, J. L. Curtis,, C. H. Mody,, P. J. Christensen,, L. R. Armstrong,, and G. B. Toews. 1994. Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor on rat alveolar macrophage anticryptococcal activity in vitro. J. Immunol. 152:724734.
27. Chen, L.-C.,, E. Blank,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 3:570574.
28. Chen, L.-C.,, L. Pirofski,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Extracellular proteins of Cryptococcus neoformans and host antibody response. Infect. Immun. 65:25992605.
29. Chen, S. C. A.,, L. C. Wright,, R. T. Santangelo,, M. Muller,, V. R. Moran,, P. W. Kuchel,, and T. C. Sorrell. 1997. Identification of extracellular phospholipase B, lysophospholipase, and acyltransferase produced by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 65:405411.
30. Cherniak, R.,, L. C. Morris,, T. Belay,, E. D. Spitzer,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Variation in the structure of glucuronoxylomannan in isolates from patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Infect. Immun. 63:18991905.
31. Cherniak, R.,, and J. B. Sundstrom. 1994. Polysaccharide antigens of the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 62:15071512.
32. Clemons, K. V.,, E. Brummer,, and D. A. Stevens. 1994. Cytokine treatment of central nervous system infection: efficacy of interleukin-12 alone and synergy with conventional antifungal therapy in experimental cryptococcosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:460464.
33. Collins, H. L.,, and G. J. Bancroft. 1992. Cytokine enhancement of complement-dependent phagocytosis by macrophages: synergy of tumor necrosis-alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor for phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur. J. Immunol. 22:14471454.
34. Cross, C. E.,, and G. J. Bancroft. 1995. Ingestion of acapsular Cryptococcus neoformans occurs via mannose and beta-glucan receptors, resulting in cytokine production and increased phagocytosis of the encapsulated form. Infect. Immun. 63:26042611.
35. Cross, C. E.,, H. L. Collins,, and G. J. Bancroft. 1997. CR3-dependent phagocytosis by murine macrophages: different cytokines regulate ingestion of a defined CR3 ligand and complement-opsonized Cryptococcus neoformans. Immunology 91:289296.
36. Curtis, J. L.,, G. B. Huffnagle,, G. H. Chen,, M. L. Wamock,, M. Gyetko,, R. McDonald,, P. Scott,, and G. B. Toews. 1994. Experimental murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. Lab. Invest. 71:113126.
37. Delfino, D.,, L. Cianci,, M. Migliardo,, G. Mancuso,, V. Cusumano,, C. Corradini,, and G. Teti. 1996. Tumor necrosis factor-inducing activities of Cryptococcus neoformans components. Infect. Immun. 64:51995204.
38. De Shaw, M.,, and L.-A. Pirofski. 1995. Antibodies to the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular glucuronoxylomannan are ubiquitous in serum from HIV+ and HIV- individuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 99:425432.
39. Devi, S. J. N. 1996. Preclinical efficacy of a glucuronoxylomannan-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine model. Vaccine 14:841842.
40. Devi, S. J. N.,, R. Schneerson,, W. Egan,, T. J. Ulrich,, D. Bryla,, J. B. Robbins,, and J. E. Bennett. 1991. Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A glucuronoxylomannan-protein conjugate vaccines: synthesis, characterization, and immunogenicity. Infect. Immun. 59:37003707.
41. Diamond, R. D.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1973. Disseminated cryptococcosis in man: decreased lymphocyte transformation in response to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Infect. Dis. 127:694697.
42. Diamond, R. D.,, and J. E. Bennett. 1974. Prognostic factors in cryptococcal meningitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 80:176181.
43. Dromer, E.,, P. Aucouturier,, J.-P. Clauvel,, G. Saimot,, and P. Yeni. 1988. Cryptococcus neoformans antibody levels in patients with AIDS. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 20:283285.
44. Dromer, E.,, and J. Charreire. 1991. Improved amphotericin B activity by a monoclonal ann-Cryptococcus neoformans antibody: study during murine cryptococcosis and mechanisms of action. J. Infect. Dis. 163:11141120.
45. Dromer, E.,, J. Charreire,, A. Contrepois,, C. Carbon,, and P. Yeni. 1987. Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis by anu-Cryptococcus neoformans monoclonal antibody. Infect. Immun. 55:749752.
46. Dromer, E.,, D. W. Denning,, D. A. Stevens,, A. Nobel,, and J. R. Hamilton. 1995. Anti-Cryptococcus neoformans antibodies during cryptococcosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Serodiagn. Immunother. Infect. Dis. 7:181188.
47. Dromer, E.,, C. Perrone,, J. Barge,, J. L. Vilde,, and P. Yeni. 1989. Role of IgG and complement component C5 in the inital course of experimental cryptococcosis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 78:412417.
48. Dromer, E.,, J. Salamero, A. Contrepois,, C. Carbon,, and P. Yeni. 1987. Production, characterization, and antibody specificity of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 55:742748.
49. Dromer, E.,, P. Yeni,, and J. Charreire. 1988. Genetic control of the humoral response to cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide in mice. Immunogenetics 28:417424.
50. Duke, S. S.,, and R. A. Fromtling. 1984. Effects of diethylstilbestrol and cyclophosphamide on the pathogenesis of experimental Cryptococcus neoformans infections. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 22:125135.
51. Evans, E. D.,, and J. F. Kessel. 1951. The antigenic composition of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 67:109114.
52. Evans, E. E. 1949. An immunologic comparison of twelve strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (Torula histolytica). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 71:644646.
53. Evans, E. E. 1950. The antigenic composition of Cryptococcus neoformans. I. A serologic classification by means of the capsular and agglutination reactions. J. Immunol. 64:423430.
54. Feldmesser, M.,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Effect of serum IgGl against murine pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 158:790799.
55. Feldmesser, M.,, A. Casadevall,, Y. Kress,, G. Spira,, and A. Orlofski. 1997. Eosinophil-Cryptococcus neoformans interactions in vivo and in vitro. Infect. Immun. 65:18991907.
56. Feldmesser, M.,, J. Mukherjee,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Combination of 5-flucytosine and capsule binding monoclonal antibody in therapy of murine Cryptococcus neoformans infections and in vitro. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:617622.
57. Fink, J. N.,, J. J. Barboriak,, and L. Kaufman. 1968. Cryptococcal antibodies in pigeon breeder's disease. J. Allergy 41:297301.
58. Flesch, I. E. A., , G. Schwamberger,, and S. H. E. Kaufman. 1989. Fungicidal activity of IFN-gamma activated macrophages. J. Immunol. 142:32193224.
59. French, D. L.,, R. Laskov,, and M. D. Scharff. 1989. The role of somatic hypermutation in the generation of antibody diversity. Science 244:11521157.
60. Fresno, M.,, M. Kopf,, and L. Rivas. 1997. Cytokines and infectious diseases. Immunol. Today 18:5658.
61. Fung, P. Y. S.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1982. In vitro interactions of immune lymphocytes and Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 36:11281138.
62. Gadebusch, H. H. 1958. Passive immiinization against Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 98:611614.
63. Gadebusch, H. H. 1958. Active immunization against Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Infect. Dis. 102:219226.
65. Goldman, D.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Pathogenesis of pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the rat. Infect. Immun. 62:47554761.
66. Goldman, D. L.,, A. Casadevall,, Y. Cho,, and S. C. Lee. 1996. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in the rat. Lab. Invest. 75:759770.
67. Goldman, D. L.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Tissue localization of Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan in the presence and absence of specific antibody. Infect. Immun. 63:34483453.
68. Gordon, M. A.,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Serum therapy of cryptococcal meningitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:14771479.
69. Gordon, M. A.,, and E. Lapa. 1964. Serum protein enhancement of antibiotic therapy in cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 114:373378.
70. Gordon, M. A.,, and E. Lapa. 1971. Charcoal particle agglutination test for detection of antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 56:354359.
71. Goren, M. B. 1967. Experimental murine cryptococcosis: effect of hyperimmunization to capsular polysaccharide. J. Immunol 98:914922.
72. Goren, M. B.,, and G. M. Middlebrook. 1967. Protein conjugates of polysaccharide from Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 98:901913.
73. Granger, D. L.,, J. B. Hibbs,, J. R. Perfect,, and D. T. Durack. 1988. Specific amino acid (L-arginine) requirement for the microbiostatic activity of murine macrophages. J. Clin. Invest. 81:11291136.
74. Graybill, J. R.,, and J. Ahrens. 1981. Immunization and complement interaction in host defense against murine cryptococcosis. RES J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 30:347357.
75. Graybill, J. R.,, J. Ahrens,, T. Nealon,, and R. Paque. 1983. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in the rat. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 127:636640.
76. Graybill, J. R.,, and R. H. Alford. 1974. Cell-mediated immunity in cryptococcosis. Cell. Immunol. 14:1221.
77. Graybill, J. R.,, R. Bocanegra,, C. Lambros,, and M. F. Luther. 1997. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor therapy of experimental cryptococcal meningitis. J. Med. Vet. My col. 35:243247.
78. Graybill, J. R.,, P. C. Craven,, L. F. Mitchell,, and D. J. Drutz. 1978. Interaction of chemotherapy and immune defences in experimental murine cryptococcosis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 14:659667.
79. Graybill, J. R.,, and D. J. Drutz. 1978. Host defense in cryptococcosis. II. Cryptococcosis in the nude mouse. Cell. Immunol. 40:263274.
80. Graybill, J. R.,, M. Hague,, and D. J. Drutz. 1981. Passive immunization in murine cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia 19:237244.
81. Graybill, J. R.,, and L. Mitchell. 1978. Cyclophosphamide effects on murine cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 21:674677.
82. Graybill, J. R.,, and L. Mitchell. 1979. Host defense in cryptococcosis. III. In vivo alteration of immunity. Mycopathologia 69:171178.
83. Graybill, J. R.,, L. Mitchell,, and D. J. Drutz. 1979. Host defense in cryptococcosis. III. Protection of nude mice by thymus transplantation. J. Infect. Dis. 140:546552.
84. Graybill, J. R.,, D. C. Straus,, T. J. Nealon,, M. Hague,, and R. E. Paque. 1982. Immunogenic fractions of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 78:3139.
85. Graybill, J. R.,, and R. L. Taylor. 1978. Host defense in cryptococcosis. I. An in vivo model for evaluating immune response. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 57:101113.
86. Griffin, F. M. 1980. Roles of macrophage Fc and C3b receptors in phagocytosis of immunologically coated Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:38533857.
87. Gupta, S.,, M. Ellis,, T. Cesario,, M. Ruhling,, and B. Vayuvegula. 1987. Disseminated cryptococcal infection in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia and normal T-cell function. Am. J. Med. 82:129131.
88. Hall, N. K.,, K. C. Maluf,, and R. Blackstock. 1984. Functional testing and chemical composition of cryptococcal extracts. Sabouraudia 22:439442.
89. Hamilton, A. J.,, J. I. Figueroa,, L. Jeavons,, and R. A. Seaton. 1997. Recognition of cytoplasmic yeast antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii by immune human sera. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 17:111119.
90. Hamilton, A. J.,, and J. Goodley. 1993. Purification of the 115-kilodalton exoantigen of Cryptococcus neoformans and its recognition by immune sera. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:335339.
91. Harrison, T. S.,, H. Kornfeld,, and S. M. Levitz. 1995. The effect of infection with human immunodeficiency virus on the anticryptococcal activity of lymphocytes and monocytes. J. Infect. Dis. 172:665671.
92. Harrison, T. S.,, and S. M. Levitz. 1996. Role of IL-12 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells responses to fungi in persons with and without HIV infection. J. Immunol. 156:44924497.
93. Harrison, T. S.,, and S. M. Levitz. 1997. Priming with IFN-gamma restores deficient IL-12 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive donors. J. Immunol. 158:459463.
94. Hay, R. J.,, and E. Reiss. 1978. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice elicited by cytoplasmic fractions of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 22:7279.
95. Henderson, D. K.,, J. E. Bennett,, and M. A Huber. 1982. Long-lasting, specific immunologic unresponsiveness associated with cryptococcal meningitis. J. Clin. Invest. 69:11851190.
96. Hernnan, J. L.,, N. Dubois,, M. Fourgeaud,, D. Basset,, and P. H. Lagrange. 1994. Synergic inhibitory activity of amphotericin-B and gamma interferon against intracellular Cryptococcus neoformans in murine macrophages. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 34:10511058.
97. Hiemstra, P. S.,, P. B. Eisenhauer,, L. S. Harwig,, M. T. van den Barselaar,, R. van Furth,, and R. I. Lehrer. 1993. Antimicrobial proteins of murine macrophages. Infect. Immun. 61:30383046.
98. Hill, J. 0.1992. CD4+ T cells cause multinucleated giant cells to form around Cryptococcus neoformans and confine the yeast within the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract. J. Exp. Med. 175:16851695.
99. Hill, J. O.,, and K. M. Aguirre. 1994. CD4+ T cell-dependent acquired state of immunity that protects the brain against Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 152:23442350.
100. Hoag, K. A.,, M. F. Lipscomb,, A. A. Izzo,, and N. E. Street. 1997. IL-12 and IFN-gamma are required for initiating the protective Thl response to pulmonary cryptococcosis in resistant C.B-17 mice. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 17:733739.
101. Hoag, K. A.,, N. E. Street,, G. B. Huffnagle,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1995. Early cytokine production in pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infections distinguishes susceptible and resistant mice. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 13:487495.
102. Hobbs, M. M.,, J. R. Perfect,, D. L. Granger,, and D. T. Durack. 1990. Opsonic activity of cerebrospinal fluid in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Infect. Immun. 58:21152119.
103. Hoff, C. L. 1942. Immunity studies of Cryptococcus hominis (Torula histolytica) in mice. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 27:751754.
104. Horn, C. A.,, and R. G. Washburn. 1995. Anticryptococcal activity of NK cell-enriched peripheral blood lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects: responses to interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-12. J. Infect. Dis. 172:10231027.
105. Houpt, D. C.,, G. S. T. Pfrommer,, B. J. Young,, T. A. Larson,, and T. R. Kozel. 1994. Occurrences, immunoglobulin classes, and biological activities of antibodies in normal human serum that are reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan. Infect. Immun. 62:38572864.
106. Hoy, J. E.,, D. E. Lewis,, and G. G. Miller. 1988. Functional versus phenotypic analysis of T cells in subjects seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus: a prospective study of in vitro responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Infect. Dis. 158:10711078.
107. Hoy, J. E.,, J. W. Murphy,, and G. G. Miller. 1989. ? cell response to soluble cryptococcal antigens after recovery from cryptococcal infection. J. Infect. Dis. 159:116119.
108. Huffnagle, G. B. 1996. Role of cytokines in T cell immunity to a pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Biol. Signals 5:215222.
109. Huffnagle, G. B.,, G.-H. Chen,, J. L. Curtis,, R. A. McDonald,, R. M. Strieter,, and G. B. Toews. 1995. Down-regulation of the afferent phase of T cell-mediated pulmonary inflammation and immunity by a high melanin-producing strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 155:35073516.
110. Huffnagle, G. B., , M. F. Lipscomb,, J. A. Lovchik,, K. A. Hoag,, and N. E. Street. 1994. The role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in protective inflammatory response to a pulmonary cryptococcal infection. J. heulaocyte Biol. 55:3542.
111. Huffnagle, G. B.,, R. M. Strieter,, T. J. Standiford,, R. A. McDonald,, M. D. Burdick,, S. L. Kunkel,, and G. B. Toews. 1995. The role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the recruitment of monocytes and CD4+ T cells during a pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Immunol. 155:47904797.
112. Huffnagle, G. B.,, G. B. Toews,, M. D. Burdick,, M. B. Boyd,, K. S. Allister,, R. A. McDonald,, S. L. Kunkel,, and R. M. Strieter. 1996. Afferent phase production of TNF-alpha is required for the development of protective T cell immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 157:45294539.
113. Huffnagle, G. B.,, J. L. Yates,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1991. T cell-mediated immunity in the lung: a Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection model using SCID and athymic nude mice. Infect. Immun. 59:14231433.
114. Huffnagle, G. B.,, J. L. Yates,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1991. Immunity to pulmonary Cryptococcus neoformans infection requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 173:793800.
115. Iseki, M.,, M. Anzo,, N. Yamashita,, and N. Matsuo. 1994. Hyper-IgM immunodeficiency with disseminated cryptococcosis. Acta Paediatr. 83:780782.
116. Joly, V.,, L. Saint-Julien,, C. Carbon,, and P. Yeni. 1994. In vivo activity of interferon-gamma in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of experimental cryptococcosis. J. Infect. Dis. 170:13311334.
117. Kakeya, H.,, H. Udono,, N. Ikuno,, Y. Yamamoto,, K. Mitsutake,, T. Miyazaki,, K. Tomono,, H. Koga,, T. Tashiro,, E. Nakayama,, and S. Kohno. 1997. A 77-kilodalton protein of Cryptococcus neoformans, a member of the heat shock protein 70 family, is a major antigen detected in the sera of mice with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 65:16531658.
118. Kawakami, K.,, S. Kohno,, J. -I. Kadota,, M. Tohyama,, K. Teruya,, N. Kedeken,, A. Saito,, and K. Hara. 1995. T cell-dependent activation of macrophages and enhancement of their phagocytic activity in the lungs of mice inoculated with heat-killed Cryptococcus neoformans: involvement of IFN-gamma and its protective effect against cryptococcal infection. Microbiol. Immunol. 39:135143.
119. Kawakami, K.,, X. Qifeng,, M. Tohyama,, M. H. Quereshi,, and A. Saito. 1996. Contribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in host defense mechanism against Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Exp. Immunol 106:468474.
120. Kawakami, K.,, M. Tohyama,, X. Qifeng,, and A. Saito. 1997. Expression of cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA in the lungs of mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans: effects of interleukin-12. Infect. Immun. 65:13071312.
121. Kawakami, K.,, M. Tohyama,, K. Teruya,, N. Kedeken,, Q. Xie,, and A. Saito. 1996. Contribution of interferon-gamma in protecting mice during pulmonary and disseminated infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Immunol Med. Microbiol 13:133140.
122. Kawakami, K.,, M. Tohyama,, Q. Xie,, and A. Saito. 1996. IL-12 protects mice against pulmonary and disseminated infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Exp. Immunol 104:208214.
123. Keller, R. G.,, G. S. Pfrommer,, and T. R. Kozel. 1994. Occurrences, specificities, and functions of ubiquitous antibodies in human serum that are reactive with the Cryptococcus neoformans cell wall. Infect. Immun. 62:215220.
123a. Kimball, H. R.,, H. F. Hasenclever,, and S. M. Wolff. 1967. Detection of circulating antibody in human cryptococcosis by means of a bentonite flocculation technique. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 95:631637.
124. Kligman, A. M. 1947. Studies of the capsular substance of torula histolytica and the immunologic properties of torula cells. J. Immunol. 57:395401.
125. Kong, Y.,, and H. B. Levine. 1967. Experimentally induced immunity in the mycoses. Bacteriol. Rev. 31:3553.
126. Kozel, T. R.,, and J. Cazin, Jr. 1974. Induction of humoral antibody response by soluble polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 54:2130.
127. Kozel, T. R.,, W. F. Gulley,, and J. Cazin, Jr. 1977. Immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans soluble polysaccharide: immunological unresponsiveness. Infect. Immun. 18:701707.
128. Kristensson, K.,, S. M. Glaser,, S. L. Zebedee,, W. D. Huse,, A. Casadevall,, and M. D. Scharff. 1995. Humanization of a murine antibody against Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide using a novel approach, p. 3943. In Vaccines 95. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
129. Kyong, C. U.,, G. Virella,, H. H. Fudenberg,, and C. P. Darby. 1978. X-linked immunodeficiency with increased IgM: clinical, ethnic, and immunologic heterogeneity. Pediatr. Res. 12:10241026.
130. La Mantia, L.,, A. Salmaggi,, L. Tajoli,, D. Cerrato,, E. Lamperti,, A. Nespolo,, and G. Bussone. 1986. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis: intrathecal immunological response. J. Neurol. 233:362366.
131. Lee, S. C.,, Y. Kress,, D. W. Dickson,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Human microglia mediate anti-Cryptococcus neoformans activity in the presence of specific antibody. J. Neuroimmunol. 16:152161.
132. Lee, S. L.,, Y. Kress,, M.-L. Zhao,, D. W. Dickson,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Cryptococcus neoformans survive and replicate in spacious phagosomes in human microglia. Lab. Invest. 73:871879.
133. Levitz, S. M. 1991. Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 59:33933397.
134. Levitz, S. M.,, and M. P. Dupont 1993. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human lymphocytes activated by interleukin-2 to directly inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. J. Clin. Invest. 91:14901498.
135. Levitz, S. M.,, M. P. Dupont,, and E. H. Smail. 1994. Direct activity of human T lymphocytes and natural killer cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 62:194202.
136. Levitz, S. M.,, T. P. Farrell,, and R. T. Maziarz. 1991. Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in culture. J. Infect. Dis. 163:11081113.
137. Levitz, S. M.,, H. L. Mathews,, and J. W. Murphy. 1995. Direct antimicrobial activity by T cells. Immunol. Today 16:387391.
138. Levitz, S. M.,, and E. A. North. 1997. Lymphopriliferation and cytokine profiles in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans.J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35:229236.
139. Levitz, S. M.,, E. A. North,, M. Dupont,, and T. S. Harrison. 1995. Mechanisms of inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by human lymphocytes. Infect. Immun. 63:35503554.
140. Levitz, S. M.,, A. Tabumi,, H. Kornfeld,, C. C. Reardon,, and D. T. Golenbock. 1994. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 62:19751981.
141. Levitz, S. M.,, A. Tabuni,, S.-H. Nong,, and D. T. Golenbock. 1996. Effects of interleukin-10 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 64:945961.
142. Lim, T. S.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1980. Transfer of immunity to cryptococcosis by T-enriched splenic lymphocytes from Cryptococcus neoformans-sensitized mice. Infect. Immun. 30:511.
143. Lim, T. S.,, J. W. Murphy,, and L. K. Cauley,. 1980. Host-etiological agent interactions in intranasally and intraperitoneally induced cryptococcosis in mice. Infect. Immun. 29:633641.
144. Littman, M. L. 1959. Cryptococcosis (torulosis). Am. J. Med. 27:976998.
145. Littman, M. L. 1968. Cryptococcosis: current status. Am. J. Med. 45:922932.
146. Louiia, D. B.,, and T. Kaminski. 1965. Passively-acquired immunity in experimental cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia 4:8084.
147. Lovchik, J. A.,, C. R. Lyons,, and M. F. Lipscomb. 1995. A role for gamma interferon-induced nitric oxide in pulmonary clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Respir. Cell. Mol. Biol. 13:116124.
148. Marquis, G.,, S. Montplaisir,, M. Pelletier,, S. Mousseau,, and P. Auger. 1985. Genetic resistance to murine cryptococcosis: increased susceptibility in the CBA/N XID mutant strain of mice. Infect. Immun. 47:282287.
149. Mastroianni, C. M.,, M. Lichtner,, F. Mengoni,, P. Santopadre,, V. Vullo,, and S. Delia. 1996. Marked activation of the tumour necrosis factor system in AIDS-associated cryptococcosis. AIDS 10:14361438.
150. Mazzola, R.,, R. Barluzzi,, A. Brozzetti,, J. R. Boelaert,, T. Luna,, S. Saleppico,, F. Bistoni,, and E. Blasi. 1997. Enhanced resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans infection induced by chloroquine in a murine model of meningoencephalitis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:802807.
151. McManus, E. J.,, and J. M. Jones. 1985. Detection of a Trichosporon beigelii antigen cross-reactive with Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide in serum from a patient with disseminated Trichosporon infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21:681685.
152. McNulty, A.,, J. M. Kaldor,, A. M. McDonald,, K. Baumgart,, and D. A. Cooper. 1994. Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection: national retrospective survey. Br. Med. J. 308:825826.
153. Miller, G. P. G.,, and S. Kohl. 1983. Antibody-dependent leukocyte killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 131:14551459.
154. Miller, G. P. G.,, and D. E. Lewis. 1987. In vitro effect of cyclosporine on interleukin-2 receptor expression stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Infect. Dis. 155:799802.
155. Miller, G. P. G.,, and J. Puck. 1984. In vitro human lymphocyte responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Evidence for primary and secondary responses and normals and infected patients. J. Immunol. 133:166172.
156. Miller, M. F.,, T. G. Mitchell,, W. J. Storkus,, and J. R. Dawson. 1990. Human natural killer cells do not inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in the absence of antibody. Infect. Immun. 58:639645.
157. Miyagawa, T.,, T. Ochi,, and H. Takahashi. 1978. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Allergy 8:501509.
158. Mody, C. H.,, G.-H. Chen,, C. Jackson,, J. L. Curtis,, and G. B. Toews. 1993. Depletion of murine CD8+ T-cells in vivo decreases pulmonary clearance of a moderately virulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 121:765773.
159. Mody, C. H.,, G.-H. Chen,, C. Jackson,, J. L. Curtis,, and G. B. Toews. 1994. In vivo depletion of murine CD8 positive T cells impairs survival during infection with a highly virulent strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathologia 125:717.
160. Mody, C. H., , M. F. Lipscomb,, N. E. Street,, and G. B. Toews. 1990. Depletion of CD4+ (L3T4+) lymphocytes in vivo impairs murine host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. 144:14721477.
161. Mody, C. H., , K. L. Sims,, C J. Wood,, R. M. Syme,, J. C. L. Spunel,, and M. M. Sexton. 1996. Proteins in the cell wall and membrane of Cryptococcus neoformans stimulate lymphocytes from both adults and fetal cord blood to proliferate. Infect. Immun. 64:48114819.
162. Mody, C. H.,, and R. M. Syme. 1993. Effect of polysaccharide capsule and methods of preparation on human lymphocyte proliferation in response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 61:464469.
163. Mody, C. H.,, C. L. Tyler,, R. G. Sitrin,, C. Jackson,, and G. B. Toews. 1991. Interferon-gamma activates rat alveolar macrophages for anticryptococcal activity. Am. J. Cell. Mol. Biol. 5:1926.
164. Mohr, J. A., , H. G. Muchmore,, F. G. Felton,, E. R. Rhoades,, and B. A. McKwon. 1970. The effect of cryptococcin on leukocytic migration. J. Infect. Dis. 122:454458.
165. Monari, C,, C. Retini,, B. Palazetti,, F. Bistoni,, and A. Vecchiarelli. 1997. Regulatory role of exogenous IL-10 in the development of immune response versus Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 109:242247.
166. Monga, D. P.,, R. Kumar,, L. N. Mahapatra,, and A. N. Malaviya. 1979. Experimental cryptococcosis in normal and B-cell-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 26:13.
167. Mozaffarian, N.,, J. W. Berman,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Immune complexes increase nitric oxide production by mterferon-gamma-stimulated murine macrophage-like J774.16 cells. J. Leukocyte Biol. 57:657662.
168. Mozaffarian, N.,, J. W. Berman,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Enhancement of nitric oxide synthesis by macrophages represents an additional mechanism of action for amphotericin B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:18251829.
169. Muchmore, H. G.,, F. G. Felton,, S. B. Salvin,, and E. R. Rhoades. 1968. Delayed hypersensitivity to cryptococcin in man. Sabouraudia 6:285288.
170. Mukherjee, J.,, A. Casadevall,, and M. D. Scharff. 1993. Molecular characterization of the antibody responses to Cryptococcus neoformans infection and glucuronoxylomannan-tetanus toxoid conjugate immunization. J. Exp. Med. 177:11051106.
171. Mukherjee, J.,, W. Cleare,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Monoclonal antibody mediated capsular reactions (quellung) in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Immunol. Methods 184:139143.
172. Mukherjee, J.,, M. Feldmesser,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan enhance fluconazole activity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:13981405.
173. Mukherjee, J.,, G. Nussbaum,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Protective and non-protective monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans originating from one B-cell. J. Exp. Med. 181:405409.
174. Mukherjee, J.,, L. Pirofski,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1993. Antibody mediated protection in mice with lethal intracerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:36363640.
175. Mukherjee, J.,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1992. Protective murine monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60:45344541.
176. Mukherjee, J.,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Cryptococcus neoformans infection can elicit protective antibodies in mice. Can. J. Microbiol. 40:888892.
177. Mukherjee, J.,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Variable efficacy of passive antibody administration against diverse Cryptococcus neoformans strains. Infect. Immun. 63:33533359.
178. Mukherjee, J.,, L. Zuckier,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan alone and in combination with amphotericin B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:580587.
179. Mukherjee, S.,, M. Feldmesser,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. J774 murine macrophage-like cell interactions with Cryptococcus neoformans in the presence and absence of opsonins. J. Infect. Dis. 173:12221231.
180. Mukherjee, S.,, S. Lee,, J. Mukherjee,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Monoclonal antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide modify the course of intravenous infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 62:10791088.
181. Mukherjee, S.,, S. C. Lee,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan enhance antifungal activity of murine macrophages. Infect. Immun. 63:573579.
182. Murphy, J. W. 1988. Influence of cryptococcal antigens on cell-mediated immunity. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10(Suppl. 2):S432S435.
183. Murphy, J. W. 1993. Cytokine profiles associated with induction of the anticryptococcal cell-mediated immune response. Infect. Immun. 61:47504759.
184. Murphy, J. W.,, and G. C. Cozad. 1972. Immunological unresponsiveness induced by cryptococcal polysaccharide assayed by the hemolytic plaque technique. Infect. Immun. 5:896901.
185. Murphy, J. W.,, J. Gregory,, and H. W. Larsh. 1974. Skin testing of guinea pigs and footpad testing of mice with a new antigen for detecting delayed hypersensitivity to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 9:404409.
186. Murphy, J. W.,, M. R. Hidore,, and S. C. Wong. 1993. Direct interactions of human lymphocytes with the yeast-like organism Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Invest. 91:15531566.
187. Murphy, J. W.,, R. L. Mosley,, R. Cherniak,, G. H. Reyes,, T. R. Kozel,, and E. Reiss. 1988. Serological, electrophoretic, and biological properties of Cryptococcus neoformans antigens. Infect. Immun. 56:424431.
188. Muth, S. M.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1995. Effects of immunization with Cryptococcus neoformans cells or cryptococcal culture filtrate antigen on direct anticryptococcal activities of murine T lymphocytes. Infect. Immun. 63:16451651.
189. Nabavi, N.,, and J. W. Murphy. 1986. Antibody-dependent natural killer cell-mediated growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 51:556562.
190. Naslund, R K.,, W. C. Miller,, and D. L. Granger. 1995. Cryptococcus neoformans fails to induce nitric oxide synthase in primed murine macrophage-like cells. Infect. Immun. 63:12981304.
191. Nassar, F.,, E. Brummer,, and D. A. Stevens. 1994. Effect of in vivo macrophage colony stimulating factor on fungistasis of bronchoalveolar and peritoneal macrophages against Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:21622164.
192. Neill, J. M.,, I. Abrahams,, and C. E. Kapros. 1950. A comparison of the immunogenicity of weakly encapsulated and of strongly encapsulated strains of Cryptococcus neoformans (Torula histolytica). J. Bacteriol. 59:263275.
193. Newberry, W. M.,, J. Walter,, J. W. Chandler,, and F. E. Tosh. 1967. Epidemiologic study of Cryptococcus neoformans. Ann. Intern. Med. 67:727732.
194. Nosanchuk, J. D.,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Cellular charge of Cryptococcus neoformans: contributions from the capsular polysaccharide, melanin, and monoclonal antibody binding. Infect. Immun. 65:18361841.
195. Nussbaum, G. 1996. Protective determinants of antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. Ph.D. thesis. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.
196. Nussbaum, G.,, R. Yuan,, A. Casadevall,, and M. D. Scharff. 1996. Immunoglobulin G3 blocking antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Exp. Med. 183:19051909.
197. Otteson, E. W.,, W. H. Welch,, and T. R. Kozel. 1994. Protein-polysaccharide interactions. A monoclonal antibody specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Biol. Chem. 269:18581864.
198. Papadimitriou, J. M., , T. A. Robertson,, Y. Kletter,, M. Aronson,, and M. N.-I. Walters. 1978. An ultrastructural examination of the interaction between macrophages and Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Pathol. 124:103109.
199. Perfect, J. R.,, D. L. Granger,, and D. T. Durack. 1987. Effects of antifungal agents and gamma-interferon on macrophage cytotoxicity for fungi and tumor cells. J. Infect. Dis. 156:316323.
200. Perfect, J. R.,, S. D. R. Lang,, and D. T. Durack. 1980. Chronic cryptococcal meningitis. Am. J. Pathol. 101:177193.
201. Perfect, J. R.,, S. D. R. Lang,, and D. T. Durack. 1981. Influence of agglutinating antibody in experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 62:595599.
202. Pirofski, L.,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Antibody immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans: Paradigm for antibody immunity to the fungi? Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 284:475495.
203. Pirofski, L.,, R. Lui,, M. DeShaw,, A. B. Kressel,, and Z. Zhong. 1995. Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies elicited by vaccination with a Cryptococcus neoformans glucuronoxylomannan capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Infect. Immun. 63:30053014.
204. Pitzurra, L.,, A. Vecchiarelli,, R. Peducci,, A. Cardinali,, and F. Bistoni. 1997. Identification of a 105 kilodalton Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein involved in human cell-mediated immune response. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35:299303.
205. Procknow, J. J.,, J. R. Benfield,, J. W. Rippon,, C. F. Diener,, and F. L. Archer. 1965. Cryptococcal hepatitis presenting as a surgical emergency. First isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from point source in Chicago. JAMA 191:9398.
206. Rebers, P. A., , S. A. Barker,, M. Heidelberger,, Z. Dische,, and E. E. Evans. 1958. Precipitation of the specific polysaccharide of Cryptcococcus neoformans A by types II and XIV antipneumococcal antisera. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80:11351137.
207. Retini, C,, A. Vecchiarelli,, C. Monari,, C. Tascini,, F. Bistoni,, and T. R. Kozel. 1996. Capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans induces pro-inflammatory cytokine release by human neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 64:28972903.
208. Roilides, E.,, and P. A. Pizzo. 1992. Modulation of host defenses by cytokines: evolving adjuncts in prevention and treatment of serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:508524.
209. Romagnani, S. 1996. Understanding the role of the Th1/Th2 cells in infection. Trends Microbiol. 4:470473.
210. Salkowski, C. A., , and E. Balish. 1991. Inflammatory responses to cryptococcosis in congenitally athymic mice. J. Leukocyte Biol. 49:533541.
211. Salkowski, C. A., , and E. Balish. 1991. A monoclonal antibody to gamma interferon blocks augmentation of natural killer cell activity induced during systemic cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 59:486493.
212. Salkowski, C. A., , and E. Balish. 1991. Susceptibility of congenitally immunodeficient mice to a nonencapsulated strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. Can. J. Microbiol. 37:834839.
213. Salkowski, C. A., , K. F. Bartizal,, M. Balish,, and E. Balish. 1987. Colonization and pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans in gnotobiotic mice. Infect. Immun. 55:20002005.
214. Salvin, S. B. 1959. Current concepts of diagnostic serology and skin hypersensitivity in the mycoses. Am. J. Med. 27:97114.
215. Salvin, S. B.,, and R. F. Smith. 1961. An antigen for detection of hypersensitivity to Cryptococcus neoformans (26977). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 108:498501.
216. Sanford, J. E.,, D. M. Lupan,, A. M. Schlagetter,, and T. R. Kozel. 1990. Passive immunization against Cryptococcus neoformans with an isotype-switch family of monoclonal antibodies reactive with cryptococcal polysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 58:1919 .
217. Sarosi, G. A., , J. D. Parker,, I. L. Doto,, and F. E. Tosh. 1992. Amphotericin ? in cryptococcal meningitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 71:10791087.
218. Schimpff, S., C, and J. E. Bennett. 1975. Abnormalities in cell-mediated immunity in patients with Cryptococcus neoformans infection. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 55:430441.
219. Schneerson-Porat, S.,, A. Sharar,, and M. Aronson. 1965. Formation of histiocyte rings in response to Cryptococcus neoformans infection. RES J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 2:249255.
220. Scott, E. N.,, H. G. Muchmore,, and F. G. Felton. 1981. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in murine cryptococcosis. Sabouraudia 19:257265.
221. Shahar, A.,, Y. Kletter,, and M. Aronson. 1969. Granuloma formation in cryptococcosis. Isr. J. Med. Set. 5:11641172.
222. Shimazu, K.,, M. Ando,, T. Sakata,, K. Yoshida,, and S. Araki. 1984. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Trichosporon cutaneum. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 130:407411.
223. Sorensen, R. U.,, K. D. Boehm,, D. Kaplan,, and M. Berger. 1992. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis and cellular immunodeficiency associated with interleukin-2 deficiency. J. Pediatr. 121:873879.
224. Speed, B. R.,, J. Kaldor,, B. Cairns,, and M. Pegorer. 1995. Serum antibody response to active infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and its varieties in immunocompetent hosts. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34:187193.
225. Spira, G.,, M. Paizi,, S. Mazar,, G. Nussbaum,, S. Mukherjee,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Generation of biologically active anti-Cryptococcus neoformans IgG, IgE, and IgA isotype switch variant antibodies by acridine-orange mutagenesis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 105:436442.
226. Steinhoff, M. C,, B. S. Auerbach,, K. E. Nelson,, D. Vlahov,, R. L. Becker,, N. M. Graham,, D. H. Schwartz,, A. H. Lucas,, and R. E. Chaisson. 1991. Antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:18371842.
227. Stoddard, J. L.,, and E. C. Cutler. 1916. Torula Infection in Man. Waverly Press, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
228. Sundstrom, J. B.,, and R. Cherniak. 1992. A glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A is a type 2 T-cell-independent antigen. Infect. Immun. 60:40804087.
229. Sundstrom, J. B.,, and R. Cherniak. 1993. T-cell dependent and T-cell-independent mechanisms of tolerance to glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A. Infect. Immun. 61:13401345.
230. Syme, R. M.,, C. J. Wood,, H. Wong,, and C. H. Mody. 1997. Both CD4+ and CD8+ human lymphocytes are activated and proliferate in response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Immunology 92:194200.
231. Tabone, M.-C,, G. Leverger,, J. Landman,, C. Aznar,, L. Boccon-Gibod,, and G. Lasfargues. 1994. Disseminated lymphonodular cryptococcosis in a child with X-linked hyper-IgM immunodeficiency. Pediatr. Infect. Dis.J. 13:7779.
232. Tohyama, M.,, K. Kawakami,, M. Futenma,, and A. Saito. 1996. Enhancing effect of oxygen radical scavengers on murine macrophage anticryptococcal activity through production of nitric oxide. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 103:436441.
233. Tohyama, M.,, K. Kawakami,, and A. Saito. 1996. Anticryptococcal effect of amphotericin B is mediated through macrophage production of nitric oxide. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:19191923.
234. Valadon, P.,, G. Nussbaum,, L. F. Boyd,, D. H. Margulies,, and M. D. Scharff. 1996. Peptide libraries define the fine specificity of anti-polysaccharide antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Mol. Biol. 261:1122.
235. Vazquez-Torres, A.,, J. Jones-Carson,, and E. Balish. 1996. Peroxynitrite contributes to the candidacidal activity of nitric oxide-producing macrophages. Infect. Immun. 64:31273133.
236. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Monari,, F. Baldelli,, D. Pietrella,, C. Retini,, C. Tascini,, D. Francisci,, and F. Bistoni. 1995. Beneficial effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 171:14481454.
237. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Monari,, C. Retini,, D. Pietrella,, B. Palazzetti,, L. Pitzurra,, and A. Casadevall. 1997. Cryptococcus neoformans differently regulates B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) expression on human monocytes. Eur. J. Immunol. 28:114121.
238. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Retini,, C. Monari,, C. Tascini,, F. Bistoni,, and T. R. Kozel. 1996. Purified capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans induces interleukin-10 secretion by human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 64:28462849.
239. Vecchiarelli, A.,, C. Retini,, D. Pietrella,, C. Monari,, C. Tascini,, T. Beccari,, and T. R. Kozel. 1995. Downregulation by cryptococcal polysaccharide of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1? secretion from human monocytes. Infect. Immun. 63:29192923.
240. Vogel, R. A. 1966. The indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of antibody in human cryptococcal disease. J. Infect. Dis. 116:573580.
241. Walter, J. E.,, and R. W. Atchison. 1966. Epidemiological and immunological studies of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 92:8287.
242. Wang, Y.,, P. Aisen,, and A. Casadevall. 1995. Cryptococcus neoformans melanin and virulence: mechanism of action. Infect. Immun. 63:31313136.
243. Wang, Y.,, P. Aisen,, and A. Casadevall. 1996. Melanin, melanin “ghosts,” and melanin composition in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 64:24202424.
244. White, M.,, C. Cirrincione,, A. Blevins,, and D. Armstrong. 1992. Cryptococcal meningitis: outcome in patients with AIDS and patients with neoplastic disease. J. Infect. Dis. 165:960963.
245. Williamson, P. R.,, J. E. Bennett,, M. A. Polis,, J. B. Robbins,, and R. Schneerson. 1993. Immunogenicity and safety of a conjugate glucuronoxylomannan-tetanus conjugate vaccine in volunteers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:540. (Abstract 56.)
246. Williamson, P. R.,, J. E. Bennett,, J. B. Robbins,, and R. Schneerson. 1993. Vaccination for prevention of cryptococcosis, abstr. L22, p. 60. 2nd International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis, Milan.
247. Wilson, M. A.,, and T. R. Kozel. 1992. Contribution of antibody in normal human serum to early deposition of C3 onto encapsulated and nonencapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60:754761.
248. Yoshida, K.,, T. Akaike,, T. Doi,, K. Sato,, S. Ijiri,, M. Suga,, M. Ando,, and H. Maeda. 1993. Pronounced enhancement of NO-dependent antimicrobial activity by a NO-oxidizing agent, imidazolineoxyl N-oxide. Infect. Immun. 61:35523555.
249. Young, A. C. M.,, P. Valadon,, A. Casadevall,, M. D. Scharff,, and J. C. Sacchettini. 1997. The three-dimensional structures of a polysaccharide binding antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans and its complex with a peptide from a phage display library: implication for the identification of peptide mimotopes. J. MoJ. Biol. 274:622634.
250. Yuan, R.,, A. Casadevall,, J. Oh,, and M. D. Scharff. 1997. T cells cooperate with passive antibody to modify Cryptococcus neoformans infection in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:24832488.
251. Yuan, R.,, A. Casadevall,, G. Spira,, and M. D. Scharff. 1995. Isotype switching from IgG3 to IgGl converts a non-protective murine antibody to C. neoformans into a protective antibody. J. Immunol. 154:18101816.
252. Zebedee, S. L.,, R. K. Koduri,, J. Mukherjee,, S. Mukherjee,, S. Lee,, D. ? Sauer,, M. D. Scharff,, and A. Casadevall. 1994. Mouse-human immunoglobulin Gl chimeric antibodies with activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:15071514.
253. Zhang, H.,, Z. Zhong,, and L. Pirofski. 1997. Peptide epitopes recognized by a human anti-cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antibody. Infect. Immun. 65:11581164.
254. Zhang, H.,, K. Kawakami,, M. H. Qureshi,, H. Okamura,, M. Kurimoto,, and A. Saito. 1997. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 synergistically induce fungicidal activity of murine peritoneal exudate cells against Cryptococcus neoformans through production of gamma interferon by natural killer cells. Infect. Immun. 65:35943599.
255. Zhong, Z.,, and L. Pirofski. 1996. Opsonization of Cryptococcus neoformans by human anticryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antibodies. Infect. Immun. 64:34463450.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Evidence that antibody immunity contributes to protection against infection

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2

Effects of selected cytokine administration or neutralization against infection in mice

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8