1887

Chapter 2 : A Student of Crystals

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $7.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

A Student of Crystals, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818265/9781555811440_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818265/9781555811440_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

In the science department at the École Normale, there was much interest in the problems of crystallography, and Gabriel Delafosse, one of his most respected teachers, had made significant observations revealing the existence in quartz crystals of right- and left-handed facets. He selected tartaric acid and tartrates as the object of his studies because a great deal was known about these substances, and also because they readily gave beautiful crystalline forms. One of the findings was that the solution of the tartrate could rotate about the plane of polarization, while the paratratrate is inactive. Louis Pasteur saw an incompatibility and was convinced that there had to be some chemical difference between the two substances, and hence prepared and crystallized nineteen different salts of tartrates and paratartrates, and examined the crystals. With much satisfaction he found that they all exhibited small facets similar to those seen in quartz crystals—a fact which had escaped the attention of other observers. When solutions containing equal weights of these two acids were mixed, the mixture gave rise to a crystalline mass of paratartaric acid identical with the known paratartaric acid. Thus, at one stroke Pasteur had established himself as a masterful experimenter and created a new field of science—namely the relation of optical activity to molecular and crystalline structure. For three years he continued in this field and made concrete and lasting contributions to the chemical aspects of crystallography.

Citation: Dubos R. 1998. A Student of Crystals, p 13-20. In Pasteur and Modern Science. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818265.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Tartaric Acid
0.99375004
0.99375004
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774–1862), famous French chemist who had done pioneering work on the optical activity of substances and who strongly promoted Pasteur's career.

Citation: Dubos R. 1998. A Student of Crystals, p 13-20. In Pasteur and Modern Science. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818265.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Chemical structures of the two forms of tartaric acid.

Citation: Dubos R. 1998. A Student of Crystals, p 13-20. In Pasteur and Modern Science. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818265.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Substances which are optically active rotate polarized light. The instrument used to measure optical rotation is called a

Citation: Dubos R. 1998. A Student of Crystals, p 13-20. In Pasteur and Modern Science. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818265.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Pasteur's drawings of tartaric acid crystals, used to illustrate his famous paper on optical activity, (a) Left-handed crystal, (b) Right-handed crystal. Note that the two crystals are mirror images.

Citation: Dubos R. 1998. A Student of Crystals, p 13-20. In Pasteur and Modern Science. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818265.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818265.chap2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error