Chapter 1 : Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap01-2.gif


This chapter focuses on the current knowledge regarding the transmission of four groups of viruses with well-documented links to human cancer, i.e., the herpesviruses (particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)), the papovaviruses (primarily human papillomavirus (HPV)), the hepatitis viruses, and the retroviruses (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)), noting the apparent risk factors for the progression of these common infections to cancer. As with most herpesviruses, infection of children with EBV usually either is asymptomatic or produces mild disease, but if primary infection is delayed until puberty or afterwards, infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a frequent outcome, accounting for the observation that IM is predominantly a disease of upper socioeconomic groups. HHV-8 (also called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) is, like EBV, classified as a gammaherpesvirus. HPV have the greatest public health relevance of the human . HPV are widely accepted to be the principal causative agents in the development of cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. The chapter focuses on HBV, HCV, and HDV, which have been implicated as etiologic agents of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HTLV-I through undetermined mechanisms is also associated with various nonmalignant conditions. The development of serologic assays facilitated the descriptive epidemiology of HTLV-I and revealed that the virus clustered in areas where the disease was found. A major focus of research remains on understanding the cofactors that operate in the presence of the viruses increasing the risk of cancer development, so that these too can be avoided.

Citation: Levine P, Strickler H, Manns A, Diamondstone L. 1998. Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, p 1-49. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Human herpesvirus 8
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Hepatitis delta virus
Simian virus 40
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Age-specific patterns of HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. (▪) Prevalence of HPV DNA in cytologically normal women; (♦) prevalence of koilocytotic atypia (both types of prevalence data were derived from studies of routine cervical cytology screening patients at Kaiser-Permanente, Portland, Oreg.). Also shown are the incidence of CIN-3 (Δ) and cervical cancer (●), respectively, based on United States national cancer statistics. Note that the figure uses a logarithmic scale. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Levine P, Strickler H, Manns A, Diamondstone L. 1998. Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, p 1-49. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Akahane, Y.,, T. Aikawa,, Y. Sugai,, F. Tsuda,, H. Okamoto,, and S. Mishiro. 1992. Transmission of HCV between spouses. Lancet 339:10591060.
2. Alter, H. J.,, R. H. Purcell,, J. W. Shih,, J. C. Melpolder,, M. Houghton,, Q. L. Choo,, and G. Kuo. 1989. Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followedtransfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. N. Engl.J. Med. 321:14941500.
3. Alter, M. J.,, P. J. Coleman,, W. J. Alexander,, E. Kramer,, J. K. Miller,, E. Mandel,, S. C. Hadler,, and H. S. Margolis. 1989. Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA 262:12011205.
4. Alter, M. J.,, R. J. Gerety,, L. A. Smallwood,, R. E. Sampliner,, E. Tabor,, F. Deinhardt,, G. Frosner,, and G. M. Matanoski. 1982. Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis: frequency and epidemiology in an urban US population. J. Infect. Dis. 145:886893.
5. Ambinder, R. F.,, P. J. Browning,, I. Lorenzana,, B. G. Leventhal,, H. Cosenza,, R. B. Mann,, E. M. E. MacMahon,, R. Medina,, V. Cardona,, S. Grufferman,, A. Olshan,, A. Levin,, E. A. Petersen,, W. Blattner,, and P. H. Levine. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus and childhood Hodgkin's disease in Honduras and the United States. Blood 81:462467.
6. Ando, Y.,, S. Nakano,, K. Saito,, I. Shimamoto,, M. Ichijo,, T. Toyama,, and Y. Hinuma. 1987. Transmission of adult T-cell leukemia retrovirus (HTLV-I) from mother to child: comparison of bottle- with breast-fed babies. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 78:322324.
7. Arao, M.,, S. Kakumu,, H. Tahara,, K. Yoshioka,, and N. Sakamoto. 1989. Interferon alpha and gamma positive mononuclear cells and HLA antigen expression on hepatocyte membrane in the liver in chronic type B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Gastroenterol. Jpn. 24:255261.
8. Archer, G. T.,, M. L. Buring,, B. Clark,, S. L. Ismay,, K. G. Kenrick,, K. Purusothaman,, J. M. Kaldor,, W. V. Bolton,, and B. R. Wylie. 1992. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in Sydney blood donors. Med. J. Aust. 157:225227.
9. Arico, S.,, M. Aragona,, M. Rizzetto,, F. Caredda,, A. Zanetti,, G. Marinucci,, S. Diana,, P. Farci,, M. Arnone,, N. Caporaso,, A. Ascione,, P. Dentico,, G. Pastora,, G. Raimondo,, and A. Craxi. 1985. Clinical significance of antibody to the hepatitis delta virus in symptomless HBsAg carriers. Lancet ii:356358.
10. Arthur, R. R.,, S. A. Grossman,, B. M. Ronnett,, S. H. Bigner,, B. Vogelstein,, and K. V. Shah. 1994. Lack of association of human polyomaviruses with human brain tumors. J. Neurooncol. 20:5558.
11. Arthur, R. R.,, and K. V. Shah. 1989. Occurrence and significance of papovaviruses BK and JC in the urine. Prog. Med. Virol. 36:4261.
12. Asou, N.,, T. Kumagai,, S. Uekihara,, M. Ishii,, M. Sato,, K. Sakai,, H. Nishimura,, K. Yamaguchi,, and K. Takatsuki. 1986. HTLV-I seroprevalence in patients with malignancy. Cancer 58:903907.
13. Austen, D. F.,, P. Reynolds,, D. Schottenfeld,, and J. F. J. Fraumeni,. 1996. Laryngeal cancer, p. 619631. In D. F. Austen,, P. Reynolds,, D. Schottenfeld,, and J. F. J. Fraumeni (ed.), Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.
14. Ayoola, E. A., and Members of the WHO Committee. 1988. Progress in the control of viral hepatitis: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull. W. H. O. 66:443455.
15. Baken, L. A.,, L. A. Koutsky,, J. Kuypera,, M. R. Kosorok,, S. K. Lee,, N. B. Kiviat,, and K. K. Holmes. 1995. Genital human papillomavirus infection among male and female sex partners: prevalence and type-specific concordance. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 429432.
16. Barriga, F.,, J. Kiwanuka,, M. Alvarez-Mon,, B. Shiramizu,, B. Huber,, P. Levine,, and I. Magrath. 1988. Significance of chromosome 8 breakpoint location in Burkitt's lymphoma: correlation with geographical origin and association with Epstein Barr virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 141:129137.
17. Bauer, H. M.,, A. Hildesheim,, M. H. Schiffman,, A. G. Glass,, B. B. Rush,, D. R. Scott,, D. M. Cadell,, R. J. Kurman,, and M. M. Manos. 1993. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in low-risk women in Portland, Oregon. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20:274278.
18. Bauer, H. M.,, Y. Ting,, C. E. Greer,, J. C. Chambers,, C. J. Tashiro,, J. Chimera,, A. Reingold,, and M. M. Manos. 1991. Genital human papillomavirus infection in female university students as determined by a PCR-based method. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 265: 472477.
19. Beasley, R. P.,, and L. Y. Hwang. 1984. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin. Liver Dis. 4:113121.
20. Beasley, R. P.,, L. Y. Hwang,, C. C. Lin,, and C. S. Chien. 1981. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus: a prospective study of 22707 men in Taiwan. Lancet 21: 11291133.
21. Beasley, R. P.,, C. Trepo,, C. E. Stevens,, and W. Smuzness. 1977. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:9498.
22. Benvegnu, L.,, G. Fattovich,, G. Diodati,, F. Noventa,, P. Pontisso,, F. Tremolada,, and A. Alberti,. 1994. Hepatitis C virus infection and replication in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, p. 706709. In K. Nishioka,, H. Suzuki,, S. Mishiro,, and T. Oda (ed.), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York.
23. Beral, V., Peterman, T. A., Berkelman, R. L., Jaffe, H. W. 1990. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335:123128.
24. Bergsagal, D. J.,, M. J. Finegold,, J. S. Butel,, W. J. Kupsky,, and R. L. Garcea. 1992. DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:988993.
25. Bernard, H. U.,, S. K. Chan,, M. M. Manos,, C. K. Ong,, L. L. Villa,, H. Delius,, C. L. Peyton,, H. M. Bauer,, and C. M. Wheeler. 1994. Identification and assessment of known and novel human papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, nucleotide sequence, and pylogenetic algorithms. J. Infect. Dis. 170:10771085.
26. Bernvil, S. S.,, V. J. Andrews,, and A. A. Kariem. 1991. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in Saudi Arabian blood donors. Vox Sqng. 61:279280.
27. Biggar, R. J.,, W. Henle,, G. Fleischer,, J. Bocker,, G. T. Lennette,, and G. Henle. 1978. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infections in African infants. I. Decline of maternal antibody and time of infection. Int. J. Cancer 22:239243.
28. Blackbourn, D. J.,, J. Ambroziak,, E. Lennette,, M. Adams,, B. Ramachandran,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Infectious human herpesvirus 8 in a healthy North American blood donor. Lancet 349:609611.
29. Blattner, W. A.,, V. S. Kalyanaraman,, M. Robert-Guroff,, T. A. Lister,, D. A. Galton,, P. S. Sarin,, M. H. Crawford,, D. Catovsky,, M. Greaves,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. The human type-C retrovirus, HTLV, in blacks from the Caribbean region, and relationship to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 30:257264.
30. Blum, A. L.,, R. Stuts,, U. P. Haemmerli,, P. Schmid,, and G. F. Grady. 1969. A fortuitously controlled study of steroid therapy in acute viral hepatitis. I. Acute disease. Am. J. Med. 47:8292.
31. Blum, H. E.,, E. Galun,, T. J. Liang,, F. von Weizsacker,, and J. R. Wands. 1991. Naturally occurring missense mutation in the polymerase gene terminating hepatitis B virus replication. J. Virol. 65:18361842.
32. Blumberg, B. S.,, H. J. Alter,, and S. Visnich. 1965. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA 191:541546.
33. Blumberg, B. S.,, and W. T. London. 1982. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Curr. Probl. Cancer 6:123.
34. Bonino, F.,, A. Demartini,, and M. R. Brunetto. 1991. Diagnostic advances in viral hepatitis: the discovery of hepatitis C virus and genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita. 27:547553.
35. Bosch, F. X.,, X. Castellaague,, N. Munoz,, S. de Sanjose,, A. M. Ghaffari,, L. C. Gonzalez,, M. Gili,, I. Izarzugaza,, P. Viladiu,, and C. Navarro. 1996. Male sexual behavior and human papillomavirus DNA: key risk factors for cervical cancer in Spain. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88:10601067.
36. Bosch, F. X.,, M. M. Manos,, N. Munoz,, M. Sherman,, A. Jansen,, J. Peto,, M. H. Schiffman,, V. Moreno,, R. Kurman,, and K. V. Shah. 1995. Prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical cancer in 22 countries. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87:796802.
37. Boxman, I. L. A.,, R. J. M. Berhout,, L. H. C. Mulder,, M. C. Wolkers,, J. N. B. Bavinck,, B. J. Vermaer,, and J. T. Shegget. 1996. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in plucked hairs from renal transplant recipients and healthy volunteers. 15th International Papillomavirus Workshop, Queensland, Australia.
38. Brechot, C.,, M. Hadchouel,, J. Scotto,, F. Degos,, P. Charnay,, C. Trepo,, and P. Tiollais. 1981. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in liver and serum: a direct appraisal of the carrier state. Lancet ii:765768.
39. Brechot, C.,, C. Pourcel,, A. Louise,, B. Rain,, and P. Tiollsis. 1980. Presence of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in cellular DNA of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature 286:533535.
40. Brinton, L. A. 1991. Oral contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Contraception 43: 581595.
41. Brinton, L. A.,, R. Herrero,, W. C. Reeves,, R. C. de Britton,, E. Gaitan,, and F. Tenorio. 1993. Risk factors for cervical cancer by histology [see comments]. Gynecol. Oncol. 51:301306.
42. Bruix, J.,, J. M. Barrera,, X. Clavet,, G. Ercilla,, J. Costa,, J. M. Sanchez-Tapias,, M. Ventura,, M. Vail,, M. Bruguera,, and C. Bru. 1989. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Spanish patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cirrhosis. Lancet 2:10041006.
43. Brunetto, M. R.,, F. Oliveri,, G. Rocca,, D. Criscuolo,, E. Chiaberge,, M. Capalbo,, E. David,, G. Verme,, and F. Bonino. 1989. Natural course and response to interferon of chronic hepatitis B accompanied by antibody to hepatitis B antigen. Hepatology 10:198202.
44. Carbone, M.,, H. I. Pass,, P. Rizzo,, M. Marinetti,, M. Di Muzio,, D. J. Mew,, A. S. Levine,, and A. Procopio. 1994. Simian virus 40-like DNA sequences in human pleural mesothelioma. Oncogene 9:17811790.
45. Carbone, M.,, P. Rizzo,, A. Procopio,, M. Giuliano,, H. I. Pass,, M. C. Gebhardt,, C. Mangham,, M. Hansen,, D. F. Malkin,, and G. Bushart. 1996. SV40-like sequences in human bone tumors. Oncogene 13:527535.
46. Casey, J. L.,, T. L. Brown,, E. J. Colan,, F. S. Wignall,, and J. L. Gerin. 1993. A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern South America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:90169020.
47. Catovsky, D.,, M. F. Greaves,, M. Rose,, D. Galton,, A. W. Goolden,, D. R. McCluskey,, J. M. White,, I. Lampert,, G. Bourikas,, R. Ireland,, A. I. Brownell,, J. M. Bridges,, W. A. Blattner,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia in blacks from the West Indies. Lancet 1:639643.
48.Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Racial differences in rates of hepatitis B virus infection-United States, 1976–1980. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 38:818821.
49. Cesarman, E.,, P. S. Moore,, P. H. Rao,, G. Inghirami,, D. M. Knowles,, and Y. Chang. 1995. In vitro establishment and characterization of two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma cell lines (BC-1 and BC-2) containing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) DNA sequences. Blood 86:27082714.
50. Chang, C. C, M. W. Yu, C. F. Lu, C. S. Yang, and C. J. Chen. 1994. A nested casecontrol study on association between hepatitis C virus antibodies and primary liver cancer in a cohort of 9,775 men in Taiwan. J. Med. Virol. 43:276280.
51. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266:18651869.
52. Chang, Y.,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus and its role in KS. Infect. Agents Dis. 5:215222.
53. Chen, D. S., 1987. Hepatitis B virus infection, its sequel, and prevention in Taiwan, p. 7180. In K. Okuda, and K. G. Ishak (ed.), Neoplasms of the Liver. Springer, Tokyo.
54. Chen, P. J.,, D. S. Chen,, C. R. Chen,, Y. Y. Chen,, H. M. Chen,, M. Y. Lai,, and J. L. Sung. 1988. Delta infection in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen: low prevalence of delta activity and effective suppression of hepatitis B virus replication. Hematology 8:11211124
55. Chen, Y. C.,, C. H. Wang,, I. J. Su,, C. Y. Hu,, M. J. Chou,, T. H. Lee,, D. T. Lin,, T. Y. Chung,, C. H. Liu,, and C. S. Yang. 1989. Infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I and development of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in patients with hematologic neoplasms: a possible linkage to blood transfusion. Blood 74:388394.
56. Choo, Q.-L.,, G. Kuo,, A. J. Weinger,, L. R. Overby,, D. W. Bradley,, and M. Houghton. 1989. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244:359362.
57. Chuang, W. L.,, W. Y. Chang,, S. N. Lu,, W. P. Su,, Z. Y. Lin,, S. C. Chen,, M. Y. Hsieh,, L. Y. Wang,, S. L. You,, and C. J. Chen. 1992. The role of hepatitis B and C viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma in a hepatitis B endemic area. A case-control study. Cancer 69:20522054.
58. Clark, D. A.,, F. E. Alexander,, P. A. McKinney,, B. E. Roberts,, C. O'Brien,, R. F. Jarrett,, R. A. Cartwright,, and D. E. Onions. 1990. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) from a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 45:829833.
59. Clark, J. W.,, C. Gurgo,, G. Franchini,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. Lofters,, C. Neuland,, D. Mann,, C. Saxinger,, R. C. Gallo,, and W. A. Blattner. 1988. Molecular epidemiology of HTLV-I-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Jamaica. Cancer 61:14771482.
60. Cleghorn, F. R.,, A. Manns,, R. Falk,, P. Hartge,, B. Hanchard,, N. Jack,, E. Williams,, E. Jaffe,, F. White,, and C. Bartholomew. 1995. Effect of HTLV-I infection on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87:10091014.
61. Coker, A. L.,, A. J. Rosenberg,, M. F. McCann,, and B. S. Hulka. 1992. Active and passive cigarette smoke exposure and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1:349356
62. Colombo, M.,, G. Kuo,, Q.-L. Choo,, M. F. Donato,, E. Del Ninno,, M. A. Tommasini,, N. Dioguardi,, and M. Houghton. 1989. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Italian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 2:10061008.
63. Colombo, M.,, M. G. Rumi,, M. F. Donato,, M. A. Tommasini,, E. Del Ninno,, G. Ronchi,, G. Kuo,, and M. Houghton. 1991. Hepatitis C antibody in patients with chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Dig. Dis. Sci. 36:11301133.
64. Correa, F.,, and G. T. O'Conor. 1971. Epidemiologic patterns of Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 8:192201.
65. Craig, J. R.,, S. Govindarajan,, and K. M. DeCock. 1986. Delta viral hepatitis. Histopathology and course. Pathol. Ann. 21:121.
66. Davies, J. N. P., and F. Lothe,. 1983. Kaposi's sarcoma in African children, p. 8186. In L. V. Ackerman, and J. F. Hurray (ed.), Symposium on Kaposi's Sarcoma. S. Karger, Basel.
67. De Oliveira, M. S.,, E. Matutes,, L. C. Famadas,, T. F. Schuls,, M. L. Calabro,, M. Nucci,, M. J. Andrada-Serpa,, R. S. Tedder,, R. A. Weiss,, and D. Catovsky. 1990. Adult Tcell leukemia/lymphoma in Brazil and its relation to HTLV-I. Lancet 336:987990.
68. de-The, G.,, A. Geser,, N. E. Day,, P. M. Tukei,, E. H. Williams,, D. P. Beri,, P. G. Smith,, A. G. Dean,, G. W. Bronkamm,, P. Feorino,, and W. Henle. 1978. Epidemiological evidence for causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt's lymphoma from Ugandan prospective study. Nature 274:756761.
69. de-The, G.,, J. H. C. Ho,, and C. Muir,. 1991. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, p. 737767. In A. S. Evans (ed.), Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed. Plenum Publishing Corp, New York.
70. Des Jarlais, D. C.,, M. Marmor,, P. Thomas,, M. Chamberland,, S. Zolla-Pazner,, and D. J. Sencer. 1984. Kaposi's sarcoma among four different AIDS risk groups. N. Engl. J. Med. 310:1119. (Letter.)
71. Dillner, J.,, P. Knekt,, J. T. Schiller,, and T. Hakulinen. 1995. Prospective seroepidemiological evidence that human papillomavirus type 16 is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br. Med. J. 311:1346.
72. Dillner, J.,, F. Wiklund,, P. Lenner,, C. Eklund,, V. Frederiksson-Shanazarian,, J. T. Schiller,, M. Hibma,, G. Hallmans,, and U. Stendahl. 1995. Antibodies against linear and conformational epitopes of human papillomavirus type 16 that independently associate with incident cervical cancer. Int. J. Cancer 60:377382.
73. Edman, J. C.,, P. Gray,, P. Valenzuela,, L. B. Rail,, and W. J. Rutter. 1980. Integration of hepatitis B virus sequences and their expression in a human hepatoma cell. Nature 286:535538.
74. Epstein, M. A.,, B. H. Achong,, and Y. M. Barr. 1964. Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma. Lancet 1:702703.
75. Epstein, M. A.,, H. Rabin,, G. Ball,, A. B. Rickinson,, J. Jains,, and L. V. Melendes. 1973. Pilot experiments with EB virus in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). II. EB virus in a cell line from an animal with reticuloproliferative disease. Int. J. Cancer 12: 319332.
76. Evans, A. S. 1971. The spectrum of infections with Epstein-Barr virus: a hypothesis. J. Infect. Dis. 124:330337.
77. Evans, A. S. 1976. Causation and disease: the Henle-Koch postulates revisited. Yale J. Biol. Med. 49:175195.
78. Evans, A. S.,, and G. W. Comstock. 1981. Presence of elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus before Hodgkin's disease. Lancet 1:11831186.
79. Evans, A. S.,, and N. E. Mueller. 1990. Viruses and cancer: causal associations. Ann. Epidemiol. 1:7192.
80. Evans, A. S.,, and J. C. Niederman,. 1989. Epstein-Barr virus, p. 265292. In A. S. Evans (ed.), Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.
81. Fong, T. L.,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, J. G. Waggoner,, S. M. Banks,, and J. M. Hoofnagle. 1991. The significance of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 14:6467.
82. Franceshi, S.,, N. Munos,, X. F. Bosch,, F. J. F. Snijders,, and J. M. M. Walboomers. 1996. Human papillomavirus and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review of epidemiological and experimental evidence. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5: 567575.
83. Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., F. Ederer, and R. W. Miller. 1963. An evaluation of the carcinogenicity of Simian virus 40 in man. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 185:713718.
84. Fredericks, B. D.,, A. Balkin,, H. W. Daniel,, J. Schonrock,, B. Ward,, and I. H. Frazer. 1993. Transmission of human papillomaviruses from mother to child [see comments]. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol 33:3032.
85. Galibert, F.,, E. Mandart,, F. Fitoussi,, P. Tiollais,, and P. Charnay. 1979. Nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature 281: 646650.
86. Gallo, R. C.,, B. J. Poiesz,, and F. W. Ruscetti. 1981. Regulation of human T-cell proliferation: T-cell growth factor and isolation of a new class of type-C retroviruses from human T-cells. Haematol. Blood Transfus. 26:502513.
87. Gallo, R. C.,, and G. J. Todaro. 1976. Oncogenic RNA viruses. Semin. Oncol. 3:81.
88. Gao, S. J.,, L. Kingsley,, M. Li,, W. Zheng,, C. Parravicini,, J. Ziegler,, R. Newton,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat. Med. 2:925928.
89. Geissler, E. 1990. SV40 and human brain tumors. Prog. Med. Virol. 37:211222.
90. Geser, A.,, G. de-The,, G. Lenoir,, N. E. Day,, and E. H. Williams. 1982. Final case reporting from the Uganda prospective study of the relationship between EBV and Burkitt's lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 29:397400.
91. Gessain, A.,, E. Boeri,, R. Yanagihara,, R. C. Gallo,, and G. Franchini. 1993. Complete nucleotide sequence of a highly divergent human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type I (HTLV-I) variant from Melanesia: genetic and phylogenetic relationship to HTLV-I strains from other geographical regions. J. Virol. 67:10151023.
92. Gessain, A.,, I. J. Koralnik,, J. Fullen,, E. Boeri,, C. Mora,, A. Blank,, E. F. Salazar-Grueso,, J. Kaplan,, W. C. Saxinger,, and M. Davidson. 1994. Phylogenetic study of ten new HTLV-I strains from the Americas. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10:103106.
93. Gill, P. S.,, W. Harrington, Jr.,, M. H. Kaplan,, R. C. Ribeiro,, J. M. Bennett,, H. A. Liebman,, M. Bernstein-Singer,, B. M. Espina,, L. Cabral,, and S. Allen. 1995. Treatment of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma with a combination of interferon alfa and zidovudine. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:17441748.
94. Glaser, S. L.,, J. L. Ruby,, S. L. Stewart,, R. F. Ambinder,, R. F. Jarrett,, P. Brousset,, G. Pallesen,, M. L. Gully,, K. Gulfaraz,, J. O'Grady,, M. Hummel,, M. V. Preciado,, H. Knecht,, K. C. Chan,, and A. Claviez. 1997. Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin's disease: epidemiologic characteristics in international data. Int. J. Cancer 70:375382.
94a.. Goedert, J. J.,, D. H. Kedes, and D. Ganem. 1997. Antibodies to human herpesvirus 8 in women and infants born in Haiti and the USA. Lancet 349:1368.
95. Goodrick, M. J.,, N. A. B. Anderson,, I. D. Fraser,, A. Rouse,, and V. Pearson. 1992. History of previous drug misuse in HCV-positive blood donors. Lancet 339:502.
96. Gout, O.,, M. Baulac,, A. Gessain,, F. Semah,, F. Saal,, J. Peries,, C. Cabrol,, C. Foucault-Fretz,, D. Laplane,, and F. Sigaux. 1990. Rapid development of myelopathy after HTLV-I infection acquired by transfusion during cardiac transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 322:383388.
97. Grakoui, A.,, C. Wychowski,, C. Lin,, S. M. Feinstone,, and C. M. Rice. 1993. Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus polyprotein cleavage products. J. Virol. 67:13851395.
98. Greer, C. E.,, J. K. Lund,, and M. M. Manos. 1994. PCR amplification from paraffinembedded tissues: recommendations on fixatives for long term storage and prospective studies. PCR Methods Appl. 3:S113S122.
99. Gulley, M. L.,, P. A. Eagan,, L. Quintanilla-Martinez,, A. L. Picado,, B. N. Smir,, C. Childs,, C. D. Dunn,, F. E. Craig,, J. W. Williams, Jr.,, and P. M. Banks. 1994. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is abundant and monoclonal in the Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease: association with mixed cellularity subtype and Hispanic American ethnicity. Blood 83:15951602.
100. Hall, W. W.,, C. R. Liu,, O. Schneewind,, H. Takahashi,, M. H. Kaplan,, G. Roupe,, and A. Vahine. 1991. Deleted HTLV-I provirus in blood and cutaneous lesions of patients with mycosis fungoides. Science 253:317320.
101. Halprin, J.,, A. L. Scott,, L. Jacobson,, P. H. Levine,, H. C. Ho,, J. C. Niederman,, D. Hayward,, and G. Milman. 1986. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear and early antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ann. Intern. Med. 104:331337.
102. Hamada, T.,, M. Setoyama,, Y. Katshira,, T. Furuno,, T. Fujiyoshi,, S. Sonoda,, and M. Tashiro. 1992. Differences in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-I seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. J. Dermatol. Sci. 4:7682.
103.Han, C, G. Qiao, N. L. Hubbert, L. Li, C. Sun, Y. Wang, D. Xu, Y. Li, D. R. Lowy, and J. T. Schiller. 1996. Serological association between human papillomavirus 16 infection and esophageal cancer in Shaanxi, China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88:14671471.
104. Henle, G.,, and W. Henle. 1966. Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt's lymphoma. J. Bacteriol. 91:12481256.
105. Henle, G.,, and W. Henle. 1976. Epstein-Barr virus-specific IgA serum antibodies as an outstanding feature of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 17:17.
106. Henle, G.,, W. Henle,, P. Clifford,, V. Diehl,, G. W. Kafuko,, B. G. Kirya,, G. Klein,, R. H. Morrow,, G. M. R. Munuba,, P. Pika,, P. M. Tukei,, and J. L. Ziegler. 1969. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in Burkitt's lymphoma and control groups. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43:11471157.
107. Henle, G.,, W. Henle,, and V. Diehl. 1968. Relation of Burkitt's tumor-associated herpes type virus to infectious mononucleosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59:94101.
108. Henle, W.,, and G. Henle. 1981. Epstein-Barr virus-specific serology in immunologically compromised individuals. Cancer Res. 41:42224225.
109. Herrero, R.,, L. A. Brinton,, W. C. Reeves,, M. M. Brenes,, F. Tenorio,, R. C. de Britton,, E. Gaitan,, M. Garcia,, and W. E. Rawls. 1990. Sexual behavior, venereal diseases, hygiene practices, and invasive cervical cancer in a high-risk population. Cancer 65: 380386.
110. Heyward, W. L.,, A. P. Lanier,, T. R. Bender,, H. H. Hardison,, P. H. Dohan,, B. J. McMahon,, and D. P. Francis. 1981. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaskan Natives, 1969-1979. Int. J. Cancer 28:4750.
111. Hildesheim, A.,, L. A. Brinton,, K. Mallin,, H. F. Lehman,, P. Stolley,, D. A. Savits,, and R. Levine. 1990. Barrier and spermicidal contraceptive methods and risk of invasive cervical cancer. Epidemiology 1:266272.
112. Hildesheim, A.,, P. Gravitt,, M. H. Schiffman,, R. J. Kurman,, W. Barnes,, S. Jones,, J. G. Tchabo,, L. A. Brinton,, C. Copeland,, and J. Epp. 1993. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in low-income women in Washington, D. C. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20:279285.
113. Hildesheim, A.,, and P. H. Levine. 1993. Etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a review. Epidemiol. Rev. 15:466485.
114. Hildesheim, A.,, M. H. Schiffman,, P. E. Gravitt,, A. G. Glass,, C. E. Greer,, T. Zhang,, D. R. Scott,, B. B. Rush,, P. Lawler,, and M. E. Sherman. 1994. Persistence of typespecific human papillomavirus infection among cytologically normal women [see comments]. J. Infect. Dis. 169:235240.
115. Hinuma, Y.,, K. Nagata,, M. Hanaoka,, M. Nakai,, T. Matsumoto,, K. I. Kinoshita,, S. Shirakawa,, and I. Miyoshi. 1981. Adult T-cell leukemia: antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:64766480.
116. Ho, D. D.,, L. R. Rota,, and M. S. Hirsch. 1984. Infection of endothelial cells by human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:75887590.
117. Ho, G. Y. F.,, R. D. Burk,, I. Fleming,, and R. S. Klein. 1994. Risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in women with human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression. Int. J. Cancer 56:788792.
118. Ho, H. C. 1971. Incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer in Hong Kong. UICC Bull. Cancer 9:5.
119. Ho, H. C. 1975. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J. R. Coll. Surg. 20: 223235.
120. Hollinger, F. B.,, G. Dolana,, W. Thomas,, and F. Gyorkey. 1984. Reduction in risk of hepatitis transmission by heat-treatment of a human factor VIII concentrate. J. Infect. Dis. 150:250262.
121. Hollinger, F. B.,, and G. R. Dreesman,. 1980. Immunobiology of hepatitis viruses, p.558572. In N. R. Rose,, H. Friedman,, and J. L. Fahey (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
122. Haing, A. W.,, W. Guo,, J. Chen,, J. -Y. Li,, B. J. Stone,, W. J. Blot,, and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr. 1991. Correlates of liver cancer mortality in China. Int. J. Epidemiol. 20:5459.
123. Ijichi, S.,, and M. Osame. 1995. Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): recent perspectives. Intern. Med. 34:713721.
124. Ikenberg, H.,, M. Runge,, A. Goppinger,, and A. Pfleiderer. 1990. Human papillomavirus DNA in invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Obstet. Gynecol. 76:432438.
125.International Agency for Research on Cancer.1994. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 59, Hepatitis Viruses. World Health Organization, Lyon, France.
126.International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group.1996. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 64, Human Papillomaviruses. IARC, Lyon, France.
127. Jarrett, R. F.,, A. Gallagher,, D. B. Jones,, F. E. Alexander,, A. S. Krajewski,, A. Kelsey,, J. Adams,, B. Angus,, S. Gledhill,, D. H. Wright,, R. A. Cartwright,, and D. E. Onions. 1991. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease: relation to age. J. Clin. Pathol. 44:844848.
128. Johannson, B.,, G. Klein,, W. Henle,, and G. Henle. 1970. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated antibody patterns in malignant lymphoma and leukemia. I. Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 6:450462.
129. Kaklamani, E.,, D. Trichopoulos,, A. Tzonou,, X. Zavitaanos,, Y. Koumantaki,, A. Hatzakis,, C. C. Hsieh,, and S. Hatziyannis. 1991. Hepatitis B and C viruses and their interaction in the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 265:19741976.
130. Kalyanaraman, V. S.,, M. G. Sarngadharan,, Y. Nakao,, Y. Ito,, T. Aoki,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. Natural antibodies to the structural core protein (p24) of the human Tcell leukemia (lymphoma) retrovirus found in sera of leukemia patients in Japan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:16531657.
131. Kamada, N.,, M. Sakurai,, K. Miyamoto,, I. Sanada,, N. Sadamori,, S. Fukuhara,, S. Abe,, Y. Shiraishi,, T. Abe,, and Y. Kaneko. 1992. Chromosome abnormalities in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a karyotype review committee report. Cancer Res. 52:14811493.
132. Kashima, H.,, B. Leventhal,, P. Mounts,, and Papilloma Study Group. 1985. Scoring system to assess severity and course in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, p.125135. In P. M. Howley, and T. R. Broker (ed.), Papillomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Aspects. Alan R. Liss, New York.
133. Kedes, D. H.,, D. Ganem,, N. Ameli,, P. Bacchetti,, and R. Greenblatt. 1997. The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) among HIV-seropositive and high-risk HIV-seronegative women. JAMA 277:478481.
133a.. Kedes, D. H.,, E. Operskalski,, M. Busch,, R. Kohn,, J. Flood,, and D. Ganem. 1996. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk groups and evidence for sexual transmission. Nat. Med. 2:918924.
134. Kew, M. C.,, J. Desmyter,, A. F. Bradburns,, and G. M. Macnab. 1979. Hepatitis B virus infection in southern African blacks with hepatocellular cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62:517520.
135. Kikuchi, A.,, T. Nishikawa,, and K. Yamaguchi. 1997. Absence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 336:296297.
136. Kim, C. M.,, K. Koike,, I. Saito,, T. Miyamura,, and G. Jay. 1991. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature 351:317320.
137. Kita, H.,, T. Moriyama,, T. Kaneko,, I. Harase,, M. Nomura,, H. Miura,, I. Nakamura,, Y. Yazaki,, and M. Imawari,. 1994. Recognition of hepatitis C virus nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, p. 186189. In K. Nishioka,, H. Suzuki,, S. Mishiro,, and T. Oda (ed.), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York.
138. Kiyosawa, K.,, T. Sodeyama,, E. Tanaka,, Y. Gibo,, K. Yoshizawa,, Y. Nakano,, S. Furuta,, Y. Akahane,, K. Nishioka,, and R. H. Purcell. 1990. Interrelationship of blood transfusion, non-A, non-B hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis by detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 12:671675.
139. Kjaer, S. K.,, E. T. De Villiers,, C. Dahl,, G. Engholm,, J. E. Bock,, B. F. Vestergaard,, E. Lynge,, and O. M. Jensen. 1991. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical neoplasia in Denmark. I. Role of the "male factor" in women with one lifetime sexual partner. Int. J. Cancer 48:3944.
140. Knowles, D. M. 1989. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia. Am. J. Pathol. 134:761785.
141. Kosary, C. L.,, L. A. G. Ries,, B. A. Miller,, B. F. Hankey,, A. Harras,, and B. K. Edwards. 1995. SEER cancer statistics review, 1973-1992: tables and graphs. NIH Publication no. 96-2789. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.
142. Koutsky, L. A.,, K. K. Holmes,, C. W. Critchlow,, C. E. Stevens,, P. A. J. Paavonen,, A. M. Beckmann,, T. A. DeRouen,, D. A. Galloway,, D. Vernon,, and N. B. Kiviat. 1992. A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:12721278.
143. Koziel, M. J.,, D. Dudley,, J. T. Wong,, J. Dienstag,, M. Houghton,, R. Ralston,, and B. D. Walker. 1992. Intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus in persons with chronic hepatitis. J. Immunol. 149:33393344.
144. Kozuru, M.,, N. Uike,, K. Muta,, T. Goto,, Y. Suehiro,, and M. Nagano. 1996. High occurrence of primary malignant neoplasms in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, their siblings, and their mothers. Cancer 78:11191124.
145. Kramer, A.,, E. M. Maloney,, O. S. Morgan,, P. Rodgers-Johnson,, A. Manns,, E. L. Murphy,, S. Larsen,, B. Cranston,, J. Murphy,, and J. Benichou. 1995. Risk factors and cofactors for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Jamaica. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142: 12121220.
146. Kuo, G.,, Q. L. Choo,, H. J. Alter,, G. L. Gitnick,, A. G. Redeker,, R. H. Purcell,, T. Miyamura,, J. L. Dienstag,, M. J. Alter,, and C. E. Stevens. 1989. An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 244:362364.
147. Kurman, R. J.,, D. E. Henson,, A. L. Herbst,, K. L. Noller,, and M. H. Schiffman. 1994. Interim guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 271:18661869.
148. La Grenade, L.,, B. Hanchard,, V. Fletcher,, B. Cranston,, and W. Blattner. 1990. Infective dermatitis of Jamaican children: a marker for HTLV-I infection. Lancet 336: 13451347.
149. La Grenade, L.,, S. Richards,, W. N. Gibbs,, B. Hanchard,, E. Williams,, N. P. Williams,, W. A. Blattner,, and A. Manns. 1995. Cutaneous manifestations for adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia in Jamaica: a 12 year review. J. AIDS Hum. Retrovir. 10:236.
150. Lai, M. M.,, C. M. Lee,, F. Y. Bih,, and S. Govindarajan. 1991. The molecular basis of heterogeneity of hepatitis delta virus. J. Hepatol. 4:S121S124.
151. Lam, K.C.,, and M. J. Tong. 1982. Analytical epidemiology of primary liver carcinoma in the Pacific Basin. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 62:123127.
152. Lednicky, J. A.,, R. L. Garcea,, D. J. Bergsagal,, and J. S. Butel. 1995. Natural simian virus 40 strains are present in human choroid plexus and ependymoma tumors. Virology 212:710717.
153. Lennette, E. T.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Antibodies to HHV-8 in the general population and in Kaposi sarcoma patients. Lancet 348:858861.
154. Levine, P. H. 1987. Immunologic markers for Epstein-Barr virus in the control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Cancer Detect. Prev. Suppl. 1:217223.
155. Levine, P. H. 1995. A review of human herpesvirus-6 infections. Infect. Med. 12:395402.
156. Levine, P. H.,, and D. V. Ablashi. The new herpesviruses: human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-8 (KS-virus). Infect. Med., in press.
157. Levine, P. H.,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Berard,, P. P. Carbone,, D. E. Waggoner,, and L. Malan. 1970. Elevated antibody titers to herpes-type virus in Hodgkin's disease. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 11:49.
158. Levine, P. H.,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Berard,, P. P. Carbone,, D. E. Waggoner,, and L. Malan. 1971. Elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease. Cancer 27:416421.
159. Levine, P. H.,, and W. A. Blattner. 1992. The epidemiology of human virus-associated hematologic malignancies. Leukemia and related diseases. Leukemia 6:54S59S.
160. Levine, P. H.,, and R. R. Connelly,. 1985. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal cancer, p. 1334. In R. E. Wittes (ed.), Head and Neck Cancer. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Sussex, U.K.
161. Levine, P. H.,, P. Ebbesen,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Saxinger,, A. Nordentoft,, and R. R. Connelly. 1992. Antibodies to human herpes virus-6 and clinical course in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 51:5357.
162. Levine, P. H.,, J. F. Fraumeni, Jr.,, J. I. Reisher,, and D. E. Waggoner. 1974. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in relatives of cancer patients. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:10371040.
163. Levine, P. H.,, L. S. Kamaraju,, R. R. Connelly,, C. W. Berard,, R. F. Dorfman,, I. Magrath,, and J. M. Easton. 1982. The American Burkitt's lymphoma registry: eight years' experience. Cancer 49:10161022.
164. Levine, P. H.,, J. H. Lubin,, and A. S. Evans,. 1994. An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) vaccine: clinical and epidemiologic considerations, p. 585591. In T. Tursz,, J. S. Pagano,, D. V. Ablashi,, G. de-The,, G. Lenoir,, and G. R. Pearson (ed.), Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases. John Libbey Eurotext, Ltd., London.
165. Levine, P. H.,, A. Manns,, E. S. Jaffe,, G. Colclough,, A. Cavallero,, G. Reddy,, and W. A. Blattner. 1994. The effect of ethnic differences on the patterns of HTLV-I-associated T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HATL) in the United States. Int. J. Cancer 56:177181.
166. Levine, P. H.,, A. G. Pocinki,, P. Madigan,, and S. Bale. 1992. Familial nasopharyngeal carcinoma in patients who are not Chinese. Cancer 70:10241029.
167. Levine, P. H.,, G. Stemmermann,, E. T. Lennette,, D. Shibata,, and A. M. Y. Nomura. 1995. Elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus prior to the diagnosis of Epstein- Barr virus associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 60:642644.
168. Levrero, M.,, A. Tagger,, C. Balsano,, E. De Marzio,, M. L. Avantaggiati,, G. Natoli,, D. Diop,, E. Villa,, G. Diodati,, and A. Alberti. 1991. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Hepatol. 12:6063.
169. Levy, J. A. 1997. Three new human herpesviruses (HHV6, 7, and 8). Lancet 349:558563.
170. Lin, S. -F.,, R. Sun,, L. Heston,, L. Gradoville,, D. Shedd,, K. Haglund,, M. Rigsby,, and G. Miller. 1997. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcomaassociated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen. J. Virol. 71:30693076.
171. Lingao, A. L.,, E. O. Domingo,, and K. Nishioka. 1981. Hepatitis B virus profile of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Philippines. Cancer 48:15901595.
172. Liou, T. C, T. T. Chang, K. C. Young, X. Z. Lin, C. Y. Lin, and H. L. Wu. 1992. Detection of HCV RNA in saliva, urine, seminal fluid, and ascites. J. Med. Virol. 37:197202.
173. Lorincz, A. L. 1996. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Lancet 347:871876.
174. Lorincz, A. T.,, R. Reid,, A. B. Jenson,, M. D. Greenberg,, W. Lancaster,, and R. J. Kurman. 1992. Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix: relative risk associations of 15 common anogenital types. Obstet. Gynecol. 79:328337.
175. Maden, C.,, A. M. Beckmann,, D. B. Thomas,, B. McKnight,, K. J. Sherman,, R. L. Ashley,, L. Corey,, and J. R. Daling. 1992. Human papillomaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, and the risk of oral cancer in men. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135:10931102.
176. Maden, C.,, K. J. Sherman,, A. M. Beckmann,, T. G. Hislop,, C. Z. Teh,, R. L. Ashley,, and J. R. Daling. 1993. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer [see comments]. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85:1924.
177. Magrath, I. T., 1982. Malignant lymphomas, p. 473573. In A. S. Levine (ed.), Cancer in the Young. Masson, New York.
178. Malek, R. S.,, J. R. Goellner,, T. F. Smith,, M. J. Espy,, and M. R. Cupp. 1993. Human papillomavirus infection and intraepithelial, in situ, and invasive carcinoma of penis. Urology 42:159170.
179. Manns, A.,, and W. A. Blattner,. 1990. Epidemiology of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, p. 209239. In R. C. Gallo, and F. Wong-Staal (ed.), Retrovirus Biology and Human Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York.
180. Manns, A.,, F. R. Cleghorn,, R. T. Falk,, B. Hanchard,, E. S. Jaffe,, C. Bartholomew,, P. Hartge,, J. Benichou,, and W. A. Blattner. 1993. Role of HTLV-I in development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The HTLV lymphoma study group. Lancet 342:14471450.
181. Manns, A.,, R. Falk,, E. L. Murphy,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. S. Letters,, M. Campbell,, B. Hanchard,, J. Murphy,, and W. A. Blattner. 1990. Risk factors for development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Jamaica. Proc. Annu. Meet Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 31: A1358. (Abstract.)
182. Manns, A.,, R. J. Wilks,, E. L. Murphy,, G. Haynes,, J. P. Figueroa,, M. Barnett,, B. Hanchard,, and W. A. Blattner. 1992. A prospective study of transmission by transfusion of HTLV-I and risk factors associated with seroconversion. Int. J . Cancer 51:886891.
183. Martini, F.,, L. Iaccheri,, L. Lazzarin,, P. Carinci,, A. Corallini,, M. Gerosa,, P. Iuzzolino,, G. Barbanti-Brodano,, and M. Tognon. 1996. SV40 early region and large T antigen in human brain tumors, peripheral blood cells, and sperm fluids from healthy individuals. Cancer Res. 56:48204825.
184. Matsubara, K.,, and T. Tokino. 1990. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA and its implications for hepatocarcinogenesis. Mol. Biol. Med. 7:243260.
185. Matsuzaki, H.,, H. Hata,, N. Asou,, M. Yoshida,, F. Matsuno,, M. Takeya,, K. Yamaguchi,, I. Sanada,, and K. Takatsuki. 1992. Human T-cell leukemia virus-l-positive cell line established from a patient with small cell lung cancer, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83:450457.
186. McGregor, J. M.,, and M. H. A. Rustin. 1994. Human papillomavirus and skin cancer. Postgrad. Med. J. 70:682685.
187. Mendenhall, C. L.,, L. Seaff,, A. M. Diehl,, S. J. Ghosn,, S. W. French,, P. S. Gartside,, S. D. Rouster,, Z. Buskell-Bales,, C. J. Grossman,, and G. A. Roselle. 1991. Antibodies to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis: their prevalence and clinical relevance. The VA Cooperative Study Group (No. 119). Hepatology 14:581589.
188. Mitchell, M. F.,, W. N. Hittelman,, W. K. Hong,, R. Lotan,, and D. Schottenfeld. 1994. The natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: an argument for intermediate endpoint biomarkers. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 3:619626.
189. Miyazaki, K.,, K. Yamaguchi,, T. Tohya,, T. Ohba,, K. Takatsuki,, and H. Okamura. 1991. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection as an oncogenic and prognostic risk factor in cervical and vaginal carcinoma. Obstet. Gynecol. 77:107110.
190. Mochizuki, M.,, T. Watanabe,, K. Yamaguchi,, K. Yoshimura,, S. Nakashima,, M. Shirao,, S. Araki,, K. Takatsuki,, S. Mori,, and N. Miyata. 1992. Uveitis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 114:123129.
191. Mondelli, M.,, G. M. Vergani,, A. Alberti,, D. Vergani,, B. Portmann,, A. L. Eddleston,, and R. Williams. 1982. Specificity of T lymphocytes cytotoxicity to autologous hepatocytes in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: evidence that T cells are directed against HBV core antigen expressed on hepatocytes. J. Immunol. 129:27732778.
192. Monsonego, J.,, L. Zerat,, F. Catalan,, and Y. Coscas. 1993. Genital human papillomavirus infections: correlation of cytological, colposcopic and histological features with viral types in women and their male partners. Int. J. STD AIDS 4:1320.
193. Mori, M.,, N. Ban,, and K. Kinoshita. 1988. Familial occurrence of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Ann. Neurol. 23:100.
194. Moudgil, T.,, A. Molina,, G. L. Norman,, A. M. Levine,, and P. S. Gill. 1994. Absence of HTLV-I or HTLV-II proviral DNA in PBMC's of patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) with serum TH2 cytokine profile. Blood 84:478a.
195. Mueller, N.,, A. Evans,, and N. L. Harris. 1989. Hodgkin's disease and Epstein-Barr virus: altered antibody pattern before diagnosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 320:696701.
196. Mueller, N.,, A. Mohar,, A. Evans,, N. L. Harris,, G. W. Comstock,, E. Jellum,, K. Magnus,, N. Orentreich,, B. F. Polk,, and J. Vogelman. 1991. Epstein-Barr virus antibody patterns preceding the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 49:387393.
197. Murphy, E. L.,, J. P. Figueroa,, W. N. Gibbs,, A. Brathwaite,, M. Holding-Cobham,, D. Waters,, B. Cranston,, B. Hanchard,, and W. A. Blattner. 1989. Sexual transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Ann. Intern. Med. 111:555560.
198. Murphy, E. L.,, B. Hanchard,, J. P. Figueroa,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. S. Lof ters,, M. Campbell,, J. J. Goedert,, and W. A. Blattner. 1989. Modelling the risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Int. J. Cancer 43:250253.
199. Nagaya, T.,, T. Nakamura,, T. Tokino,, T. Tsurimoto,, M. Imai,, T. Mayumi,, K. Kamino,, K. Yamamura,, and K. Matsubara. 1987. The mode of hepatitis B virus DNA integration in chromosomes of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Genes Dev. 1:773782.
200. Naghashfar, Z.,, M. J. Kutcher,, E. Sawada,, and K. V. Shah. 1985. Infection of the oral cavity with genital tract papillomaviruses. UCLA Symp. Mol. Cell. Biol. N. Ser. 32:155163.
201. Nakagawa, M.,, S. Izumo,, S. Ijichi,, H. Kubota,, K. Arimura,, M. Kawabata,, and M. Osama. 1995. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: analysis of 213 patients based on clinical features and laboratory findings. J. Neurovirol. 1:5061.
202. Nalpas, B.,, F. Driss,, S. Pol,, B. Hamelin,, C. Housset,, C. Brechot,, and P. Berthelot. 1991. Hepatitis C infection in alcoholics. Alcohol Alcohol. Suppl. 1:321322.
203. Niederman, J. C, R. W. McCollum, G. Henle, and W. Henle. 1968. Infectious mononucleosis: clinical manifestations in relation to EB virus antibodies. JAMA 203:205209.
204. Niedobitek, G.,, M. L. Hansmann,, H. Berbst,, L. S. Young,, D. Dienemann,, C. A. Hartmann,, T. Finn,, S. Pitteroff,, A. Welt,, I. Anagnostopoulos,, R. Friedrich,, H. Lobeck,, C. K. Sam,, I. Araujo,, A. B. Rickinson,, and H. Stein. 1991. Epstein-Barr virus and carcinomas: undifferentiated carcinomas but not squamous cell carcinomas of the nasopharynx are regularly associated with the virus. J. Pathol. 165:1724.
205. Nielson, H.,, B. Norrild,, P. Vedtofte,, F. Praetorius,, J. Reibel,, and P. Holmstrup. 1996. Human papillomavirus in oral premalignant lesions. Eur. J. Cancer 32B:264270.
206. Nishioka, K.,, J. Watanabe,, S. Furuta,, E. Tanaka,, S. lino,, H. Suzuki,, T. Tsuji,, M. Yano,, G. Kuo,, Q. L. Choo,, M. Houghton,, and T. Oda. 1991. A high prevalence of antibody to the hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. Cancer 67:429433.
207. Nishioka, K.,, J. Watanabe,, S. Furuta,, E. Tanaka,, H. Suzuki,, S. lino,, T. Tsuji,, M. Yano,, G. Kuo,, Q. L. Choo,, M. Houghton,, and T. Oda. 1991. Antibody to the hepatitis C virus in acute hepatitis and chronic liver diseases in Japan. Liver 11:6570.
208. Ogunbiyi, O. A.,, J. H. Scholefield,, G. Robertson,, J. H. Smith,, F. Sharp,, and K. Rogers. 1994. Anal human papillomavirus infection and squamous neoplasia in patients with invasive vulvar cancer. Obstet. Gynecol. 83:212216.
209. Ohkoshi, S.,, H. Kojina,, H. Tawaraya,, T. Miyajima,, T. Kamimura,, H. Asakura,, A. Satoh,, S. Hirose,, M. Jiijikata,, N. Kato,, and K. Shimotohno. 1990. Prevalence of antibody against non-A, non-B hepatitis in Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81:550553.
210. Okamoto, H.,, S. Yotsumoto,, Y. Akahane,, T. Yamanaka,, Y. Miyazaki,, Y. Sugai,, F. Tsuda,, T. Tanaka,, Y. Miyakawa,, and M. Mayumi. 1990. Hepatitis B viruses with precore region defects prevail in persistently infected hosts along with seroconversion to the antibody against e antigen. J. Virol. 64:12981303.
211. Okayama, A.,, T. Maruyama,, N. Tachibana,, K. Hayashi,, T. Kitamura,, N. Mueller,, and H. Tsubouchi. 1995. Increased prevalence of HTLV-I infection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 86:14.
212. Okochi, K.,, H. Sato,, and Y. Hunuma. 1984. A retrospective study on transmission of adult T cell leukemia virus by blood transfusion: seroconversion in recipients. Vox Sang. 46:245253.
213. Old, L. J.,, E. A. Boyse,, H. F. Oettgen,, E. de Harven,, G. Geering,, E. Williamson,, and P. Clifford. 1966. Precipitation antibody in human serum to an antigen present in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56:16991704.
214. Oshima, A.,, H. Tsukuma,, T. Hiyama,, I. Fujimoto,, H. Yamano,, and M. Tanaka. 1984. Follow-up study of HBs Ag-positive blood donors with special reference to effect of drinking and smoking on development of liver cancer. Int. J. Cancer 34:775779.
215.Ostwald, C, P. Muller, M. Barten, K. Rutsatz, M. Sonnenburg, K. Milde-Langosch, and T. Loning. 1994. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal mucosa. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23:220225.
216. Palefsky, J. M. 1994. Anal human papillomavirus infection and anal cancer in HIVpositive individuals: an emerging problem. AIDS 8:283295.
217. Palefsky, J. M. 1995. Human papillomavirus-associated malignancies in HIV-positive men and women. Curr. Of in. Oncol. 7:437441.
218. Palefsky, J. M.,, E. A. Holly,, J. Gonzalez,, J. Berline,, D. K. Ahn,, and J. S. Greenspan. 1991. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer. Cancer Res. 51:10141019.
219. Pastore, G.,, L. Monno,, T. Santantonio,, G. Angarano,, M. Milella,, A. Giannelli,, and J. R. Fiore. 1990. Hepatitis B virus clearance from serum and liver after acute hepatitis delta virus superinfection in chronic HBsAG carriers. J. Med. Virol. 31:284290.
220. Pearson, G. R., 1980. Epstein-Barr virus: immunology, p. 739767. In G. Klein (ed.), Viral Oncology. Raven Press, New York.
221. Pearson, G. R.,, B. Johansson,, and G. Klein. 1978. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in African patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 22:120125.
222. Pearson, G. R.,, and P. H. Levine,. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus vaccine—the time to proceed is now!, p. 349356. In B. Roizman,, R. Whitley,, and C. Lopez (ed.), Human Herpesvirus: Biology, Pathogenesis and Treatment. Raven Press, New York.