1887

Chapter 1 : Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the current knowledge regarding the transmission of four groups of viruses with well-documented links to human cancer, i.e., the herpesviruses (particularly Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)), the papovaviruses (primarily human papillomavirus (HPV)), the hepatitis viruses, and the retroviruses (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)), noting the apparent risk factors for the progression of these common infections to cancer. As with most herpesviruses, infection of children with EBV usually either is asymptomatic or produces mild disease, but if primary infection is delayed until puberty or afterwards, infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a frequent outcome, accounting for the observation that IM is predominantly a disease of upper socioeconomic groups. HHV-8 (also called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) is, like EBV, classified as a gammaherpesvirus. HPV have the greatest public health relevance of the human . HPV are widely accepted to be the principal causative agents in the development of cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. The chapter focuses on HBV, HCV, and HDV, which have been implicated as etiologic agents of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HTLV-I through undetermined mechanisms is also associated with various nonmalignant conditions. The development of serologic assays facilitated the descriptive epidemiology of HTLV-I and revealed that the virus clustered in areas where the disease was found. A major focus of research remains on understanding the cofactors that operate in the presence of the viruses increasing the risk of cancer development, so that these too can be avoided.

Citation: Levine P, Strickler H, Manns A, Diamondstone L. 1998. Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, p 1-49. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Human herpesvirus 8
0.47351828
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.45644316
Hepatitis delta virus
0.45378837
Simian virus 40
0.44949785
0.47351828
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Age-specific patterns of HPV infection and cervical neoplasia. (▪) Prevalence of HPV DNA in cytologically normal women; (♦) prevalence of koilocytotic atypia (both types of prevalence data were derived from studies of routine cervical cytology screening patients at Kaiser-Permanente, Portland, Oreg.). Also shown are the incidence of CIN-3 (Δ) and cervical cancer (●), respectively, based on United States national cancer statistics. Note that the figure uses a logarithmic scale. (Reprinted from reference with permission.)

Citation: Levine P, Strickler H, Manns A, Diamondstone L. 1998. Epidemiology of Viruses Associated with Human Cancer, p 1-49. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818289.chap1
1. Akahane, Y.,, T. Aikawa,, Y. Sugai,, F. Tsuda,, H. Okamoto,, and S. Mishiro. 1992. Transmission of HCV between spouses. Lancet 339: 1059 1060.
2. Alter, H. J.,, R. H. Purcell,, J. W. Shih,, J. C. Melpolder,, M. Houghton,, Q. L. Choo,, and G. Kuo. 1989. Detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus in prospectively followedtransfusion recipients with acute and chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. N. Engl.J. Med. 321: 1494 1500.
3. Alter, M. J.,, P. J. Coleman,, W. J. Alexander,, E. Kramer,, J. K. Miller,, E. Mandel,, S. C. Hadler,, and H. S. Margolis. 1989. Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA 262: 1201 1205.
4. Alter, M. J.,, R. J. Gerety,, L. A. Smallwood,, R. E. Sampliner,, E. Tabor,, F. Deinhardt,, G. Frosner,, and G. M. Matanoski. 1982. Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis: frequency and epidemiology in an urban US population. J. Infect. Dis. 145: 886 893.
5. Ambinder, R. F.,, P. J. Browning,, I. Lorenzana,, B. G. Leventhal,, H. Cosenza,, R. B. Mann,, E. M. E. MacMahon,, R. Medina,, V. Cardona,, S. Grufferman,, A. Olshan,, A. Levin,, E. A. Petersen,, W. Blattner,, and P. H. Levine. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus and childhood Hodgkin's disease in Honduras and the United States. Blood 81: 462 467.
6. Ando, Y.,, S. Nakano,, K. Saito,, I. Shimamoto,, M. Ichijo,, T. Toyama,, and Y. Hinuma. 1987. Transmission of adult T-cell leukemia retrovirus (HTLV-I) from mother to child: comparison of bottle- with breast-fed babies. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 78: 322 324.
7. Arao, M.,, S. Kakumu,, H. Tahara,, K. Yoshioka,, and N. Sakamoto. 1989. Interferon alpha and gamma positive mononuclear cells and HLA antigen expression on hepatocyte membrane in the liver in chronic type B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. Gastroenterol. Jpn. 24: 255 261.
8. Archer, G. T.,, M. L. Buring,, B. Clark,, S. L. Ismay,, K. G. Kenrick,, K. Purusothaman,, J. M. Kaldor,, W. V. Bolton,, and B. R. Wylie. 1992. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in Sydney blood donors. Med. J. Aust. 157: 225 227.
9. Arico, S.,, M. Aragona,, M. Rizzetto,, F. Caredda,, A. Zanetti,, G. Marinucci,, S. Diana,, P. Farci,, M. Arnone,, N. Caporaso,, A. Ascione,, P. Dentico,, G. Pastora,, G. Raimondo,, and A. Craxi. 1985. Clinical significance of antibody to the hepatitis delta virus in symptomless HBsAg carriers. Lancet ii: 356 358.
10. Arthur, R. R.,, S. A. Grossman,, B. M. Ronnett,, S. H. Bigner,, B. Vogelstein,, and K. V. Shah. 1994. Lack of association of human polyomaviruses with human brain tumors. J. Neurooncol. 20: 55 58.
11. Arthur, R. R.,, and K. V. Shah. 1989. Occurrence and significance of papovaviruses BK and JC in the urine. Prog. Med. Virol. 36: 42 61.
12. Asou, N.,, T. Kumagai,, S. Uekihara,, M. Ishii,, M. Sato,, K. Sakai,, H. Nishimura,, K. Yamaguchi,, and K. Takatsuki. 1986. HTLV-I seroprevalence in patients with malignancy. Cancer 58: 903 907.
13. Austen, D. F.,, P. Reynolds,, D. Schottenfeld,, and J. F. J. Fraumeni,. 1996. Laryngeal cancer, p. 619 631. In D. F. Austen,, P. Reynolds,, D. Schottenfeld,, and J. F. J. Fraumeni (ed.), Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.
14. Ayoola, E. A., and Members of the WHO Committee. 1988. Progress in the control of viral hepatitis: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull. W. H. O. 66: 443 455.
15. Baken, L. A.,, L. A. Koutsky,, J. Kuypera,, M. R. Kosorok,, S. K. Lee,, N. B. Kiviat,, and K. K. Holmes. 1995. Genital human papillomavirus infection among male and female sex partners: prevalence and type-specific concordance. J. Infect. Dis. 171: 429 432.
16. Barriga, F.,, J. Kiwanuka,, M. Alvarez-Mon,, B. Shiramizu,, B. Huber,, P. Levine,, and I. Magrath. 1988. Significance of chromosome 8 breakpoint location in Burkitt's lymphoma: correlation with geographical origin and association with Epstein Barr virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 141: 129 137.
17. Bauer, H. M.,, A. Hildesheim,, M. H. Schiffman,, A. G. Glass,, B. B. Rush,, D. R. Scott,, D. M. Cadell,, R. J. Kurman,, and M. M. Manos. 1993. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in low-risk women in Portland, Oregon. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20: 274 278.
18. Bauer, H. M.,, Y. Ting,, C. E. Greer,, J. C. Chambers,, C. J. Tashiro,, J. Chimera,, A. Reingold,, and M. M. Manos. 1991. Genital human papillomavirus infection in female university students as determined by a PCR-based method. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 265: 472 477.
19. Beasley, R. P.,, and L. Y. Hwang. 1984. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Semin. Liver Dis. 4: 113 121.
20. Beasley, R. P.,, L. Y. Hwang,, C. C. Lin,, and C. S. Chien. 1981. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus: a prospective study of 22707 men in Taiwan. Lancet 21: 1129 1133.
21. Beasley, R. P.,, C. Trepo,, C. E. Stevens,, and W. Smuzness. 1977. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105: 94 98.
22. Benvegnu, L.,, G. Fattovich,, G. Diodati,, F. Noventa,, P. Pontisso,, F. Tremolada,, and A. Alberti,. 1994. Hepatitis C virus infection and replication in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, p. 706 709. In K. Nishioka,, H. Suzuki,, S. Mishiro,, and T. Oda (ed.), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York.
23. Beral, V., Peterman, T. A., Berkelman, R. L., Jaffe, H. W. 1990. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335: 123 128.
24. Bergsagal, D. J.,, M. J. Finegold,, J. S. Butel,, W. J. Kupsky,, and R. L. Garcea. 1992. DNA sequences similar to those of simian virus 40 in ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors of childhood. N. Engl. J. Med. 326: 988 993.
25. Bernard, H. U.,, S. K. Chan,, M. M. Manos,, C. K. Ong,, L. L. Villa,, H. Delius,, C. L. Peyton,, H. M. Bauer,, and C. M. Wheeler. 1994. Identification and assessment of known and novel human papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction amplification, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, nucleotide sequence, and pylogenetic algorithms. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 1077 1085.
26. Bernvil, S. S.,, V. J. Andrews,, and A. A. Kariem. 1991. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in Saudi Arabian blood donors. Vox Sqng. 61: 279 280.
27. Biggar, R. J.,, W. Henle,, G. Fleischer,, J. Bocker,, G. T. Lennette,, and G. Henle. 1978. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infections in African infants. I. Decline of maternal antibody and time of infection. Int. J. Cancer 22: 239 243.
28. Blackbourn, D. J.,, J. Ambroziak,, E. Lennette,, M. Adams,, B. Ramachandran,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Infectious human herpesvirus 8 in a healthy North American blood donor. Lancet 349: 609 611.
29. Blattner, W. A.,, V. S. Kalyanaraman,, M. Robert-Guroff,, T. A. Lister,, D. A. Galton,, P. S. Sarin,, M. H. Crawford,, D. Catovsky,, M. Greaves,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. The human type-C retrovirus, HTLV, in blacks from the Caribbean region, and relationship to adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 30: 257 264.
30. Blum, A. L.,, R. Stuts,, U. P. Haemmerli,, P. Schmid,, and G. F. Grady. 1969. A fortuitously controlled study of steroid therapy in acute viral hepatitis. I. Acute disease. Am. J. Med. 47: 82 92.
31. Blum, H. E.,, E. Galun,, T. J. Liang,, F. von Weizsacker,, and J. R. Wands. 1991. Naturally occurring missense mutation in the polymerase gene terminating hepatitis B virus replication. J. Virol. 65: 1836 1842.
32. Blumberg, B. S.,, H. J. Alter,, and S. Visnich. 1965. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA 191: 541 546.
33. Blumberg, B. S.,, and W. T. London. 1982. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. Curr. Probl. Cancer 6: 1 23.
34. Bonino, F.,, A. Demartini,, and M. R. Brunetto. 1991. Diagnostic advances in viral hepatitis: the discovery of hepatitis C virus and genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis B virus. Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita. 27: 547 553.
35. Bosch, F. X.,, X. Castellaague,, N. Munoz,, S. de Sanjose,, A. M. Ghaffari,, L. C. Gonzalez,, M. Gili,, I. Izarzugaza,, P. Viladiu,, and C. Navarro. 1996. Male sexual behavior and human papillomavirus DNA: key risk factors for cervical cancer in Spain. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88: 1060 1067.
36. Bosch, F. X.,, M. M. Manos,, N. Munoz,, M. Sherman,, A. Jansen,, J. Peto,, M. H. Schiffman,, V. Moreno,, R. Kurman,, and K. V. Shah. 1995. Prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical cancer in 22 countries. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87: 796 802.
37. Boxman, I. L. A.,, R. J. M. Berhout,, L. H. C. Mulder,, M. C. Wolkers,, J. N. B. Bavinck,, B. J. Vermaer,, and J. T. Shegget. 1996. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in plucked hairs from renal transplant recipients and healthy volunteers. 15th International Papillomavirus Workshop, Queensland, Australia.
38. Brechot, C.,, M. Hadchouel,, J. Scotto,, F. Degos,, P. Charnay,, C. Trepo,, and P. Tiollais. 1981. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in liver and serum: a direct appraisal of the carrier state. Lancet ii: 765 768.
39. Brechot, C.,, C. Pourcel,, A. Louise,, B. Rain,, and P. Tiollsis. 1980. Presence of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA sequences in cellular DNA of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature 286: 533 535.
40. Brinton, L. A. 1991. Oral contraceptives and cervical neoplasia. Contraception 43: 581 595.
41. Brinton, L. A.,, R. Herrero,, W. C. Reeves,, R. C. de Britton,, E. Gaitan,, and F. Tenorio. 1993. Risk factors for cervical cancer by histology [see comments]. Gynecol. Oncol. 51: 301 306.
42. Bruix, J.,, J. M. Barrera,, X. Clavet,, G. Ercilla,, J. Costa,, J. M. Sanchez-Tapias,, M. Ventura,, M. Vail,, M. Bruguera,, and C. Bru. 1989. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Spanish patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cirrhosis. Lancet 2: 1004 1006.
43. Brunetto, M. R.,, F. Oliveri,, G. Rocca,, D. Criscuolo,, E. Chiaberge,, M. Capalbo,, E. David,, G. Verme,, and F. Bonino. 1989. Natural course and response to interferon of chronic hepatitis B accompanied by antibody to hepatitis B antigen. Hepatology 10: 198 202.
44. Carbone, M.,, H. I. Pass,, P. Rizzo,, M. Marinetti,, M. Di Muzio,, D. J. Mew,, A. S. Levine,, and A. Procopio. 1994. Simian virus 40-like DNA sequences in human pleural mesothelioma. Oncogene 9: 1781 1790.
45. Carbone, M.,, P. Rizzo,, A. Procopio,, M. Giuliano,, H. I. Pass,, M. C. Gebhardt,, C. Mangham,, M. Hansen,, D. F. Malkin,, and G. Bushart. 1996. SV40-like sequences in human bone tumors. Oncogene 13: 527 535.
46. Casey, J. L.,, T. L. Brown,, E. J. Colan,, F. S. Wignall,, and J. L. Gerin. 1993. A genotype of hepatitis D virus that occurs in northern South America. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 9016 9020.
47. Catovsky, D.,, M. F. Greaves,, M. Rose,, D. Galton,, A. W. Goolden,, D. R. McCluskey,, J. M. White,, I. Lampert,, G. Bourikas,, R. Ireland,, A. I. Brownell,, J. M. Bridges,, W. A. Blattner,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. Adult T-cell lymphoma-leukemia in blacks from the West Indies. Lancet 1: 639 643.
48. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Racial differences in rates of hepatitis B virus infection-United States, 1976–1980. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 38: 818821.
49. Cesarman, E.,, P. S. Moore,, P. H. Rao,, G. Inghirami,, D. M. Knowles,, and Y. Chang. 1995. In vitro establishment and characterization of two acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma cell lines (BC-1 and BC-2) containing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) DNA sequences. Blood 86: 2708 2714.
50. Chang, C. C, M. W. Yu, C. F. Lu, C. S. Yang, and C. J. Chen. 1994. A nested casecontrol study on association between hepatitis C virus antibodies and primary liver cancer in a cohort of 9,775 men in Taiwan. J. Med. Virol. 43: 276 280.
51. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266: 1865 1869.
52. Chang, Y.,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus and its role in KS. Infect. Agents Dis. 5: 215 222.
53. Chen, D. S., 1987. Hepatitis B virus infection, its sequel, and prevention in Taiwan, p. 71 80. In K. Okuda, and K. G. Ishak (ed.), Neoplasms of the Liver. Springer, Tokyo.
54. Chen, P. J.,, D. S. Chen,, C. R. Chen,, Y. Y. Chen,, H. M. Chen,, M. Y. Lai,, and J. L. Sung. 1988. Delta infection in asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen: low prevalence of delta activity and effective suppression of hepatitis B virus replication. Hematology 8: 1121 1124
55. Chen, Y. C.,, C. H. Wang,, I. J. Su,, C. Y. Hu,, M. J. Chou,, T. H. Lee,, D. T. Lin,, T. Y. Chung,, C. H. Liu,, and C. S. Yang. 1989. Infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type I and development of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in patients with hematologic neoplasms: a possible linkage to blood transfusion. Blood 74: 388 394.
56. Choo, Q.-L.,, G. Kuo,, A. J. Weinger,, L. R. Overby,, D. W. Bradley,, and M. Houghton. 1989. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244: 359 362.
57. Chuang, W. L.,, W. Y. Chang,, S. N. Lu,, W. P. Su,, Z. Y. Lin,, S. C. Chen,, M. Y. Hsieh,, L. Y. Wang,, S. L. You,, and C. J. Chen. 1992. The role of hepatitis B and C viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma in a hepatitis B endemic area. A case-control study. Cancer 69: 2052 2054.
58. Clark, D. A.,, F. E. Alexander,, P. A. McKinney,, B. E. Roberts,, C. O'Brien,, R. F. Jarrett,, R. A. Cartwright,, and D. E. Onions. 1990. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) from a case-control study of leukaemia and lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 45: 829 833.
59. Clark, J. W.,, C. Gurgo,, G. Franchini,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. Lofters,, C. Neuland,, D. Mann,, C. Saxinger,, R. C. Gallo,, and W. A. Blattner. 1988. Molecular epidemiology of HTLV-I-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Jamaica. Cancer 61: 1477 1482.
60. Cleghorn, F. R.,, A. Manns,, R. Falk,, P. Hartge,, B. Hanchard,, N. Jack,, E. Williams,, E. Jaffe,, F. White,, and C. Bartholomew. 1995. Effect of HTLV-I infection on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87: 1009 1014.
61. Coker, A. L.,, A. J. Rosenberg,, M. F. McCann,, and B. S. Hulka. 1992. Active and passive cigarette smoke exposure and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1: 349 356
62. Colombo, M.,, G. Kuo,, Q.-L. Choo,, M. F. Donato,, E. Del Ninno,, M. A. Tommasini,, N. Dioguardi,, and M. Houghton. 1989. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Italian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet 2: 1006 1008.
63. Colombo, M.,, M. G. Rumi,, M. F. Donato,, M. A. Tommasini,, E. Del Ninno,, G. Ronchi,, G. Kuo,, and M. Houghton. 1991. Hepatitis C antibody in patients with chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Dig. Dis. Sci. 36: 1130 1133.
64. Correa, F.,, and G. T. O'Conor. 1971. Epidemiologic patterns of Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 8: 192 201.
65. Craig, J. R.,, S. Govindarajan,, and K. M. DeCock. 1986. Delta viral hepatitis. Histopathology and course. Pathol. Ann. 21: 1 21.
66. Davies, J. N. P., and F. Lothe,. 1983. Kaposi's sarcoma in African children, p. 81 86. In L. V. Ackerman, and J. F. Hurray (ed.), Symposium on Kaposi's Sarcoma. S. Karger, Basel.
67. De Oliveira, M. S.,, E. Matutes,, L. C. Famadas,, T. F. Schuls,, M. L. Calabro,, M. Nucci,, M. J. Andrada-Serpa,, R. S. Tedder,, R. A. Weiss,, and D. Catovsky. 1990. Adult Tcell leukemia/lymphoma in Brazil and its relation to HTLV-I. Lancet 336: 987 990.
68. de-The, G.,, A. Geser,, N. E. Day,, P. M. Tukei,, E. H. Williams,, D. P. Beri,, P. G. Smith,, A. G. Dean,, G. W. Bronkamm,, P. Feorino,, and W. Henle. 1978. Epidemiological evidence for causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and Burkitt's lymphoma from Ugandan prospective study. Nature 274: 756 761.
69. de-The, G.,, J. H. C. Ho,, and C. Muir,. 1991. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, p. 737 767. In A. S. Evans (ed.), Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed. Plenum Publishing Corp, New York.
70. Des Jarlais, D. C.,, M. Marmor,, P. Thomas,, M. Chamberland,, S. Zolla-Pazner,, and D. J. Sencer. 1984. Kaposi's sarcoma among four different AIDS risk groups. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 1119. ( Letter.)
71. Dillner, J.,, P. Knekt,, J. T. Schiller,, and T. Hakulinen. 1995. Prospective seroepidemiological evidence that human papillomavirus type 16 is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Br. Med. J. 311: 1346.
72. Dillner, J.,, F. Wiklund,, P. Lenner,, C. Eklund,, V. Frederiksson-Shanazarian,, J. T. Schiller,, M. Hibma,, G. Hallmans,, and U. Stendahl. 1995. Antibodies against linear and conformational epitopes of human papillomavirus type 16 that independently associate with incident cervical cancer. Int. J. Cancer 60: 377 382.
73. Edman, J. C.,, P. Gray,, P. Valenzuela,, L. B. Rail,, and W. J. Rutter. 1980. Integration of hepatitis B virus sequences and their expression in a human hepatoma cell. Nature 286: 535 538.
74. Epstein, M. A.,, B. H. Achong,, and Y. M. Barr. 1964. Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma. Lancet 1: 702 703.
75. Epstein, M. A.,, H. Rabin,, G. Ball,, A. B. Rickinson,, J. Jains,, and L. V. Melendes. 1973. Pilot experiments with EB virus in owl monkeys ( Aotus trivirgatus). II. EB virus in a cell line from an animal with reticuloproliferative disease. Int. J. Cancer 12: 319 332.
76. Evans, A. S. 1971. The spectrum of infections with Epstein-Barr virus: a hypothesis. J. Infect. Dis. 124: 330 337.
77. Evans, A. S. 1976. Causation and disease: the Henle-Koch postulates revisited. Yale J. Biol. Med. 49: 175 195.
78. Evans, A. S.,, and G. W. Comstock. 1981. Presence of elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus before Hodgkin's disease. Lancet 1: 1183 1186.
79. Evans, A. S.,, and N. E. Mueller. 1990. Viruses and cancer: causal associations. Ann. Epidemiol. 1: 71 92.
80. Evans, A. S.,, and J. C. Niederman,. 1989. Epstein-Barr virus, p. 265 292. In A. S. Evans (ed.), Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control, 3rd ed. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.
81. Fong, T. L.,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, J. G. Waggoner,, S. M. Banks,, and J. M. Hoofnagle. 1991. The significance of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 14: 64 67.
82. Franceshi, S.,, N. Munos,, X. F. Bosch,, F. J. F. Snijders,, and J. M. M. Walboomers. 1996. Human papillomavirus and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review of epidemiological and experimental evidence. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 5: 567 575.
83. Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., F. Ederer, and R. W. Miller. 1963. An evaluation of the carcinogenicity of Simian virus 40 in man. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 185: 713 718.
84. Fredericks, B. D.,, A. Balkin,, H. W. Daniel,, J. Schonrock,, B. Ward,, and I. H. Frazer. 1993. Transmission of human papillomaviruses from mother to child [see comments]. Aust. N. Z. J. Obstet. Gynaecol 33: 30 32.
85. Galibert, F.,, E. Mandart,, F. Fitoussi,, P. Tiollais,, and P. Charnay. 1979. Nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature 281: 646 650.
86. Gallo, R. C.,, B. J. Poiesz,, and F. W. Ruscetti. 1981. Regulation of human T-cell proliferation: T-cell growth factor and isolation of a new class of type-C retroviruses from human T-cells. Haematol. Blood Transfus. 26: 502 513.
87. Gallo, R. C.,, and G. J. Todaro. 1976. Oncogenic RNA viruses. Semin. Oncol. 3: 81.
88. Gao, S. J.,, L. Kingsley,, M. Li,, W. Zheng,, C. Parravicini,, J. Ziegler,, R. Newton,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat. Med. 2: 925 928.
89. Geissler, E. 1990. SV40 and human brain tumors. Prog. Med. Virol. 37: 211 222.
90. Geser, A.,, G. de-The,, G. Lenoir,, N. E. Day,, and E. H. Williams. 1982. Final case reporting from the Uganda prospective study of the relationship between EBV and Burkitt's lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 29: 397 400.
91. Gessain, A.,, E. Boeri,, R. Yanagihara,, R. C. Gallo,, and G. Franchini. 1993. Complete nucleotide sequence of a highly divergent human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type I (HTLV-I) variant from Melanesia: genetic and phylogenetic relationship to HTLV-I strains from other geographical regions. J. Virol. 67: 1015 1023.
92. Gessain, A.,, I. J. Koralnik,, J. Fullen,, E. Boeri,, C. Mora,, A. Blank,, E. F. Salazar-Grueso,, J. Kaplan,, W. C. Saxinger,, and M. Davidson. 1994. Phylogenetic study of ten new HTLV-I strains from the Americas. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 10: 103 106.
93. Gill, P. S.,, W. Harrington, Jr.,, M. H. Kaplan,, R. C. Ribeiro,, J. M. Bennett,, H. A. Liebman,, M. Bernstein-Singer,, B. M. Espina,, L. Cabral,, and S. Allen. 1995. Treatment of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma with a combination of interferon alfa and zidovudine. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1744 1748.
94. Glaser, S. L.,, J. L. Ruby,, S. L. Stewart,, R. F. Ambinder,, R. F. Jarrett,, P. Brousset,, G. Pallesen,, M. L. Gully,, K. Gulfaraz,, J. O'Grady,, M. Hummel,, M. V. Preciado,, H. Knecht,, K. C. Chan,, and A. Claviez. 1997. Epstein-Barr virus associated Hodgkin's disease: epidemiologic characteristics in international data. Int. J. Cancer 70: 375 382.
94a.. Goedert, J. J.,, D. H. Kedes, and D. Ganem. 1997. Antibodies to human herpesvirus 8 in women and infants born in Haiti and the USA. Lancet 349: 1368.
95. Goodrick, M. J.,, N. A. B. Anderson,, I. D. Fraser,, A. Rouse,, and V. Pearson. 1992. History of previous drug misuse in HCV-positive blood donors. Lancet 339: 502.
96. Gout, O.,, M. Baulac,, A. Gessain,, F. Semah,, F. Saal,, J. Peries,, C. Cabrol,, C. Foucault-Fretz,, D. Laplane,, and F. Sigaux. 1990. Rapid development of myelopathy after HTLV-I infection acquired by transfusion during cardiac transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 383 388.
97. Grakoui, A.,, C. Wychowski,, C. Lin,, S. M. Feinstone,, and C. M. Rice. 1993. Expression and identification of hepatitis C virus polyprotein cleavage products. J. Virol. 67: 1385 1395.
98. Greer, C. E.,, J. K. Lund,, and M. M. Manos. 1994. PCR amplification from paraffinembedded tissues: recommendations on fixatives for long term storage and prospective studies. PCR Methods Appl. 3: S113 S122.
99. Gulley, M. L.,, P. A. Eagan,, L. Quintanilla-Martinez,, A. L. Picado,, B. N. Smir,, C. Childs,, C. D. Dunn,, F. E. Craig,, J. W. Williams, Jr.,, and P. M. Banks. 1994. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is abundant and monoclonal in the Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease: association with mixed cellularity subtype and Hispanic American ethnicity. Blood 83: 1595 1602.
100. Hall, W. W.,, C. R. Liu,, O. Schneewind,, H. Takahashi,, M. H. Kaplan,, G. Roupe,, and A. Vahine. 1991. Deleted HTLV-I provirus in blood and cutaneous lesions of patients with mycosis fungoides. Science 253: 317 320.
101. Halprin, J.,, A. L. Scott,, L. Jacobson,, P. H. Levine,, H. C. Ho,, J. C. Niederman,, D. Hayward,, and G. Milman. 1986. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear and early antigens in patients with infectious mononucleosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ann. Intern. Med. 104: 331 337.
102. Hamada, T.,, M. Setoyama,, Y. Katshira,, T. Furuno,, T. Fujiyoshi,, S. Sonoda,, and M. Tashiro. 1992. Differences in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-I seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. J. Dermatol. Sci. 4: 76 82.
103.Han, C, G. Qiao, N. L. Hubbert, L. Li, C. Sun, Y. Wang, D. Xu, Y. Li, D. R. Lowy, and J. T. Schiller. 1996. Serological association between human papillomavirus 16 infection and esophageal cancer in Shaanxi, China. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88: 14671471.
104. Henle, G.,, and W. Henle. 1966. Immunofluorescence in cells derived from Burkitt's lymphoma. J. Bacteriol. 91: 1248 1256.
105. Henle, G.,, and W. Henle. 1976. Epstein-Barr virus-specific IgA serum antibodies as an outstanding feature of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 17: 1 7.
106. Henle, G.,, W. Henle,, P. Clifford,, V. Diehl,, G. W. Kafuko,, B. G. Kirya,, G. Klein,, R. H. Morrow,, G. M. R. Munuba,, P. Pika,, P. M. Tukei,, and J. L. Ziegler. 1969. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in Burkitt's lymphoma and control groups. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43: 1147 1157.
107. Henle, G.,, W. Henle,, and V. Diehl. 1968. Relation of Burkitt's tumor-associated herpes type virus to infectious mononucleosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59: 94 101.
108. Henle, W.,, and G. Henle. 1981. Epstein-Barr virus-specific serology in immunologically compromised individuals. Cancer Res. 41: 4222 4225.
109. Herrero, R.,, L. A. Brinton,, W. C. Reeves,, M. M. Brenes,, F. Tenorio,, R. C. de Britton,, E. Gaitan,, M. Garcia,, and W. E. Rawls. 1990. Sexual behavior, venereal diseases, hygiene practices, and invasive cervical cancer in a high-risk population. Cancer 65: 380 386.
110. Heyward, W. L.,, A. P. Lanier,, T. R. Bender,, H. H. Hardison,, P. H. Dohan,, B. J. McMahon,, and D. P. Francis. 1981. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaskan Natives, 1969-1979. Int. J. Cancer 28: 47 50.
111. Hildesheim, A.,, L. A. Brinton,, K. Mallin,, H. F. Lehman,, P. Stolley,, D. A. Savits,, and R. Levine. 1990. Barrier and spermicidal contraceptive methods and risk of invasive cervical cancer. Epidemiology 1: 266 272.
112. Hildesheim, A.,, P. Gravitt,, M. H. Schiffman,, R. J. Kurman,, W. Barnes,, S. Jones,, J. G. Tchabo,, L. A. Brinton,, C. Copeland,, and J. Epp. 1993. Determinants of genital human papillomavirus infection in low-income women in Washington, D. C. Sex. Transm. Dis. 20: 279 285.
113. Hildesheim, A.,, and P. H. Levine. 1993. Etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a review. Epidemiol. Rev. 15: 466 485.
114. Hildesheim, A.,, M. H. Schiffman,, P. E. Gravitt,, A. G. Glass,, C. E. Greer,, T. Zhang,, D. R. Scott,, B. B. Rush,, P. Lawler,, and M. E. Sherman. 1994. Persistence of typespecific human papillomavirus infection among cytologically normal women [see comments]. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 235 240.
115. Hinuma, Y.,, K. Nagata,, M. Hanaoka,, M. Nakai,, T. Matsumoto,, K. I. Kinoshita,, S. Shirakawa,, and I. Miyoshi. 1981. Adult T-cell leukemia: antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 6476 6480.
116. Ho, D. D.,, L. R. Rota,, and M. S. Hirsch. 1984. Infection of endothelial cells by human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 7588 7590.
117. Ho, G. Y. F.,, R. D. Burk,, I. Fleming,, and R. S. Klein. 1994. Risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in women with human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression. Int. J. Cancer 56: 788 792.
118. Ho, H. C. 1971. Incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer in Hong Kong. UICC Bull. Cancer 9: 5.
119. Ho, H. C. 1975. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J. R. Coll. Surg. 20: 223 235.
120. Hollinger, F. B.,, G. Dolana,, W. Thomas,, and F. Gyorkey. 1984. Reduction in risk of hepatitis transmission by heat-treatment of a human factor VIII concentrate. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 250 262.
121. Hollinger, F. B.,, and G. R. Dreesman,. 1980. Immunobiology of hepatitis viruses, p. 558 572. In N. R. Rose,, H. Friedman,, and J. L. Fahey (ed.), Manual of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 3rd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
122. Haing, A. W.,, W. Guo,, J. Chen,, J. -Y. Li,, B. J. Stone,, W. J. Blot,, and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr. 1991. Correlates of liver cancer mortality in China. Int. J. Epidemiol. 20: 54 59.
123. Ijichi, S.,, and M. Osame. 1995. Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): recent perspectives. Intern. Med. 34: 713 721.
124. Ikenberg, H.,, M. Runge,, A. Goppinger,, and A. Pfleiderer. 1990. Human papillomavirus DNA in invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Obstet. Gynecol. 76: 432 438.
125. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1994. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 59, Hepatitis Viruses. World Health Organization, Lyon, France.
126.International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group. 1996. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 64, Human Papillomaviruses. IARC, Lyon, France.
127. Jarrett, R. F.,, A. Gallagher,, D. B. Jones,, F. E. Alexander,, A. S. Krajewski,, A. Kelsey,, J. Adams,, B. Angus,, S. Gledhill,, D. H. Wright,, R. A. Cartwright,, and D. E. Onions. 1991. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease: relation to age. J. Clin. Pathol. 44: 844 848.
128. Johannson, B.,, G. Klein,, W. Henle,, and G. Henle. 1970. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated antibody patterns in malignant lymphoma and leukemia. I. Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 6: 450 462.
129. Kaklamani, E.,, D. Trichopoulos,, A. Tzonou,, X. Zavitaanos,, Y. Koumantaki,, A. Hatzakis,, C. C. Hsieh,, and S. Hatziyannis. 1991. Hepatitis B and C viruses and their interaction in the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 265: 1974 1976.
130. Kalyanaraman, V. S.,, M. G. Sarngadharan,, Y. Nakao,, Y. Ito,, T. Aoki,, and R. C. Gallo. 1982. Natural antibodies to the structural core protein (p24) of the human Tcell leukemia (lymphoma) retrovirus found in sera of leukemia patients in Japan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 1653 1657.
131. Kamada, N.,, M. Sakurai,, K. Miyamoto,, I. Sanada,, N. Sadamori,, S. Fukuhara,, S. Abe,, Y. Shiraishi,, T. Abe,, and Y. Kaneko. 1992. Chromosome abnormalities in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: a karyotype review committee report. Cancer Res. 52: 1481 1493.
132. Kashima, H.,, B. Leventhal,, P. Mounts,, and Papilloma Study Group. 1985. Scoring system to assess severity and course in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, p. 125 135. In P. M. Howley, and T. R. Broker (ed.), Papillomaviruses: Molecular and Clinical Aspects. Alan R. Liss, New York.
133. Kedes, D. H.,, D. Ganem,, N. Ameli,, P. Bacchetti,, and R. Greenblatt. 1997. The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) among HIV-seropositive and high-risk HIV-seronegative women. JAMA 277: 478 481.
133a.. Kedes, D. H.,, E. Operskalski,, M. Busch,, R. Kohn,, J. Flood,, and D. Ganem. 1996. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk groups and evidence for sexual transmission. Nat. Med. 2: 918 924.
134. Kew, M. C.,, J. Desmyter,, A. F. Bradburns,, and G. M. Macnab. 1979. Hepatitis B virus infection in southern African blacks with hepatocellular cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 62: 517 520.
135. Kikuchi, A.,, T. Nishikawa,, and K. Yamaguchi. 1997. Absence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 296 297.
136. Kim, C. M.,, K. Koike,, I. Saito,, T. Miyamura,, and G. Jay. 1991. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature 351: 317 320.
137. Kita, H.,, T. Moriyama,, T. Kaneko,, I. Harase,, M. Nomura,, H. Miura,, I. Nakamura,, Y. Yazaki,, and M. Imawari,. 1994. Recognition of hepatitis C virus nucleocapsid protein-derived peptides by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, p. 186 189. In K. Nishioka,, H. Suzuki,, S. Mishiro,, and T. Oda (ed.), Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York.
138. Kiyosawa, K.,, T. Sodeyama,, E. Tanaka,, Y. Gibo,, K. Yoshizawa,, Y. Nakano,, S. Furuta,, Y. Akahane,, K. Nishioka,, and R. H. Purcell. 1990. Interrelationship of blood transfusion, non-A, non-B hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis by detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 12: 671 675.
139. Kjaer, S. K.,, E. T. De Villiers,, C. Dahl,, G. Engholm,, J. E. Bock,, B. F. Vestergaard,, E. Lynge,, and O. M. Jensen. 1991. Case-control study of risk factors for cervical neoplasia in Denmark. I. Role of the "male factor" in women with one lifetime sexual partner. Int. J. Cancer 48: 39 44.
140. Knowles, D. M. 1989. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia. Am. J. Pathol. 134: 761 785.
141. Kosary, C. L.,, L. A. G. Ries,, B. A. Miller,, B. F. Hankey,, A. Harras,, and B. K. Edwards. 1995. SEER cancer statistics review, 1973-1992: tables and graphs. NIH Publication no. 96-2789. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.
142. Koutsky, L. A.,, K. K. Holmes,, C. W. Critchlow,, C. E. Stevens,, P. A. J. Paavonen,, A. M. Beckmann,, T. A. DeRouen,, D. A. Galloway,, D. Vernon,, and N. B. Kiviat. 1992. A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 1272 1278.
143. Koziel, M. J.,, D. Dudley,, J. T. Wong,, J. Dienstag,, M. Houghton,, R. Ralston,, and B. D. Walker. 1992. Intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus in persons with chronic hepatitis. J. Immunol. 149: 3339 3344.
144. Kozuru, M.,, N. Uike,, K. Muta,, T. Goto,, Y. Suehiro,, and M. Nagano. 1996. High occurrence of primary malignant neoplasms in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, their siblings, and their mothers. Cancer 78: 1119 1124.
145. Kramer, A.,, E. M. Maloney,, O. S. Morgan,, P. Rodgers-Johnson,, A. Manns,, E. L. Murphy,, S. Larsen,, B. Cranston,, J. Murphy,, and J. Benichou. 1995. Risk factors and cofactors for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Jamaica. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142: 1212 1220.
146. Kuo, G.,, Q. L. Choo,, H. J. Alter,, G. L. Gitnick,, A. G. Redeker,, R. H. Purcell,, T. Miyamura,, J. L. Dienstag,, M. J. Alter,, and C. E. Stevens. 1989. An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 244: 362 364.
147. Kurman, R. J.,, D. E. Henson,, A. L. Herbst,, K. L. Noller,, and M. H. Schiffman. 1994. Interim guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 271: 1866 1869.
148. La Grenade, L.,, B. Hanchard,, V. Fletcher,, B. Cranston,, and W. Blattner. 1990. Infective dermatitis of Jamaican children: a marker for HTLV-I infection. Lancet 336: 1345 1347.
149. La Grenade, L.,, S. Richards,, W. N. Gibbs,, B. Hanchard,, E. Williams,, N. P. Williams,, W. A. Blattner,, and A. Manns. 1995. Cutaneous manifestations for adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia in Jamaica: a 12 year review. J. AIDS Hum. Retrovir. 10: 236.
150. Lai, M. M.,, C. M. Lee,, F. Y. Bih,, and S. Govindarajan. 1991. The molecular basis of heterogeneity of hepatitis delta virus. J. Hepatol. 4: S121 S124.
151. Lam, K.C.,, and M. J. Tong. 1982. Analytical epidemiology of primary liver carcinoma in the Pacific Basin. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 62: 123 127.
152. Lednicky, J. A.,, R. L. Garcea,, D. J. Bergsagal,, and J. S. Butel. 1995. Natural simian virus 40 strains are present in human choroid plexus and ependymoma tumors. Virology 212: 710 717.
153. Lennette, E. T.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Antibodies to HHV-8 in the general population and in Kaposi sarcoma patients. Lancet 348: 858 861.
154. Levine, P. H. 1987. Immunologic markers for Epstein-Barr virus in the control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma. Cancer Detect. Prev. Suppl. 1: 217 223.
155. Levine, P. H. 1995. A review of human herpesvirus-6 infections. Infect. Med. 12: 395 402.
156. Levine, P. H.,, and D. V. Ablashi. The new herpesviruses: human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-8 (KS-virus). Infect. Med., in press.
157. Levine, P. H.,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Berard,, P. P. Carbone,, D. E. Waggoner,, and L. Malan. 1970. Elevated antibody titers to herpes-type virus in Hodgkin's disease. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 11: 49.
158. Levine, P. H.,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Berard,, P. P. Carbone,, D. E. Waggoner,, and L. Malan. 1971. Elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease. Cancer 27: 416 421.
159. Levine, P. H.,, and W. A. Blattner. 1992. The epidemiology of human virus-associated hematologic malignancies. Leukemia and related diseases. Leukemia 6: 54S 59S.
160. Levine, P. H.,, and R. R. Connelly,. 1985. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal cancer, p. 13 34. In R. E. Wittes (ed.), Head and Neck Cancer. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Sussex, U.K.
161. Levine, P. H.,, P. Ebbesen,, D. V. Ablashi,, C. W. Saxinger,, A. Nordentoft,, and R. R. Connelly. 1992. Antibodies to human herpes virus-6 and clinical course in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Int. J. Cancer 51: 53 57.
162. Levine, P. H.,, J. F. Fraumeni, Jr.,, J. I. Reisher,, and D. E. Waggoner. 1974. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in relatives of cancer patients. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52: 1037 1040.
163. Levine, P. H.,, L. S. Kamaraju,, R. R. Connelly,, C. W. Berard,, R. F. Dorfman,, I. Magrath,, and J. M. Easton. 1982. The American Burkitt's lymphoma registry: eight years' experience. Cancer 49: 1016 1022.
164. Levine, P. H.,, J. H. Lubin,, and A. S. Evans,. 1994. An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) vaccine: clinical and epidemiologic considerations, p. 585 591. In T. Tursz,, J. S. Pagano,, D. V. Ablashi,, G. de-The,, G. Lenoir,, and G. R. Pearson (ed.), Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases. John Libbey Eurotext, Ltd., London.
165. Levine, P. H.,, A. Manns,, E. S. Jaffe,, G. Colclough,, A. Cavallero,, G. Reddy,, and W. A. Blattner. 1994. The effect of ethnic differences on the patterns of HTLV-I-associated T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (HATL) in the United States. Int. J. Cancer 56: 177 181.
166. Levine, P. H.,, A. G. Pocinki,, P. Madigan,, and S. Bale. 1992. Familial nasopharyngeal carcinoma in patients who are not Chinese. Cancer 70: 1024 1029.
167. Levine, P. H.,, G. Stemmermann,, E. T. Lennette,, D. Shibata,, and A. M. Y. Nomura. 1995. Elevated antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus prior to the diagnosis of Epstein- Barr virus associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 60: 642 644.
168. Levrero, M.,, A. Tagger,, C. Balsano,, E. De Marzio,, M. L. Avantaggiati,, G. Natoli,, D. Diop,, E. Villa,, G. Diodati,, and A. Alberti. 1991. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Hepatol. 12: 60 63.
169. Levy, J. A. 1997. Three new human herpesviruses (HHV6, 7, and 8). Lancet 349: 558 563.
170. Lin, S. -F.,, R. Sun,, L. Heston,, L. Gradoville,, D. Shedd,, K. Haglund,, M. Rigsby,, and G. Miller. 1997. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcomaassociated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen. J. Virol. 71: 3069 3076.
171. Lingao, A. L.,, E. O. Domingo,, and K. Nishioka. 1981. Hepatitis B virus profile of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Philippines. Cancer 48: 1590 1595.
172. Liou, T. C, T. T. Chang, K. C. Young, X. Z. Lin, C. Y. Lin, and H. L. Wu. 1992. Detection of HCV RNA in saliva, urine, seminal fluid, and ascites. J. Med. Virol. 37: 197 202.
173. Lorincz, A. L. 1996. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). Lancet 347: 871 876.
174. Lorincz, A. T.,, R. Reid,, A. B. Jenson,, M. D. Greenberg,, W. Lancaster,, and R. J. Kurman. 1992. Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix: relative risk associations of 15 common anogenital types. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 328 337.
175. Maden, C.,, A. M. Beckmann,, D. B. Thomas,, B. McKnight,, K. J. Sherman,, R. L. Ashley,, L. Corey,, and J. R. Daling. 1992. Human papillomaviruses, herpes simplex viruses, and the risk of oral cancer in men. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135: 1093 1102.
176. Maden, C.,, K. J. Sherman,, A. M. Beckmann,, T. G. Hislop,, C. Z. Teh,, R. L. Ashley,, and J. R. Daling. 1993. History of circumcision, medical conditions, and sexual activity and risk of penile cancer [see comments]. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 85: 19 24.
177. Magrath, I. T., 1982. Malignant lymphomas, p. 473 573. In A. S. Levine (ed.), Cancer in the Young. Masson, New York.
178. Malek, R. S.,, J. R. Goellner,, T. F. Smith,, M. J. Espy,, and M. R. Cupp. 1993. Human papillomavirus infection and intraepithelial, in situ, and invasive carcinoma of penis. Urology 42: 159 170.
179. Manns, A.,, and W. A. Blattner,. 1990. Epidemiology of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, p. 209 239. In R. C. Gallo, and F. Wong-Staal (ed.), Retrovirus Biology and Human Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York.
180. Manns, A.,, F. R. Cleghorn,, R. T. Falk,, B. Hanchard,, E. S. Jaffe,, C. Bartholomew,, P. Hartge,, J. Benichou,, and W. A. Blattner. 1993. Role of HTLV-I in development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The HTLV lymphoma study group. Lancet 342: 1447 1450.
181. Manns, A.,, R. Falk,, E. L. Murphy,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. S. Letters,, M. Campbell,, B. Hanchard,, J. Murphy,, and W. A. Blattner. 1990. Risk factors for development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Jamaica. Proc. Annu. Meet Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 31: A1358. ( Abstract.)
182. Manns, A.,, R. J. Wilks,, E. L. Murphy,, G. Haynes,, J. P. Figueroa,, M. Barnett,, B. Hanchard,, and W. A. Blattner. 1992. A prospective study of transmission by transfusion of HTLV-I and risk factors associated with seroconversion. Int. J . Cancer 51: 886 891.
183. Martini, F.,, L. Iaccheri,, L. Lazzarin,, P. Carinci,, A. Corallini,, M. Gerosa,, P. Iuzzolino,, G. Barbanti-Brodano,, and M. Tognon. 1996. SV40 early region and large T antigen in human brain tumors, peripheral blood cells, and sperm fluids from healthy individuals. Cancer Res. 56: 4820 4825.
184. Matsubara, K.,, and T. Tokino. 1990. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA and its implications for hepatocarcinogenesis. Mol. Biol. Med. 7: 243 260.
185. Matsuzaki, H.,, H. Hata,, N. Asou,, M. Yoshida,, F. Matsuno,, M. Takeya,, K. Yamaguchi,, I. Sanada,, and K. Takatsuki. 1992. Human T-cell leukemia virus-l-positive cell line established from a patient with small cell lung cancer, Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83: 450 457.
186. McGregor, J. M.,, and M. H. A. Rustin. 1994. Human papillomavirus and skin cancer. Postgrad. Med. J. 70: 682 685.
187. Mendenhall, C. L.,, L. Seaff,, A. M. Diehl,, S. J. Ghosn,, S. W. French,, P. S. Gartside,, S. D. Rouster,, Z. Buskell-Bales,, C. J. Grossman,, and G. A. Roselle. 1991. Antibodies to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis: their prevalence and clinical relevance. The VA Cooperative Study Group (No. 119). Hepatology 14: 581 589.
188. Mitchell, M. F.,, W. N. Hittelman,, W. K. Hong,, R. Lotan,, and D. Schottenfeld. 1994. The natural history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: an argument for intermediate endpoint biomarkers. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 3: 619 626.
189. Miyazaki, K.,, K. Yamaguchi,, T. Tohya,, T. Ohba,, K. Takatsuki,, and H. Okamura. 1991. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection as an oncogenic and prognostic risk factor in cervical and vaginal carcinoma. Obstet. Gynecol. 77: 107 110.
190. Mochizuki, M.,, T. Watanabe,, K. Yamaguchi,, K. Yoshimura,, S. Nakashima,, M. Shirao,, S. Araki,, K. Takatsuki,, S. Mori,, and N. Miyata. 1992. Uveitis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 114: 123 129.
191. Mondelli, M.,, G. M. Vergani,, A. Alberti,, D. Vergani,, B. Portmann,, A. L. Eddleston,, and R. Williams. 1982. Specificity of T lymphocytes cytotoxicity to autologous hepatocytes in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: evidence that T cells are directed against HBV core antigen expressed on hepatocytes. J. Immunol. 129: 2773 2778.
192. Monsonego, J.,, L. Zerat,, F. Catalan,, and Y. Coscas. 1993. Genital human papillomavirus infections: correlation of cytological, colposcopic and histological features with viral types in women and their male partners. Int. J. STD AIDS 4: 13 20.
193. Mori, M.,, N. Ban,, and K. Kinoshita. 1988. Familial occurrence of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Ann. Neurol. 23: 100.
194. Moudgil, T.,, A. Molina,, G. L. Norman,, A. M. Levine,, and P. S. Gill. 1994. Absence of HTLV-I or HTLV-II proviral DNA in PBMC's of patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) with serum TH2 cytokine profile. Blood 84: 478a.
195. Mueller, N.,, A. Evans,, and N. L. Harris. 1989. Hodgkin's disease and Epstein-Barr virus: altered antibody pattern before diagnosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 696 701.
196. Mueller, N.,, A. Mohar,, A. Evans,, N. L. Harris,, G. W. Comstock,, E. Jellum,, K. Magnus,, N. Orentreich,, B. F. Polk,, and J. Vogelman. 1991. Epstein-Barr virus antibody patterns preceding the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int. J. Cancer 49: 387 393.
197. Murphy, E. L.,, J. P. Figueroa,, W. N. Gibbs,, A. Brathwaite,, M. Holding-Cobham,, D. Waters,, B. Cranston,, B. Hanchard,, and W. A. Blattner. 1989. Sexual transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). Ann. Intern. Med. 111: 555 560.
198. Murphy, E. L.,, B. Hanchard,, J. P. Figueroa,, W. N. Gibbs,, W. S. Lof ters,, M. Campbell,, J. J. Goedert,, and W. A. Blattner. 1989. Modelling the risk of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type I. Int. J. Cancer 43: 250 253.
199. Nagaya, T.,, T. Nakamura,, T. Tokino,, T. Tsurimoto,, M. Imai,, T. Mayumi,, K. Kamino,, K. Yamamura,, and K. Matsubara. 1987. The mode of hepatitis B virus DNA integration in chromosomes of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Genes Dev. 1: 773 782.
200. Naghashfar, Z.,, M. J. Kutcher,, E. Sawada,, and K. V. Shah. 1985. Infection of the oral cavity with genital tract papillomaviruses. UCLA Symp. Mol. Cell. Biol. N. Ser. 32: 155 163.
201. Nakagawa, M.,, S. Izumo,, S. Ijichi,, H. Kubota,, K. Arimura,, M. Kawabata,, and M. Osama. 1995. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: analysis of 213 patients based on clinical features and laboratory findings. J. Neurovirol. 1: 50 61.
202. Nalpas, B.,, F. Driss,, S. Pol,, B. Hamelin,, C. Housset,, C. Brechot,, and P. Berthelot. 1991. Hepatitis C infection in alcoholics. Alcohol Alcohol. Suppl. 1: 321 322.
203. Niederman, J. C, R. W. McCollum, G. Henle, and W. Henle. 1968. Infectious mononucleosis: clinical manifestations in relation to EB virus antibodies. JAMA 203: 205 209.
204. Niedobitek, G.,, M. L. Hansmann,, H. Berbst,, L. S. Young,, D. Dienemann,, C. A. Hartmann,, T. Finn,, S. Pitteroff,, A. Welt,, I. Anagnostopoulos,, R. Friedrich,, H. Lobeck,, C. K. Sam,, I. Araujo,, A. B. Rickinson,, and H. Stein. 1991. Epstein-Barr virus and carcinomas: undifferentiated carcinomas but not squamous cell carcinomas of the nasopharynx are regularly associated with the virus. J. Pathol. 165: 17 24.
205. Nielson, H.,, B. Norrild,, P. Vedtofte,, F. Praetorius,, J. Reibel,, and P. Holmstrup. 1996. Human papillomavirus in oral premalignant lesions. Eur. J. Cancer 32B: 264 270.
206. Nishioka, K.,, J. Watanabe,, S. Furuta,, E. Tanaka,, S. lino,, H. Suzuki,, T. Tsuji,, M. Yano,, G. Kuo,, Q. L. Choo,, M. Houghton,, and T. Oda. 1991. A high prevalence of antibody to the hepatitis C virus in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. Cancer 67: 429 433.
207. Nishioka, K.,, J. Watanabe,, S. Furuta,, E. Tanaka,, H. Suzuki,, S. lino,, T. Tsuji,, M. Yano,, G. Kuo,, Q. L. Choo,, M. Houghton,, and T. Oda. 1991. Antibody to the hepatitis C virus in acute hepatitis and chronic liver diseases in Japan. Liver 11: 65 70.
208. Ogunbiyi, O. A.,, J. H. Scholefield,, G. Robertson,, J. H. Smith,, F. Sharp,, and K. Rogers. 1994. Anal human papillomavirus infection and squamous neoplasia in patients with invasive vulvar cancer. Obstet. Gynecol. 83: 212 216.
209. Ohkoshi, S.,, H. Kojina,, H. Tawaraya,, T. Miyajima,, T. Kamimura,, H. Asakura,, A. Satoh,, S. Hirose,, M. Jiijikata,, N. Kato,, and K. Shimotohno. 1990. Prevalence of antibody against non-A, non-B hepatitis in Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81: 550 553.
210. Okamoto, H.,, S. Yotsumoto,, Y. Akahane,, T. Yamanaka,, Y. Miyazaki,, Y. Sugai,, F. Tsuda,, T. Tanaka,, Y. Miyakawa,, and M. Mayumi. 1990. Hepatitis B viruses with precore region defects prevail in persistently infected hosts along with seroconversion to the antibody against e antigen. J. Virol. 64: 1298 1303.
211. Okayama, A.,, T. Maruyama,, N. Tachibana,, K. Hayashi,, T. Kitamura,, N. Mueller,, and H. Tsubouchi. 1995. Increased prevalence of HTLV-I infection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 86: 1 4.
212. Okochi, K.,, H. Sato,, and Y. Hunuma. 1984. A retrospective study on transmission of adult T cell leukemia virus by blood transfusion: seroconversion in recipients. Vox Sang. 46: 245 253.
213. Old, L. J.,, E. A. Boyse,, H. F. Oettgen,, E. de Harven,, G. Geering,, E. Williamson,, and P. Clifford. 1966. Precipitation antibody in human serum to an antigen present in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56: 1699 1704.
214. Oshima, A.,, H. Tsukuma,, T. Hiyama,, I. Fujimoto,, H. Yamano,, and M. Tanaka. 1984. Follow-up study of HBs Ag-positive blood donors with special reference to effect of drinking and smoking on development of liver cancer. Int. J. Cancer 34: 775 779.
215.Ostwald, C, P. Muller, M. Barten, K. Rutsatz, M. Sonnenburg, K. Milde-Langosch, and T. Loning. 1994. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal mucosa. J. Oral Pathol. Med. 23: 220225.
216. Palefsky, J. M. 1994. Anal human papillomavirus infection and anal cancer in HIVpositive individuals: an emerging problem. AIDS 8: 283 295.
217. Palefsky, J. M. 1995. Human papillomavirus-associated malignancies in HIV-positive men and women. Curr. Of in. Oncol. 7: 437 441.
218. Palefsky, J. M.,, E. A. Holly,, J. Gonzalez,, J. Berline,, D. K. Ahn,, and J. S. Greenspan. 1991. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer. Cancer Res. 51: 1014 1019.
219. Pastore, G.,, L. Monno,, T. Santantonio,, G. Angarano,, M. Milella,, A. Giannelli,, and J. R. Fiore. 1990. Hepatitis B virus clearance from serum and liver after acute hepatitis delta virus superinfection in chronic HBsAG carriers. J. Med. Virol. 31: 284 290.
220. Pearson, G. R., 1980. Epstein-Barr virus: immunology, p. 739 767. In G. Klein (ed.), Viral Oncology. Raven Press, New York.
221. Pearson, G. R.,, B. Johansson,, and G. Klein. 1978. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against Epstein-Barr virus-associated antigens in African patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int. J. Cancer 22: 120 125.