1887

Chapter 22 : RNA Editing in Mitochondria

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

RNA Editing in Mitochondria, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818296/9781555811334_Chap22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818296/9781555811334_Chap22-2.gif

Abstract:

In vitro approaches have facilitated mechanistic studies designed to look at the timing, accuracy and efficiency of insertional editing of newly synthesized RNAs. Because different assays are required for these distinct RNA populations, the two approaches are discussed separately. Importantly, upon incubation under editing conditions, nucleotide insertion into previously synthesized, unedited RNA was not observed, even though newly transcribed RNA made during the ‘’chase’’ reaction was fully edited . The lack of unedited regions in RNAs labeled in isolated mitochondria under standard, non-limiting nucleotide concentrations and the proximity of RNA editing to the site of transcription, coupled with the inability of the editing activity to insert nucleotides into previously synthesized RNAs, argue that there is a limited ‘’window of opportunity’’ for editing in mitochondria. Given the proximity of nucleotide insertion to the active site of transcription, it is likely that the mitochondrial RNA polymerase plays some role, direct or indirect, in the editing process. Nonencoded nucleotides are known to be added very close to the growing end of the RNA chain in mitochondria , and it is possible that they are added concurrently with RNA synthesis. Although transcription normally is templated, many RNA polymerases are capable of adding nucleotides in a nontemplated or pseudotemplated manner. Much of the mitochondrial genome of has yet to be sequenced, and it is possible that additional types of editing events may yet be discovered upon characterization of the remaining genes and their RNA products.

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Hepatitis delta virus
0.4521084
Small Nucleolar RNA
0.441396
0.4521084
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Functional outcome of editing in mitochondria. A region of the DNA sequence is shown, with gaps at sites of nucleotide insertion at the RNA level. Nucleotides added at each site are indicated (+N), as are the four sites of apparent С to U changes (C → u). Predicted translation products in all three reading frames (single-letter symbols) are given below the mitochondrial DNA sequence. Underlined amino acids are those that match the consensus sequence for CoI proteins from a wide range of organisms ( ).

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Analysis of labeled RNAs synthesized in vitro. Run-on transcripts are labeled in isolated mitochondria with [ P] NTP prior to isolation of mitochondrial RNA. Total RNA is then hybridized to ssDNA corresponding to the region of interest and digested with S1 nuclease. Hybrid-protected RNAs are gel-purified and digested with RNase Τ. T oligonucleotides are separated in one dimension (on 15–20% acrylamide denaturing gels) or in two dimensions via RNA fingerprinting (low-pH gel and homochromatography). Black spots indicate oligonucleotides which are present in both edited and unedited controls. Oligonucleotides whose mobility is affected by insertional or substitutional editing are indicated by hatched or shaded spots, respectively. Individual bands or spots can be isolated and analyzed further with additional nucleases, if desired. In the example shown, an [-P]ATP-labeled T oligonucleotide, [CpUUp(c)CpUUpGp, where (c) indicates the inserted С residue and underlining indicates labeled nucleotides] was digested with RNase T and the resulting 3′ monophosphates (Np) were separated in two dimensions via thin-layer chromatography. The labeled phosphates are transfered to the nucleotide 5′ of each A residue. Examples of each of these techniques can be found in .

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Schematic illustration of S1 nuclease protection experiments used to determine whether nascent RNAs synthesized in vivo are edited by С to U changes and dinucleotide insertions. The site of adjacent С to U changes is cleaved when nascent RNA is annealed to ssDNA corresponding to edited sequence, but fully protected by the unedited sequence. The opposite result is observed at sites of dinucleotide insertion, indicating that these two types of editing occur at different times in vivo.

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Coupling of transcription and editing in . Editing by С insertion (indicated by C's) is significantly reduced when RNAs are synthesized in the presence of low levels of CTP in isolated mitochondria. Once unedited RNA is made, it remains unedited even when incubated under “editing” conditions. RNA synthesized downstream of unedited regions is edited under these conditions. See for data and experimental details. Horizontal lines, RNA made in vivo; hatched bars, RNA made during pulse-labeling; solid bars, RNA made during chase.

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Location of potential -acting signals in editing. Precedents for roles in other processes for each of these regions are indicated (see references in text).

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818296.chap22
1. Araya, A.,, C. Domec,, D. Begu,, and S. Litvak. 1992. An in vitro system for the editing of ATP synthase subunit 9 mRNA using wheat mitochondrial extracts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. USA 89: 1040 1044.
2. Autexier, C.,, and C. W. Greider. 1994. Functional reconstitution of wild-type and mutant Tetrahymena telomerase. Genes Dev. 8: 563 575.
3. Bachellerie, J. P.,, B. Michot,, M. Nicoloso,, A. Balakin,, J. W. Ni,, and M. J. Fournier. 1995. Antisense snoRNAs: a family of nucleolar RNAs with long complementarities to rRNA. Trends Biochem. Sci. 20: 261 264.
4. Backus, J. W.,, and H. C. Smith. 1991. Apolipoprotein B mRNA sequences 3' of the editing site are necessary and sufficient for editing and editosome assembly. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 6781 6786.
5. Bakalara, N.,, A. M. Simpson,, and L. Simpson. 1989. The Leishmania kinetoplast-mitochondrion contains terminal uridylyl-transferase and RNA ligase activities. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 18679 18686.
6. Benne, R. 1989. RNA-editing in trypanosome mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1007: 131 139.
7. Blum, B.,, N. Bakalara,, and L. Simpson. 1990. A model for RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria: "guide" RNA molecules transcribed from maxicircle DNA provide the edited information. Cell 60: 189 198.
8. Blum, B.,, N. R. Strum,, A. M. Simpson,, and L. Simpson. 1991. Chimeric gRNA-mRNA molecules with oligo(U) tails covalently linked at sites of RNA editing suggest that U addition occurs by transesterification. Cell 65: 543 550.
9. Bock, R.,, M. Hermann,, and H. Kossel. 1996. In vivo dissection of cis-acting determinants for plastid RNA editing. EMBO J. 15: 5052 5059.
10. Borukhov, S.,, V. Sagitov,, and A. Goldfarb. 1993. Transcript cleavage factors from E. coli. Cell 72: 459 466.
11. Burger, G.,, I. Plante,, K. M. Lonergan,, and M. W. Gray. 1995. The mitochondrial DNA of the amoeboid protozoan, Acanthantoeba castellana. Complete sequence, gene content and genome organization. J. Mol. Biol. 245: 522 537.
12. Byrne, E. M.,, G. J. Connell,, and L. Simpson. 1996. Guide RNA-directed uridine insertion RNA editing in vitro. EMBO J. 15: 6758 6765.
13. Casey, J. L.,, K. F. Bergmann,, T. L. Brown,, and J. L. Gerin. 1992. Structural requirements for RNA editing in hepatitis delta virus: evidence for a uridine-to-cytidine editing mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 7149 7153.
14. Cech, T. R. 1987. The chemistry of self-splicing RNA and RNA enzymes. Science 236: 1532 1539.
15. Cech, T. R. 1991. RNA editing: world's smallest introns? Cell 64: 667 669.
16. Cech, T. R.,, A. J. Zaug,, and P. J. Grabowski. 1981. In vitro splicing of the ribosomal RNA precursor of Tetrahymena: involvement of a guanosine nucleotide in the excision of the intervening sequence. Cell 27: 487 496.
17. Cermakian, N.,, T. M. Ikeda,, R. Cedergren,, and M. W. Gray. 1996. Sequences homologous to yeast mitochondrial and bacteriophage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases are widespread throughout the eukaryotic lineage. Nucleic Acids Res. 24: 648 654.
18. Chan, C. L.,, D. G. Wang,, and R. Landick. 1997. Multiple interactions stabilize a single paused transcription intermediate in which hairpin to 3' end spacing distinguishes pause and termination pathways. J. Mol. Biol. 268: 54 68.
19. Chaudhuri, S.,, and P. Maliga. 1996. Sequences directing C to U editing of the plastid psbL mRNA are located within a 22 nucleotide segment spanning the editing site. EMBO J. 15: 5958 5964.
20. Corell, R. A.,, J. E. Feagin,, G. R. Riley,, T. Strickland,, J. A. Guderian,, P. J. Myler,, and K. Stuart. 1993. Trypanosoma brucei minicircles encode multiple guide RNAs which can direct editing of extensively overlapping sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 21: 4313 4320.
21. Daga, A.,, V. Micol,, D. Hess,, R. Aebersold,, and G. Attardi. 1993. Molecular characterization of the transcription termination factor from human mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 8123 8130.
22. Das, A. 1992. How the phage lambda N gene product suppresses transcription termination: communication of RNA polymerase with regulatory proteins mediated by signals in nascent RNA. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6711 6716.
23. Deutscher, M. P. 1990. Ribonucleases, tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, and the 3' processing of tRNA. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 39: 209 237.
24. Dieckmann, T.,, E. Suzuki,, G. K. Nakamura,, and J. Feigon. 1996. Solution structure of an ATP-binding RNA aptamer reveals a novel fold. RNA 2: 628 640.
25. Driscoll, D. M.,, J. K. Wynne,, S. C. Wallis,, and J. Scott. 1989. An in vitro system for the editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA. Cell 58: 519 525.
26. Ekland, E. H.,, and D. P. Bartel. 1996. RNA-catalysed RNA polymerization using nucleoside triphosphates. Nature 382: 373 376.
27. Ganot, P.,, M.-L. Bortolin,, and T. Kiss. 1997. Site-specific pseudouridine formation in preribosomal RNA is guided by small nucleolar RNAs. Cell 89: 799 809.
28. Gilley, D.,, and E. H. Blackburn. 1996. Specific RNA residue interactions required for enzymatic functions of Tetrahymena telomerase. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 66 75.
29. Gott, J. M.,, L. M. Visomirski,, and J. L. Hunter. 1993. Substitutional and insertional RNA editing of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mRNA of Physarum polycephalum. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 25483 25486.
30. Greenblatt, J.,, J. R. Nodwell,, and S. W. Mason. 1993. Transcriptional antitermination. Nature 364: 401 406.
31. Greider, C. W.,, and E. H. Blackburn. 1989. A telomeric sequence in the RNA of Tetrahymena telomerase required for telomere repeat synthesis. Nature 337: 331 337.
32. Grosjean, H.,, Z. Szweykowska-Kulinska,, Y. Motorin,, F. Fasiolo,, and G. Simos. 1997. Intron-dependent enzymatic formation of modified nucleosides in eukaryotic tRNAs: a review. Biochimie 79: 293 302.
33. Hammond, P. W.,, T. N. Lively,, and T. R. Cech. 1997. The anchor site of telomerase from Euplotes aediculatus revealed by photo-cross-linking to single- and double-stranded DNA primers. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17: 296 308.
34. Hanson, M. R.,, C. A. Sutton,, and B. W. Lu. 1996. Plant organelle gene expression: altered by RNA editing. Trends Plant Sci. 1: 57 64.
35. Jacques, J.-P.,, and D. Kolakofsky. 1991. Pseudo-templated transcription in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genes Dev. 5: 707 713.
36. Jeong, S. W.,, W. H. Lang,, and R. H. Reeder. 1996. The yeast transcription terminator for RNA polymerase I is designed to prevent polymerase slippage. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 16104 16110.
37. Johnson, D. F.,, K. S. Poksay,, and T. L. Innerarity. 1993. The mechanism for apo-B mRNA editing is deamination. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 195: 1204 1210.
38. Johnson, P. F.,, and J. Abelson. 1983. The yeast tRNAtyr gene intron is essential for correct modification of its tRNA product. Nature 302: 681 687.
39. Joyce, C. M.,, and T. A. Steitz. 1994. Function and structure relationships in DNA polymerases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 63: 777 822.
40. Kable, M. L.,, S. D. Seiwert,, S. Heidmann,, and K. Stuart. 1996. RNA editing: a mechanism for gRNA-specified uridylate insertion into precursor mRNA. Science 273: 1189 1195.
41. Kerppola, T. K.,, and C. M. Kane. 1990. Analysis of the signals for transcription termination by purified RNA polymerase II. Biochemistry 29: 269 278.
42. Kiss-Laszlo, Z.,, Y. Henry,, J.-P. Bachellerie,, M. Caizergue-Ferrer,, and T. Kiss. 1996. Site-specific ribose methylation of preribosomal RNA: a novel function for small nucleolar RNAs. Cell 85: 1077 1088.
43. Kolakofsky, D.,, J. Curran,, T. Pelet,, and J.-P. Jacques,. 1993. Paramyxovirus P gene mRNA editing, p. 105 123. In R. Benne (ed.), RNA Editing: the Alteration of Protein Coding Sequences of RNA. Ellis Horwood Limited, New York, N.Y..
44. Komissarova, N.,, and M. Kashlev. 1997. Transcriptional arrest: Escherichia coli RNA polymerase translocates backward, leaving the 3' end of the RNA intact and extruded. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 1755 1760.
45. Krumm, A.,, L. B. Hickey,, and M. Groudine. 1995. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II defines a general rate-limiting step after transcription initiation. Genes Dev. 9: 559 572.
46. Landick, R. 1997. RNA polymerase slides home: pause and termination site recognition. Cell 88: 741 744.
47. Lang, W. H.,, B. E. Morrow,, Q. Ju,, J. R. Warner,, and R. H. Reeder. 1994. A model for transcription termination by RNA polymerase I. Cell 79: 527 534.
48. Liu, C. G.,, L. S. Heath,, and C. L. Turnbough. 1994. Regulation of pyrBI operon expression in Escherichia coli by UTP-sensitive reiterative RNA synthesis during transcriptional initiation. Genes Dev. 8: 2904 2912.
49. Lonergan, K. M.,, and M. W. Gray. 1993. Editing of transfer RNAs in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria. Science 259: 812 816.
50. Lu, B.,, and M. R. Hanson. 1992. A single nuclear gene specifies the abundance and extent of RNA editing of a plant mitochondrial transcript. Nucleic Acids Res. 20: 5699 5703.
51. Lu, Y.,, R. J. Turner,, and R. L. Switzer. 1996. Function of RNA secondary structures in transcriptional attenuation of the Bacillus subtilis pyr operon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14462 14467.
52. Macdonald, L. E.,, Y. Zhou,, and W. T. McAllister. 1993. Termination and slippage by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. J. Mol. Biol. 232: 1030 1047.
53. Mahendran, R.,, M. R. Spottswood,, and D. L. Miller. 1991. RNA editing by cytidine insertion in mitochondria of Physarum polycephalum. Nature 349: 434 438.
54. Mahendran, R.,, M. S. Spottswood,, A. Ghate,, M.-L. Ling,, K. Jeng,, and D. L. Miller. 1994. Editing of the mitochondrial small sub-unit rRNA in Physarum polycephalum. EMBO J. 13: 232 240.
55. Maier, R. M.,, P. Zeltz,, H. Kossel,, G. Bonnard,, J. M. Gualberto,, and J. M. Grienenberger. 1996. RNA editing in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plant Mol. Biol. 32: 343 365.
56. Maizels, N.,, and A. Weiner. 1988. In search of a template. Nature 334: 469 470.
57. Masiakski, P.,, and M. P. Deutscher. 1980. Dissection of the active site of rabbit liver tRNA nucleotidyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 255: 11240 11246.
58. Maslov, D. A., , and L. Simpson. 1992. The polarity of editing within a multiple gRNA-mediated domain is due to formation of anchors for upstream gRNAs by downstream editing. Cell 70: 459 467.
59. Masters, B. S.,, L. L. Stohl,, and D. A. Clayton. 1987. Yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase is homologous to those encoded by bacteriophages T3 and T7. Cell 51: 89 99.
60. Miller, D.,, R. Mahendran,, M. Spottswood,, H. Costandy,, S. Wang,, M. L. Ling,, and N. Yang. 1993a. Insertional editing in mitochondria of Physarum. Semin. Cell Biol. 4: 261 266.
61. Miller, D.,, R. Mahendran,, M. Spottswood,, M. Ling,, S. Wang,, N. Yang,, and H. Costandy,. 1993b. RNA editing in mitochondria of Physarum polycephalum, p. 87 103. In R. Benne (ed.), RNA Editing: the Alteration of Protein Coding Sequences of RNA. Ellis Horwood, New York, N.Y..
62. Milligan, J. F.,, D. R. Groebe,, G. W. Witherell, and O. C. Uhlenbeck. 1987. Oligoribonucleotide synthesis using T7 RNA polymerase and synthetic DNA templates. Nucleic Acids Res. 15: 8783 8798.
63. Moore, M. J.,, C. C. Query,, and P. A. Sharp,. 1993. Splicing of precursors to mRNA by the splicesome, p. 303 357. In R. F. Gesteland, and J. F. Atkins (ed.), The RNA World. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y..
64. Ni, J.,, A. L. Tien,, and M. J. Fournier. 1997. Small nucleolar RNAs direct site-specific synthesis of pseudouridine in ribosomal RNA. Cell 89: 565 573.
65. Nilsen, T. W. 1994. RNA-RNA interactions in the spliceosome: unraveling the ties that bind. Cell 78: 1 4.
66. Nudler, E.,, A. Mustaev,, E. Lukhtanov,, and A. Goldfarb. 1997. The RNA-DNA hybrid maintains the register of transcription by preventing backtracking of RNA polymerase. Cell 89: 33 41.
67. Piatt, T., 1998. RNA structure in transcription elongation, termination, and antitermination, p. 541 575. In R. W. Simons, and M. Grunberg-Manago (éd.), RNA Structure and Function. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y..
68. Qi, F. X.,, and C. L. Turnbough. 1995. Regulation of codBA operon expression in Escherichia coli by UTP-dependent reiterative transcription and UTP-sensitive transcriptional start site switching. J. Mol. Biol. 254: 552 565.
69. Rasmussen, E. B.,, and J. T. Lis. 1995. Short transcripts of the ternary complex provide insight into RNA polymerase II elongational pausing. J. Mol. Biol. 252: 522 535.
70. Ratliff, R. L., 1981. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, p. 105 118. In P. D. Boyer (ed.), The Enzymes. Academic Press, New York, N.Y..
71. Reines, D., 1994. Nascent RNA cleavage by transcription elongation complexes, p. 263 278. In R. C. Conaway, and J. W. Conaway (ed.), Transcription: Mechanisms and Regulation. Raven Press, Ltd., New York, N.Y..
72. Ring, B. Z.,, and J. W. Roberts. 1994. Function of a nontranscribed DNA strand site in transcription elongation. Cell 78: 317 324.
73. Ring, B. Z.,, and W. S. Yarnell. 1996. Function of E. coli RNA polymerase sigma factor sigma(70) in promoter-proximal pausing. Cell 86: 485 493.
74. Roberts, C. W.,, and J. W. Roberts. 1996. Base-specific recognition of the nontemplate strand of promoter DNA by E. coli RNA polymerase. Cell 86: 495 501.
75. Rudd, M. D.,, M. G. Izban,, and D. S. Luse. 1994. The active site of RNA polymerase II participates in transcript cleavage within arrested ternary complexes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 8057 8061.
76. Rundquist, B. A. 1995. RNA editing throughout the life cycle of Physarum polycephalum. M.S. thesis. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
77. Rundquist, B. A.,, and J. M. Gott. 1995. RNA editing of the col mRNA throughout the life cycle of Physarum polycephalum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 247: 306 311.
78. Sassanfar, M.,, and J. W. Szostak. 1993. An RNA motif that binds ATP. Nature 364: 550 553.
79. Seiwert, S. D.,, and K. Stuart. 1994. RNA editing: transfer of genetic information from gRNA to precursor mRNA in vitro. Science 266: 114 117.
80. Sharp, P. A. 1994. Split genes and RNA splicing. Cell 77: 805 815.
81. Smith, C. M.,, and J. A. Steitz. 1997. Sno storm in the nucleolus: new roles for myriad small RNPs. Cell 89: 669 672.
82. Sollner-Webb, B. 1991. RNA editing. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 3: 1056.
83. Stuart, K.,, T. E. Allen,, S. Heidmann,, and S. D. Seiwert. 1997. RNA editing of kinetoplastid protozoa. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61: 105 120.
84. Sugisaki, H.,, and M. Takanami. 1993. The 5' terminal region of the apocytochrome b transcript in Crithidia fasciculata is successively edited by two guide RNAs in the 3' to 5' direction. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 887 891.
85. Surratt, C. K.,, S. C. Milan,, and M. J. Chamberlin. 1991. Spontaneous cleavage of RNA in ternary complexes of Escherichia colt RNA polymerase and its significance for the mechanism of transcription. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 7983 7987.
86. Teng, B.,, C. F. Burant,, and N. O. Davidson. 1993. Molecular cloning of an apolipoprotein ? messenger RNA editing protein. Science 260: 1816 1819.
87. Tycowski, K. T.,, C. M. Smith,, M. D. Shu,, and J. A. Steitz. 1996. A small nucleolar RNA requirement for site-specific ribose methylation of rRNA in Xenopus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14480 14485.
88. Vidal, S.,, J. Curran,, and D. Kolakosky. 1990. A stuttering model for paramyxovirus P mRNA editing. EMBO J. 9: 2017 2022.
89. Visomirski-Robic, L. M. 1997. Examination of insertional editing in Physarum polycephalum in an isolated mitochondrial system: a potential coupling of editing and transcription. Ph.D. thesis. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
90. Visomirski-Robic, L. M.,, and J. M. Gott. 1995. Accurate and efficient insertional RNA editing in isolated Physarum mitochondria. RNA 1: 681 691.
91. Visomirski-Robic, L. M.,, and J. M. Gott. 1997a. Insertional editing of nascent mitochondrial RNAs in Physarum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 4324 4329.
92. Visomirski-Robic, L. M.,, and J. M. Gott. 1997b. Insertional editing in isolated Physarum mitochondria is linked to RNA synthesis. RNA 3: 821 837.
93. Visomirski-Robic, L. M.,, and J. M. Gott. Unpublished data.
94. Visomirski-Robic, L. M.,, C. Webb,, and J. M. Gott. Unpublished data.
95. Volchkov, V. E.,, S. Becker,, V. A. Volchkova,, V. A. Ternovoj,, A. N. Kotov,, S. V. Netesov,, and H. D. Klenk. 1995. GP mRNA of Ebola virus is edited by the Ebola virus polymerase and by T7 and vaccinia virus polymerases. Virology 214: 421 430.
96. Wahle, E. 1995. 3'-end cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA precursors. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1261: 183 194.
97. Yarnell, W. S.,, and J. W. Roberts. 1992. The phage lambda gene Q transcription antiterminator binds DNA in the late gene promoter as it modifies RNA polymerase. Cell 69: 1181 1189.
98. Yokobori, S.,, and S. Paabo. 1995. Transfer RNA editing in land snail mitochondria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 10432 10435.
99. Yu, W.,, and W. Schuster. 1995. Evidence for a site-specific cyti-dine deamination reaction involved in C to U RNA editing of plant mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 18227 18233.
100. Zeltz, P.,, W. R. Hess,, K. Neckermann,, T. Borner,, and H. Kossel. 1993. Editing of the chloroplast rpoB transcript is independent of chloroplast translation and shows different patterns in barley and maize. EMBO J. 12: 4291 4296.
101. Zheng, H.,, T.-B. Fu,, D. Lazinski,, and J. Taylor. 1992. Editing on the genomic RNA of human hepatitis delta virus. J. Virol. 66: 4693 4697.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Characterized editing events in mitochondria

Citation: Gott J, Visomirski-Robic L. 1998. RNA Editing in Mitochondria, p 395-411. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error