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Chapter 18 : Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in

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Abstract:

The formation of two cell types with differing developmental fates, a small forespore and a large mother cell, is the first morphological indication of early sporulation in . The study of phosphate metabolism in species in general and in in particular has been complicated by two facts that reflect the potential importance of this process. First, APase, the usual enzyme of choice as a reporter of phosphate starvation-regulated gene expression, is encoded by a multigene family composed of at least five genes. Second, APases are induced under phosphate starvation conditions, but they are also expressed during sporulation development, independent of phosphate concentration. When experiences phosphate depletion, APases, which are dependent on PhoP and PhoR for expression, are synthesized. Mutations in the gene-encoding response regulator, ResD, or both the response regulator and the sensor kinase, ResE, caused decreased phoPR transcription and decreased production of phosphate starvation-induced APases to levels approximately 10% of the parent strain. In , the SpoOA/PhoP-PhoR system provides evidence that the relationship of the individual regulatory systems is dependent on the developmental state of the cell. In the vegetative cell type during phosphate-limiting conditions, SpoOA~P represses autoinduction of the operon encoding the Pho regulon regulators, shutting down the Pho response.

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Comparison of linear domains and predicted membrane topology of PhoR proteins of and and the generalized structure of two-component sensor kinases. Cytoplasmic domains are designated as lines or, in the case of the histidine kinase, a shaded or darkened box. Each cytoplasmic domain is lettered C for cytoplasmic and numbered according to its position from the amino terminus to the carboxy terminus. Hydrophobic amino acid sequences, presumed to be transmembrane domains, are designated as stippled boxes lettered H and numbered as described for cytoplasmic domains. The positions of the amino acids in the primary sequence that comprise the hydrophobic domains are indicated at the top left end and right end of the stippled boxes in PhoR linear domain illustrations. The protein domain located outside the cytoplasmic membrane is lettered P (for periplasmic in gram-negative bacteria). (A) Comparison of linear domains of a generalized sensor-histidine kinase (HK), the PhoR from (EcPhoR), and the PhoR of (BsPhoR). (B) Predicted membrane topology of the three sensor kinases shown in A. This figure is an extension of a model presented by to include the PhoR.

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Model for the roles of PhoP, PhoR, and Spo0A in Pho regulon regulation. Arrowheads indicate positive regulation. Vertical bars indicate negative regulation. Factor X, factor Y, and factor Z are hypothetical intermediates, indicating (via dashed lines) that Spo0A∼P regulation on transcription may be indirect or possibly affect phosphorylation of PhoP (factor Z). Arrows with solid lines identify promoters believed to require PhoP∼P for induction. Solid lines with bars identify negative regulation by Spo0A or AbrB. PhoP (response regulator); PhoR (histidine kinase); Spo0A (response regulator); AbrB (repressor of many postexponentially expressed genes). Genes regulated by Spo0A and/or AbrB are not limited to those shown.

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Model for ResD/E regulation of genes involved in respiration and in Pho regulon regulation. Arrowheads indicate positive regulation. An arrow with a solid line indicates that the upstream gene product may act directly. Arrows with dashed lines identify proposed regulation. Flat arrowheads indicate negative regulation. ResD (response regulator); ResE (sensor-histidine kinase); Spo0A (response regulator); PhoP (response regulator); PhoR (sensor-histidine kinase); factor Z (hypothetical activation factor involved in transfer of phosphate from PhoR∼P to PhoP). Working model suggests that Spo0A and ResD are antagonist in the regulation of factor Z? Additional, proposed but not yet identified, histidine kinases are marked with a question mark (?).

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Deletion derivatives of promoter. The numbering of the promoter fragments is identical to that in . S represents the sporulation-specific promoter region (P), whereas V represents the phosphate starvation-inducible (P) promoter region. The translation start site is indicated by +1. The full-length promoter (P+P) and each promoter fragment containing a single promoter, P or P, were cloned into pDH32; the plasmid was linearized and transformed into MB24 and MB24 derivative strains used in Table 2 . Chloramphenicol-resistant transformants were selected and screened for an phenotype.

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Regulation of Pho regulon genes by Pho, Spo, and Res two-component signal transduction systems

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

mutations do not bypass a or block of sporulation APase (P) expression but result in expression of the operon and a Pho regulon promoter, P, under phosphate-replete, sporulation induction conditions

Citation: Hulett F. 1995. Complex Phosphate Regulation by Sequential Switches in , p 289-302. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch18

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