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Chapter 26 : Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle

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Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Cell differentiation in the gram-negative bacterium results from asymmetric cell division that produces two morphologically distinct progeny, a nonmotile stalked cell and a motile swarmer cell. Two examples are considered in this chapter. In the first, evidence is discussed that developmental events are coupled to the cell division cycle by a complex signal transduction pathway mediated by sensor histidine kinases and effector proteins. In the second, the role of the response regulator FlbD is examined in flagellum biosynthesis, where it functions as both a transcription activator and repressor to regulate the timing of flagellar () gene expression in the cell cycle. As discussed in the second part of this chapter, there is also experimental evidence that DNA synthesis is required for initiation of the gene transcription cascade. Pseudoreversion analysis of a temperature sensitive mutation identified cold-sensitive suppressors that map to three new cell division genes, , , and . DNA sequence analysis of and show that both genes encode proteins with carboxyterminal domains homologous to the histidine kinases of the bacterial sensor proteins. It is a known fact that that flagellum biosynthesis, activation of motility, and pili formation require the completion of successive cell division cycle checkpoints. The nature of the regulated target genes in flagellum biosynthesis is much better understood, but nothing is known of the class I genes that respond to the cell cycle signal and initiate the gene cascade.

Citation: Lane T, Benson A, Hecht G, Burton G, Newton A. 1995. Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, p 403-417. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch26

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

. crescentus cell cycle. (A) The sequence of developmental events in the wild-type strain CB15 includes flagellum formation (fla), appearance of polar bacteriophage receptors (ϕ), activation of flagellum rotation (mot+), pili formation (pili), loss of motility (mot), loss of bacteriophage receptors (ϕ), and stalk formation. The periods corresponding to DNA synthesis (S), postsynthetic gap (G2), presynthetic gap (G1), as well as division initiation (DIVi), division progression (DIVp), and cell separation (CS) are indicated. (B) Nonmotile mutants assemble inactive flagella (designated as straight lines), are bacteriophage ϕCbK resistant, and fail to form stalks, but they divide normally ( ). (C) Cells blocked before the completion of DIVp form long unpinched filaments. Development is blocked, but flagellum biosynthesis continues; consequently, these cells do not form stalks but accumulate multiple inactive flagella at a single pole after several generations ( ).

Citation: Lane T, Benson A, Hecht G, Burton G, Newton A. 1995. Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, p 403-417. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Predicted domain organization of histidine kinases PleC ( ) and DivJ ( ) and response regulators DivK ( ) and PleD (Hecht and Newton, unpublished data) deduced from translated DNA sequences. Closed boxes indicate transmembrane domains; H, N, G1, and G2 indicate conserved His, Asn, Asp-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Gly, and Gly-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Gly motifs, respectively; RR1 and RR2 are the two response regulator domains in PleD; D, K, and R indicate conserved Asp, Lys, and Arg residues, respectively.

Citation: Lane T, Benson A, Hecht G, Burton G, Newton A. 1995. Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, p 403-417. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Roles of PleC, DivK, and DivJ in cell division and polar morphogenesis. This model proposes that the response regulator (RR) DivK acts at two different times in the cell cycle to control polar morphogenesis and cell division. Late in the cell cycle, DivK responds to the PleC histidine protein kinase (HPK) to initiate motility and stalk formation, and early in the subsequent cell cycle it responds to another sensor HPK, shown here as DivJ, to regulate cell division. For details, see text. Abbreviations: FLA, flagellum biosynthesis; MOT, motility; STK, stalk formation.

Citation: Lane T, Benson A, Hecht G, Burton G, Newton A. 1995. Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, p 403-417. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(A) Sequence of gene expression during the cell cycle. The graph illustrates the sequence and timing of class II, III, and IV gene transcription during the cell cycle. The periods of the presynthetic gap (Gl), synthesis (S), and postsynthetic gap (G2) are indicated above the graph. (B) The flagellar hierarchy. Genes encoding proteins that are necessary for gene synthesis are arranged in hierarchical order based on epistasis experiments. The promoter structures of genes at each level are listed at the left, along with the class to which they belong. σ and σ are hypothetical σ-factors that direct transcription from the unique promoters of the class IIA and class IIB genes

Citation: Lane T, Benson A, Hecht G, Burton G, Newton A. 1995. Switches and Signal Transduction Networks in the Cell Cycle, p 403-417. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch26
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