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Chapter 27 : The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in

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The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

is an unusual gram-negative bacterium in that it exhibits a variety of social behaviors and has a complex life cycle. This chapter focuses on the signal transduction system, which is a two-component signal transduction system involved in the social behavior of . The authors investigated the isolation of mutants defective in development, and were particularly interested in one group of these mutants, called or , which sporulated normally but formed tangled, filaments under fruiting conditions instead of the normal fruiting bodies. Based on recombinational and complementation analyses, the genes were grouped into at least five complementation groups: ,, , , and . The homologies did not prove that the genes were chemotaxis genes, because the conserved protein motifs could have evolved new functions. To show spatial chemotactic movement in , it was necessary to set up agar plates, which maintain steep and stable chemical gradients. The authors set up these gradients using petri plates that contain multiple compartments, and found that most mutants were no longer able to respond to the spatial or temporal chemical gradients and did not exhibit any chemotactic movements. Western immunoblot and primer extension analysis showed that FrzZ is indeed expressed in vivo during both vegetative growth and development. Genetic, biochemical, behavioral, and molecular biology studies all indicate that the genes are the chemotaxis genes of .

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Morphology of frizzy mutants. Cultures of were placed on fruiting agar and allowed to incubate for 7 days at 28°C. (A) strain DZF1 (wild type); (B) strain DZF1227 (a mutant). From ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Sequence similarities between genes of . and enteric chemotaxis () genes.

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Spatial chemotaxis assay. (A) Illustration of petri plates without a barrier (I) and with a barrier plus a thin overlay (II). See text for detailed description. (B) Chemical gradients in both petri plates after 20 h of incubation. The solid line represents the case of a petri plate without a barrier (I), and the broken line, the case of a petri plate with a barrier and a thin overlay of agar (II). The gradients were analyzed by adding a dye (Congo red) to the left compartments at 0 h, incubating the plates for 20 h at 28°C, collecting 10-µl samples at different locations on the petri plates, resuspending them in 2 ml of water, and measuring the dye concentrations by absorbance at optical density at 499 nm. From ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Chemotactic behavior of . in compartmentalized petri plate assay. Wild-type DZ2 cells spread into the area containing attractants CYE (yeast extract plus Casitone) and avoid the area containing repellent isoamyl alcohol. From ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Time-lapse video microscopy of the dispersal pattern of a clump of wild-type cells (strain DZ2). The upper panel shows the dispersal pattern of unstimulated cells. The lower panel shows the dispersal pattern in the presence of a negative stimulus (0.03% isoamyl alcohol). In this experiment, cell dispersal lag time is about 15 min. From ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Model of FrzE autophosphorylation. FrzE has two domains that are homologous to CheA (shaded regions) and CheY (striped region). The center circle consists of an alanine- and proline-rich segment that is hypothesized to act as a flexible hinge. The CheA domain of FrzE was found to be autophosphorylated, and the phosphate was transferred to the CheY domain of FrzE ( ). Adapted from ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

genes are required for social behavior in . . (A) Wild type (strain DZ2) formed large swarming colony on CYE medium plus 0.3% agar and fruiting bodies on fruiting medium; the frzE mutants (strain DZ4148) failed to swarm or fruit. (B) Correlation between modification of FrzCD and directed cell movements in social behavior. See text for detailed description. From ).

Citation: Shi W, Zusman D. 1995. The Signal Transduction System Controls Multicellular Behavior in , p 419-430. In Hoch J, Silhavy T (ed), Two-Component Signal Transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818319.ch27
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References

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