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Chapter 4 : Viral RNA Synthesis

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Abstract:

This chapter summarizes what is known about how a single viral RNA molecule can be selectively amplified into thousands of RNA progeny in infected cells. It specifically provides the roles of viral proteins and RNA sequences in RNA replication, and describes the kinetics and products of RNA replication in infected cells. Next, it explains the sites and compositions of viral replication complexes (RCs) in infected cells. Then, the chapter discusses the models that have been proposed to explain how viral positive and negative RNA species are made by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Finally, it describes the coupling between translation and replication processes in infected cells. Poliovirus is used as the prototype of an enterovirus because most of the research has been performed with poliovirus infected cell. To accomplish the unique task of RNA-dependent RNA polymerization in infected cells, enteroviruses encode several proteins required for viral RNA synthesis. Open questions about the mechanism of viral synthesis include the nature o f the RNA primers for positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis, the source of specificity for the viral template RNA, and the relationship between translation and RNA synthesis, which may occur simultaneously in the infected host cell cytoplasm. Some of these questions may be studied with the recently discovered cellfree system.

Citation: Johnson K, Sarnow P. 1995. Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch4

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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Genome organization of poliovirus. For viral RNA, the positive-strand RNA genome is shown. The presence of 3B (VPg) and polyadenosine sequences (An) at the 5′ end and 3′ ends, respectively, are indicated. The coding region is indicated by the black rectangle. For the polyprotein, the amino (N)- and carboxy (C)-terminal ends of the polyprotein are indicated. For the cleavage products, precursor proteins 1, 2, and 3 and their processed products are indicated; see the text for details.

Citation: Johnson K, Sarnow P. 1995. Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

HF-dependent snapback model for the initiation of negative-strand viral RNA. Viral (VF, 3AB, 3B, 3D, and 3CD) and cellular (CF and HF) proteins and their putative actions in the replication process are shown. The direction of movement of the nascent RNA chain is indicated by two arrows. See the text for details. A hypothetical membrane is shown on the left. VF, viral factors; CF, cellular factors.

Citation: Johnson K, Sarnow P. 1995. Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

3B (VPg)-primed model for the initiation of positive-strand RNA. Viral (VF, 3AB, 3B, 3D, and 3CD) and cellular (CF and HF) proteins and their putative actions in the replication process are shown. The direction of movement of the nascent RNA chain is indicated by two arrows. See the text for details. A hypothetical membrane is shown on the left. VF, viral factors; CF, cellular factors.

Citation: Johnson K, Sarnow P. 1995. Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

-Initiation model for the initiation of positive-strand RNAs. Viral (3AB, 3D, and 3CD) and cellular (p36) proteins and their putative actions in the replication process are shown. The cloverleaf-type RNA structure at the 5′ end of the positive-strand RNA is indicated. 3B (open circle) is shown attached to the 5′ ends of the positive strands and positioned as primer in the RC. See the text for details. A hypothetical membrane is shown on the left. This figure is reprinted from Andino et al. ( ) by permission of Oxford University Press.

Citation: Johnson K, Sarnow P. 1995. Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch4
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