1887

Chapter 7 : Enterovirus Structure and Assembly

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818326/9781555810924_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818326/9781555810924_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter describes the structures of enterovirus capsid proteins and virions and the process by which virions are assembled and the genome is encapsidated. Enterovirus capsid proteins are translated in the order VP4-VP2-VP3-VP1 as part of a large polyprotein and are separated by proteolytic cleavage. The four poliovirus capsid proteins and their precursors have been mapped onto the genome by alignment of its nucleotide sequence with partial amino acid sequences derived from the amino and carboxy termini of these polypeptides. The RNA genomes of poliovirus and other enteroviruses are translated into single large polyproteins that are subsequently proteolytically processed to yield diverse structural and nonstructural proteins. Proteolytic cleavage of enterovirus capsid proteins from the P1 precursor, assembly, and eventual maturation of the virion are regulated, sequential processes that appear to be intimately connected. Two models have been proposed for virion formation. The first involves encapsidation into procapsids and is supported by the reported association of procapsids with the viral replication complex and the conversion of procapsids into virions in pulse-chase experiments. The second model involves the association of pentamers or pentamer assemblies around virion RNA.

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Cricket paralysis virus
0.48222497
Foot-and-mouth disease virus
0.47749728
Viral Proteins
0.44882128
Swine Vesicular Disease
0.43549255
0.48222497
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Quaternary organization of poliovirus capsid proteins VP2, VP3, and VP1 within the protomer. The ribbon drawing represents the arrangement of the three β barrels within the virus quaternary structure. The heavy outline in the capsid model represents the biological protomer, which is not identical to the triangular asymmetric unit. The shading matches the β barrel units found in each trapezoid. Quasi-twofold, fivefold, and quasi-sixfold axes of symmetry are indicated by solid diamonds, pentagons, and triangles, respectively.

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Gene organization, processing scheme, and cleavage sites of the P1 poliovirus capsid protein precursor. Proteolytic cleavages occur between amino acid pairs, indicated by standard single-letter code. Arrows above and below the P1 partial polyprotein indicate sites that are cleaved in inter- and intramolecular reactions, respectively, by proteinases as indicated. The question mark indicates that the mechanism of cleavage at this site is not known.

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Enterovirus morphogenesis. (A) The P1 capsid protein precursor is released from the nascent polyprotein following autocatalytic cleavage by 2A at its own amino terminus and is then cleaved twice by 3CD. The cleaved termini of all three capsid proteins undergo considerable rearrangement after P1 cleavage, and cleavage is a prerequisite for assembly (B) of five 5S monomers into 14S pentamers. Twelve 14S pentamers either may associate directly with genomic RNA to form provirions, possibly by way of 55S half-shell intermediates (C and D), or may assemble to form empty capsids (E) into which genomic RNA is subsequently inserted (F). Maturation cleavage (G) of VPO to yield VP4 and VP2 results in conversion of 150S provirions into 160S virions.

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Structures of the three major capsid proteins of poliovirus. (a) Schematic representation of the wedgelike eight-stranded antiparallel β barrel protein fold shared by VP1, VP2, and VP3. Individual β strands are shown as arrows and labeled with letters. Flanking helices are shown as cylinders, (b to d) Ribbon diagrams of VP1 (b),VP2 (c), and VP3 (d). The numbers indicate amino acid residues; extensions at the amino and carboxy termini of VPl andVP3 have been truncated for clarity.

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818326.chap7
1. Alexander, L.,, H. H. Lu,, and E. Wimmer. 1994. Polioviruses containing picornavirus type 1 and/or type 2 internal ribosomal entry site elements: genetic hybrids and the expression of a foreign gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 1406 1410.
2. Allaire, M.,, M. M. Chermaia,, B. A. Malcolm,, and M. N. G. James. 1994. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases. Nature (London) 369: 72 76.
3. Ansardi, D. C.,, M. Luo,, and C. D. Morrow. 1994. Mutations in the poliovirus P1 capsid precursor at arginine residues VP4-ARG34.VP3-ARG223, and VP1-ARG129 affect virus assembly and encapsidation of genomic RNA. Virology 188: 20 34.
4. Ansardi, D. C.,, and C. D. Morrow. 1993. Poliovirus capsid proteins derived from P1 precursors with glutamine-valine cleavage sites have defects in assembly and RNA encapsidation. J. Virol. 67: 7284 7297.
5. Ansardi, D. C.,, D. C. Porter,, and C. D. Morrow. 1992. Myristylation of poliovirus capsid precursor P1 is required for assembly of subviral particles. J. Virol. 66: 4556 4563.
6. Arnold, E.,, M. Luo,, G. Vriend,, M. G. Rossmann,, A. C. Palmenberg,, G. D. Parks,, M. J. H. Nicklin,, and E. Wimmer. 1987. Implications of the picornavirus capsid structure for processing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 21 25.
7. Arnold, E.,, and M. G. Rossman. 1990. Analysis of the structure of a common cold virus, human rhinovirus 14, refined at a resolution of 3.0 Å. J. Mol. Biol. 211: 763 801.
8. Baltimore, D., 1969. The replication of picornaviruses, p. 101 176. In H. B. Levy (ed.), The Biochemistry of Viruses. Marcel Dekker, New York.
9. Baltimore, D.,, H. J. Eggers,, R. M. Franklin,, and I. Tamm. 1963. Poliovirus-induced RNA polymerase and the effects of virus-specific inhibitors on its production. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 49: 843 849.
10. Baltimore, D.,, M. Girard,, and J. E. Darnell. 1966. Aspects of the synthesis of poliovirus RNA and the formation of virus particles. Virology 29: 179 189.
11. Benyesh, M.,, H. It oh,, G. D. Hsiung,, and J. L. Melnick. 1957. Mixed infections between ECHO and polioviruses. Fed. Proc. 16: 365.
12. Bienz, K.,, D. Egger,, and L. Pasamontes. 1987. Association of polioviral proteins of the P2 genomic region with the viral replication complex and virus-induced membrane synthesis as visualized by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. Virology 160: 220 226.
13. Bienz, K.,, D. Egger,, T. Pfister,, and M. Troxler. 1992. Structural and functional characterization of the poliovirus replication complex. J. Virol. 66: 2740 2747.
14. Bienz, K.,, D. Egger,, M. Troxler,, and L. Pasamontes. 1990. Structural organization of poliovirus RNA replication is mediated by viral proteins of the P2 genomic region. J. Virol. 64: 1156 1163.
15. Bishop, N. E.,, and D. A. Anderson. 1993. RNA-dependent cleavage of VPO capsid protein in provirions of hepatitis A virus. Virology 197: 616 623.
16. Blair, W. S.,, S.-S. Huang,, M. F. Ypma-Wong,, and B. L. Semler. 1990. A mutant poliovirus containing a novel proteolytic cleavage site in VP3 is altered in viral maturation. J. Virol. 64: 1784 1793.
17. Blair, W. S.,, and B. L. Semler. 1991. A role for the P4 amino acid residue in substrate utilization by the poliovirus 3CD proteinase. J. Virol. 65: 6111 6123.
18. Boege, U.,, D. S. W. Ko,, and D. G. Scraba. 1986. Toward an in vitro system for picornavirus assembly: purification of mengovirus 14S capsid precursor particles. J. Virol. 57: 275 284.
19. Boublik, M.,, and R. Drzeniek. 1976. Demonstration of a core in poliovirus particles by electron microscopy. J. Virol. 31: 447 449.
20. Breindl, M. 1971. The structure of heated poliovirus particles. J. Gen. Virol. 11: 147 166.
21. Butterworth, B. E.,, E. J. Shimschick,, and F. H. Yin. 1976. Association of the polioviral replication complex with phospholipid membranes. J. Virol. 19: 457 466.
22. Caliguiri, L. A.,, and R. W. Compans. 1973. The formation of poliovirus particles in association with the RNA replication complexes. J. Gen. Virol. 21: 99 108.
23. Caliguiri, L. A.,, and A. G. Mosser. 1971. Proteins associated with the poliovirus RNA replication complex. Virology 46: 375 386.
24. Caliguiri, L. A.,, and I. Tamm. 1969. Membranous structures associated with translation and transcription of poliovirus RNA. Science 166: 885 886.
25. Caliguiri, L. A.,, and I. Tamm. 1970. The role of cytoplasmic membranes in poliovirus biosynthesis. Virology 42: 100 111.
26. Chatterjee, N. K.,, and C. Tuchowski. 1981. Comparison of capsid polypeptides of group B coxsackieviruses and polypeptide synthesis in infected cells. Arch. Virol. 70: 255 269.
27. Chen, Z.,, C. Stauffacher,, Y. Li,, T. Schmidt,, B. Wu.,, G. Kamer,, M. Shanks,, G. Lomonossoff,, and J. E. Johnson. 1989. Protein-RNA interactions in an icosahedral virus at 3.0 Å resolution. Science 245: 154 159.
28. Chow, M.,, J. F. E. Newman,, D. Filman,, J. M. Hogle,, D. J. Rowlands,, and F. Brown. 1987. Myristylation of picornavirus capsid protein VP4 and its structural significance. Nature (London) 327: 482 486.
29. Chumakov, K. M.,, I. K. Lavrova,, L. I. Martianova,, M. B. Korolev,, V. N. Bashkirtsev,, and M. K. Voroshilova. 1979. Investigation of physicochemical properties of Bulgarian strain 258 of enterovirus type 71. Arch. Virol. 60: 359 362.
30. Cole, C. N.,, and D. Baltimore. 1973. Defective interfering particles of poliovirus. II. Nature of the defect. J. Mol. Biol. 76: 325 343.
31. Collis, P. S.,, B. J. O'Donnell,, D.J. Barton,, J. A. Rogers,, and J. B. Flanegan. 1992. Replication of poliovirus RNA and subgenomic RNA transcripts in transfected cells. J. Virol. 66: 6480 6488.
32. Compton, S. R.,, B. Nelsen,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1990. Temperature-sensitive poliovirus mutant fails to cleave VPO and accumulates provirions. J. Virol. 64: 4067 4075.
33. Cords, C. E.,, and J. J. Holland. 1964. Replication of poliovirus RNA induced by heterologous virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51: 1080 1082.
34. Cords, C. E.,, and J. J. Holland. 1964. Alteration of the species and tissue specificity of poliovirus by enclosure of its RNA within the protein capsid of coxsackie B1 virus. Virology 24: 492 495.
35. Cords, C. E.,, C. G. James,, and L. C. McLaren. 1975. Alteration of capsid proteins of coxsackievirus A13 by low ionic concentrations. J. Virol. 15: 244 252.
36. Corrias, M. V.,, O. Flore,, E. Broi,, M. E. Marongiu,, A. Pani,, S. Torelli,, and P. La Colla. 1987. Characterization and role in morphogenesis of a new subviral particle (55S) isolated from poliovirus-infected cells. J. Virol. 61: 561 569.
37. Couderc, T.,, J. Hogle,, H. Le Bleu,, F. Horaud,, and B. Blondel. 1993. Molecular characterization of mouse-virulent poliovirus type 1 Mahoney mutants: involvement of residues of polypeptides VP1 and VP2 located on the inner surface of the capsid protein shell. J. Virol. 67: 3808 3817.
38. Cova, L.,, and M. Aymard. 1980. Isolation and characterization of non-haemagglutinating echovirus 11. J Gen. Virol. 51: 219 222.
39. Crick, F. H. K.,, and J. D. Watson. 1956. Structure of small viruses. Nature (London) 177: 473 475.
40. Crick, F. H. K.,, and J. D. Watson. 1957. Virus structure: general principles. Ciba Found. Symp. 12: 5 13.
41. Crowell, R. L.,, and L. Phillipson. 1971. Specific alterations of coxsackievirus B3 eluted from HeLa cells. J. Virol. 8: 509 515.
42. Dales, S.,, H. J. Eggers,, I. Tamm,, and G. E. Palade. 1965. Electron microscopic study of the formation of poliovirus. Virology 26: 379 389.
43. Da Poian, A. T.,, J. E. Johnson,, and J. L. Silva. 1994. Differences in pressure stability of the three components of cowpea mosaic virus: implications for virus assembly and disassembly. Biochemistry 33: 8339 8346.
44. Dorner, A. J.,, L. F. Dorner,, G. R. Larsen,, E. Wimmer,, and C. W. Anderson. 1982. Identification of the initiation site of poliovirus polyprotein synthesis. J. Virol. 42: 1017 1028.
45. Dunker, A. K.,, and R. R. Rueckert. 1971. Fragments generated by pH dissociation of ME-virus and their relation to the structure of the virion. J. Mol. Biol. 58: 217 235.
46. Emini, E. A.,, M. Elzinga,, and E. Wimmer. 1982. Carboxy-terminal analysis of poliovirus proteins: the termination of poliovirus RNA translation and the location of unique poliovirus polyprotein cleavage sites. J. Virol. 42: 194 199.
47. Esposito, J. J.,, and J. F. Obijeski. 1976. Enterovirus type 70 virion and intracellular proteins. J. Virol. 18: 1160 1162.
48. Fernandez-Tomas, C. B.,, and D. Baltimore. 1973. Morphogenesis of poliovirus. II. Demonstration of a new intermediate, the provirion. J. Virol. 12: 1122 1130.
49. Fernandez-Tomas, C. B.,, N. Guttman,, and D. Baltimore. 1973. Morphogenesis of poliovirus. III. Formation of provirion in cell-free extracts. J. Virol. 12: 1181 1183.
50. Filman, D. J.,, R. Syed,, M. Chow,, A. J. Macadam,, P. D. Minor,, and J. M. Hogle. 1989. Structural factors that control conformational transitions and serotype specificity in type 3 poliovirus. EMBO J. 8: 1567 1579.
51. Finch, J. T.,, and A. Klug. 1959. Structure of poliomyelitis virus. Nature (London) 183: 1709 1714.
52. Flanegan, J. B.,, and T. Van Dyke. 1979. Isolation of a soluble and template-dependent poliovirus RNA polymerase that copies virion RNA in vitro. J. Virol. 32: 155 161.
53. Flore, O.,, C. E. Fricks,, D. J. Filman,, and J. M. Hogle. 1990. Conformational changes in poliovirus assembly and cell entry. Semin. Virol. 1: 429 438.
54. Fricks, C. E.,, and J. M. Hogle. 1990. Cell-induced conformational changes in poliovirus: externalization of the amino terminus of VP1 is responsible for liposome binding. J. Virol. 64: 1934 1945.
55. Fry, E.,, D. Logan,, R. Acharya,, G. Fox,, D. Rowlands,, F. Brown,, and D. Stuart. 1990. Architecture and topography of an aphthovirus. Semin. Virol. 1: 439 452.
56. Ghendon, Y.,, E. Yakobson,, and A. Mikhejeva. 1972. Study of some stages of poliovirus morphogenesis in MiO cells. J. Virol. 10: 261 266.
56a. Girard, M.,, D. Baltimore,, and J. E. Darnell. 1967. The poliovirus replication complex: site for synthesis of poliovirus RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 24: 59 74.
57. Gordon, J. L.,, R. J. Duronio,, D. A. Rudnick,, S. P. Adams,, and G. W. Gokel. 1991. Protein N-myristoylation. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 8647 8650.
58. Guttman, N.,, and D. Baltimore. 1977. Morphogenesis of poliovirus. IV. Existence of particles sedimenting at 150S and having the properties of provirion. J. Virol. 23: 363 367.
59. Hagino-Yamagishi, K.,, and A. Nomoto. 1989. In vitro construction of poliovirus defective interfering particles. J. Virol. 63: 5386 5392.
60. Halperen, S.,, H. J. Eggers,, and I. Tamm. 1964. Complete and coreless hemagglutinating particles produced in echovirus 12 virus-infected cells. Virology 23: 81 89.
61. Halperen, S.,, H. J. Eggers,, and I. Tamm. 1964. Evidence for uncoupled synthesis of viral RNA and viral capsids. Virology 24: 36 46.
61a. Harber, J. J.,, J. Bradley,, C. W. Anderson, and E. Wimmer. 1991. Catalysis of poliovirus VPO maturation is not mediated by serine 10 of VP2. J. Virol. 65: 326 334.
62. Harris, T. J. R.,, and F. Brown. 1975. Correlation of polypeptide composition with antigenic variation in the swine vesicular disease and coxsackievirus B5 .viruses. Nature (London) 258: 758 760.
63. Hasegawa, A.,, and S. Inouye. 1979. Antigenicity and polypeptide composition of native and heated echovirus type 7 procapsids. J. Gen. Virol. 42: 119 125.
64. Hellen, C. U. T.,, M. Facke,, H. G. Kraüsslich,, C.-K. Lee,, and E. Wimmer. 1991. Characterization of poliovirus 2A proteinase by mutational analysis: residues required for auto-catalytic activity are essential for induction of cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F polypeptide p220. J. Virol. 65: 4226 4231.
65. Hellen, C. U. X.,, H. G. Krausslich,, and E. Wimmer. 1989. Proteolytic processing of polyproteins in the replication of RNA viruses. Biochemistry 28: 9881 9890.
66. Hellen, C. U. T.,, and E. Wimmer. 1992. Maturation of poliovirus capsid proteins. Virology 187: 391 397.
67. Hirsch, R. C.,, D. L. Loeb,, J. R. Pollack,, and D. Ganem. 1992. cis-Acting sequences required for encapsidation of duck hepatitis B virus pregenomic RNA. J. Virol. 65: 3309 3316.
68. Hoey, E. M.,, and S.J. Martin. 1974. A possible precursor containing RNA of a bovine enterovirus: the provirion 11. J. Gen. Virol. 24: 515 524.
69. Hogle, J. M.,, M. Chow,, and D. J. Filman. 1985. Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus at 2.9 A resolution. Science 229: 1358 1365.
70. Holland, J. J.,, and C. E. Cords. 1964. Maturation of poliovirus RNA with capsid protein coded by heterologous enteroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51: 1082 1085.
71. Holland, J. J.,, and E. D. Kiehn. 1968. Specific cleavage of viral proteins as steps in the synthesis and maturation of enteroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 60: 1015 1022.
72. Home, R. W.,, and J. Nagington. 1959. Electron microscope studies of the development and structure of poliomyelitis virus. J. Mol. Biol. 1: 333 338.
73. Huang, A. S.,, and D. Baltimore. 1970. Initiation of polysome formation in poliovirus-infected cells. J. Mol. Biol. 47: 275 291.
74. Hummeler, K.,, T. F. Anderson,, and R. A. Brown. 1962. Identification of poliovirus particles of different antigenicity by specific agglutination as seen in the electron microscope. Virology 16: 84 90.
74a. Ikegami, N.,, H. J. Eggers,, and I. Tamm. 1964. Rescure of drug-requiring and drug-inhibited enteroviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 52: 1419 1426.
75. Inoue, T.,, T. Suzuki,, and K. Sekiguchi. 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of swine vesicular disease virus. J. Gen. Virol. 70: 919 934.
75a. Itoh, H.,, and J. D. Melnick. 1959. Double infections of single cells with ECHO 7 and coxsackie A9 viruses. J. Exp. Med. 109: 393 406.
76. Jacobson, M. F.,, and D. Baltimore. 1968. Morphogenesis of poliovirus. I. Association of the viral RNA with coat proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 33: 369 378.
77. Jacobson, M. F.,, and D. Baltimore. 1968. Polypeptide cleavages in the formation of poliovirus proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61: 77 84.
78. Jamison, R. M.,, and H. D. Mayor. 1966. Comparative study of seven picornaviruses of man. J. Bacteriol. 91: 1971 1976.
79. Johnston, M. D.,, and S. J. Martin. 1971. Capsid and procapsid proteins of a bovine enterovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 11: 71 79.
80. Jore, J.,, B. de Geus,, R. J. Jackson,, P. H. Pouwels,, and B. E. Enger-Valk. 1988. Poliovirus protein 3CD is the active protease for processing of the precursor protein P1 in vitro. J. Gen. Virol. 69: 1627 1636.
81. Kaplan, G.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1988. Construction and characterization of poliovirus subgenomic replicons. J. Virol. 62: 1687 1696.
82. Kiehn, E. D.,, and J. J. Holland. 1968. Synthesis and cleavage of enterovirus polypeptides in mammalian cells. J. Virol. 5: 358 367.
83. Kirkegaard, K. 1990. Mutations in VP1 of poliovirus specifically affect both encapsidation and release of viral RNA. J. Virol. 64: 195 206.
84. Kitamura, N.,, B. L. Semler,, P. G. Rothberg,, G. R. Larsen,, C. J. Adler,, A. J. Dorner,, E. A. Emini,, R. Hanecak,, J. Lee,, S. van der Werf,, C. W. Anderson,, and E. Wimmer. 1981. Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature (London) 291: 547 553.
85. Kuge, S.,, I. Saito,, and A. Nomoto. 1986. Primary structure of poliovirus defective-interfering particle genomes and possible generation mechanisms of the particles. J. Mol. Biol. 192: 473 487.
86. Kuhn, R. J.,, H. Tada,, M. F. Ypma-Wong,, B. L. Semler,, and E. Wimmer. 1988. Mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein VPg of poliovirus. J. Virol. 62: 4207 4215.
87. Larsen, G. R.,, C. W. Anderson,, A. J. Dorner,, B.L. Semler,, and E. Wimmer. 1982. Cleavage sites within the poliovirus capsid protein precursors. J. Virol. 41: 340 344.
88. Lawson, M. A.,, and B. L. Semler. 1990. Picornavirus protein processing: enzymes, substrates and genetic regulation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 161: 49 88.
89. Lea, S.,, J. Hernandez,, W. Blakemore,, E. Brocchi,, S. Curry,, E. Domingo,, E. Fry,, R. Abu-Ghazaleh,, A. King,, J. Newman,, D. Stuart,, and M. G. Mateu. 1994. The structure and antigenicity of a type C foot-and-mouth disease virus. Structure 2: 123 139.
90. Lee, W.-M.,, S. S. Monroe,, and R. R. Rueckert. 1993. Role of maturation cleavage in infectivity of picornaviruses: activation of an infectosome. J. Virol. 67: 2110 2122.
91. Li, J. P.,, and D. Baltimore. 1988. Isolation of poliovirus 2C mutants defective in viral RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 62: 4016 4021.
92. Li, J. P.,, and D. Baltimore. 1990. An intragenic revertant of a poliovirus 2C mutant has an uncoating defect. J. Virol. 64: 1102 1107.
93. Li, Q.,, A. G. Yafal,, Y. M.-H. Lee,, J. Hogle,, and M. Chow. 1994. Poliovirus neutralization by antibodies to internal epitopes of VP4 and VP1 results from reversible exposure of these sequences at physiological temperature. J. Virol. 68: 3965 3970.
94. Li, T.,, Z. Chen,, J. E. Johnson,, and G. J. Thomas. 1992. Conformations, interactions, and thermostabilities of RNA and proteins in bean pod mottle virus: investigation of solution and crystal structures by laser Raman spectroscopy. Biochemistry 31: 6673 6682.
95. Luo, M.,, G. Vriend,, G. Kamer,, I. Minor,, E. Arnold,, M. G. Rossmann,, U. Boege,, D. G. Scraba,, G. M. Duke,, and A. C. Palmenberg. 1987. The atomic structure of mengo virus at 3.0 Å resolution. Science 235: 182 191.
96. Macadam, A. J.,, G. Ferguson,, C. Arnold,, and P. D. Minor. 1991. An assembly defect as a result of an attenuating mutation in the capsid proteins of the poliovirus type 3 vaccine strain. J. Virol. 65: 5225 5231.
97. Maizel, J. V.,, B. A. Phillips,, and D. F. Summers. 1967. Composition of artificially produced and naturally occurring empty capsids of poliovirus type 1. Virology 32: 692 699.
98. Maizel, J. V.,, and D. F. Summers. 1968. Evidence for differences in size and composition of the poliovirus-specific polypeptides in infected HeLa cells. Virology 36: 48 54.
99. Marc, D.,, G. Drugeon,, A.-L. Haenni,, M. Girard,, and S. van der Werf. 1989. Role of myristoylation of poliovirus capsid protein VP4 as determined by site-directed mutagenesis of its N-terminal sequence. EMBO J. 8: 2661 2668.
100. Marc, D.,, M. Girad,, and S. van der Werf. 1991. A Gly1 to Ala substitution in poliovirus capsid protein VPO blocks its myristoylation and prevents viral assembly. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 1151 1157.
101. Marc, D.,, G. Masson,, M. Girard,, and S. van der Werf. 1990. Lack of myristoylation of poliovirus capsid polypeptide VPO prevents the formation of virions or results in the assembly of noninfectious virus particles. J. Virol. 64: 4099 4107.
102. Marongiu, M. E.,, A. Pani,, M. V. Corrias,, M. Sau,, and P. LaColla. 1981. Poliovirus morphogenesis. I. Identification of 80S dissociable particles and evidence for the artefactual production of procapsids. J. Virol. 39: 341 347.
103. Martin, A.,, C. Wychowski,, T. Couderc,, R. Crainic,, J. Hogle,, and M. Girard. 1988. Engineering a poliovirus type 2 antigenic site on a type 1 capsid results in a chimaeric virus which is neurovirulent for mice. EMBO J. 7: 2839 2847.
104. Martin, S. J.,, M. D. Johnston,, and J. B. Clements. 1970. Purification and characterization of bovine enteroviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 7: 103 113.
105. Mattern, C. F. T. 1962. Some physical and chemical properties of Coxsackieviruses A9 and A10. Virology 17: 520 532.
106. Mattion, N. M.,, P. A. Reilly,, S. J. DiMichele,, J. C. Crowley,, and C. Weeks-Levy. 1994. Attenuated poliovirus strain as a live vector: expression of regions of rotavirus outer capsid protein VP7 by using recombinant Sabin 3 viruses. J. Virol. 68: 3925 3933.
107. Mayer, M. M.,, H. J. Rapp,, B. Roizman,, S. W. Klein,, K. M. Cowan,, D. Lukens,, C. E. Schwerdt,, F. L. Schaffer,, and J. Charney. 1957. The purification of poliomyelitis virus as studied by complement fixation. J. Immunol. 78: 435 455.
108. McKinley, M. A.,, D. C. Pevear,, and M. G. Rossmann. 1992. Treatment of the picornavirus common cold by inhibitors of viral uncoating and attachment. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 46: 635 654.
109. Melnick, J. L. 1957. ECHO viruses. Spec. Publ. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 5: 365.
110. Melnick, J. L.,, G. Dalldorf,, J. F. Enders,, H. M. Gelfaud,, W. M. Hammond,, A. B. Sabin,, J. T. Syverton,, and H. A. Wenner. 1962. Classification of human enteroviruses. Virology 16: 501 504.
111. Minor, P. D.,, G. Dunn,, D. M. A. Evans,, D. I. Magrath,, A. John,, J. Howlett,, A. Phillips,, G. Westrop,, K. Wareham,, J. W. Almond,, and J. M. Hogle. 1989. The temperature sensitivity of the Sabin type 3 vaccine strain of poliovirus: molecular and structural effects of a mutation in the capsid protein VP3. J. Gen. Virol. 70: 1117 1123.
112. Moore, D. M. 1977. Characterization of three antigenic particles of swine vesicular disease virus. J. Gen. Virol. 34: 431 445.
113. Moore, N. P.,, B. Reavy,, and L. King. 1985. General characteristics, gene organization and expression of small RNA viruses of insects. J. Gen. Virol. 66: 647 659.
114. Moscufo, N.,, and M. Chow. 1992. Myristate-protein interactions in poliovirus: interactions ofVP4 threonine 28 contribute to the structural conformation of assembly intermediates and the stability of assembled virions. J. Virol. 66: 6849 6857.
115. Moscufo, N.,, J. Simons,, and M. Chow. 1991. Myristoylation is important at multiple stages in poliovirus assembly. J. Virol. 65: 2372 2380.
116. Moscufo, N.,, A. G. Yafal,, A. Rogrove,, J. M. Hogle,, and M. Chow. 1993. A mutation inVP4 defines a new step in the late stages of cell entry by poliovirus. J. Virol. 67: 5075 5078.
117. Moss, E. G.,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1991. Host range determinants located on the interior of the poliovirus capsid. EMBO J. 10: 1067 1074.
118. Murray, M. G.,, J. Bradley,, X.-F. Yang,, E. Wimmer,, E. G. Moss,, and V. R. Racaniello. 1988. Poliovirus host range is determined by a short amino acid sequence in neutralizing antigenic site 1. Science 241: 213 215.
119. Nardelli, L.,, E. Lodetti,, G. L. Gualandi,, R. Burros,, D. Goodridge, E Brown, and B. Cartwright. 1968. A foot and mouth disease syndrome in pigs caused by an enterovirus. Nature (London) 219: 1275 1276.
120. Newman, J. F. E.,, D. J. Rowlands, and E Brown. 1973. A physico-chemical sub-grouping of the mammalian picornaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 18: 171 180.
121. Nicklin, M. J. H.,, H.-G. Krausslich,, H. Toyoda,, J. J. Dunn,, and E. Wimmer. 1987. Poliovirus polypeptide precursors: expression in vitro and processing by exogenous 3C and 2A proteinases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 4002 4006.
122. Nicklin, M. J. H.,, H. Toyoda,, M. G. Murray,, and E. Wimmer. 1986. Proteolytic processing in the replication of polio and related viruses. Bio/Technology 4: 33 42.
123. Nomoto, A.,, N. Kitamura,, F. Golini,, and E. Wimmer. 1977. The 5'-terminal structures of poliovirion RNA and poliovirus mRNA differ only in the genome-linked protein VPg. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 5345 5349.
124. Novak, J. E. K.,, and K. Kirkegaard. 1991. Improved method for detecting poliovirus negative strands used to demonstrate specificity of positive-strand encapsidation and the ratio of positive to negative strands in infected cells. J. Virol. 65: 3384 3387.
125. Oliviera, M. A.,, R. Zhao,, W.-M. Lee,, M. J. Kremer,, I. Minor,, R. R. Rueckert,, G. D. Diana,, D. C. Pevear,, F. J. Dutko,, M. A. McKinlay,, and M. G. Rossmann. 1993. The structure of human rhinovirus 16. Structure 1: 51 68.
126. Pallai, P. V.,, F. Burkhardt,, M. Skoog,, K. Schreiner,, P. Bax,, K. A. Cohen,, G. Hansen,, D. E. H. Palladino,, K. S. Harris,, M. J. Nicklin,, and E. Wimmer. 1989. Cleavage of synthetic peptides by purified 3C proteinase. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 9738 9741.
127. Palmenberg, A. C. 1982. In vitro synthesis and assembly of picornaviral capsid intermediate structures. J. Virol. 44: 900 906.
128. Palmenberg, A. C., 1989. Sequence alignments of picornaviral capsid proteins, p. 211 241. In E. Ehrenfeld, and B. Semler (ed.), Molecular Aspects of Picornavirus Infection and Detection. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
129. Paul, A. V.,, A. Schultz,, S. E. Pincus,, S. Oroszalan,, and E. Wimmer. 1987. Capsid protein VP4 of poliovirus is N-myristoylated. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 7827 7831.
130. Penman, S.,, Y. Becker,, and J. Darnell. 1964. A cytoplasmic structure involved in the synthesis and assembly of poliovirus components. J. Mol. Biol. 8: 541 555.
131. Perlin, M.,, and B. A. Phillips. 1973. In vitro assembly of polioviruses. III. Assembly of 14S particles into empty capsids by poliovirus-infected HeLa cell membranes. Virology 53: 107 114.
132. Pfister, T.,, L. Pasamontes,, M. Troxler,, D. Egger,, and K. Bienz. 1992. Immunocy-tochemical localization of capsid-related particles in subcellular fractions of poliovirus-in-fected cells. Virology 188: 676 684.
133. Philipson, L.,, S. T. Beatrice,, and R. I. Crowell. 1973. A structural model of picornaviruses as suggested from analysis of urea-degraded virions and procapsids of coxsackievirus B3. Virology 54: 69 79.
134. Phillips, B. A. 1969. In vitro assembly of polioviruses. I. Kinetics of the assembly of empty capsids and the role of extracts from infected cells. Virology 39: 811 821.
135. Phillips, B. A. 1971. In vitro assembly of poliovirus. II. Evidence for the self-assembly of 14S particles into empty capsids. Virology 44: 307 316.
136. Phillips, B. A.,, D. F. Summers,, and J. V. Maizel. 1968. In vitro assembly of poliovirus-related particles. Virology 35: 216 226.
137. Poison, A.,, and A. Kipps. 1965. Physico-chemical investigation of an enteric cytopatho-genic bovine orphan virus, ECBO SA.l. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch. 17: 488 494.
138. Poison, A.,, and J. Levitt. 1963. Density determination in a preformed gradient of caesium chloride. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 75: 88 95.
139. Putnak, J. R.,, and B. A. Phillips. 1981. Picornaviral structure and assembly. Microbiol. Rev. 45: 287 315.
140. Racaniello, V. R.,, and D. Baltimore. 1981. Molecular cloning of poliovirus cDNA and determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 4887 4901.
141. Rodriguez, P. L.,, and L. Carrasco. 1993. Poliovirus protein 2C has ATPase and GTPase activities. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 8105 8110.
142. Roivainen, M.,, A. Narvanen,, M. Korkolainen,, M.-L. Huhtala,, and T. Hovi. 1991. Antigenic regions of poliovirus type 3/ Sabin capsid proteins recognized by human sera in the peptide scanning technique. Virology 180: 99 107.
143. Roivainen, M.,, L. Piirainen,, T. Rysa,, A. Narvanen,, and T. Hovi. 1993. An immunodominant N-terminal region of VP1 protein of poliovirion that is buried in crystal structure can be exposed in solution. Virology 195: 762 765.
144. Rombaut, B.,, and A. Boeye. 1991. In vitro assembly of poliovirus 14S subunits: disoxaril stabilization as a model for the antigenicity-conferring activity of infected cell extracts. Virology 180: 788 792.
145. Rombaut, B.,, R. Vrijsen,, and A. Boeye. 1990. New evidence for the precursor role of 14S subunits in poliovirus morphogenesis. Virology 117: 411 414.
146. Rombaut, B.,, R. Vrijsen,, P. Brioen,, and A. Boeye. 1982. A pH-dependent antigenic conversion of empty capsids of poliovirus studied with the aid of monoclonal antibodies to N and H antigen. Virology 122: 215 218.
147. Rombaut, B.,, R. Vrijsen,, A. Delgadillo,, D. vanden Berghe,, and A. Boeye. 1985. Characterization and assembly of poliovirusrelated 45S particles. Virology 146: 111 119.
148. Rosenwirth, B.,, and H. J. Eggers. 1978. Structure and replication of echovirus type 12. I. Analysis of the polypeptides and RNA of echovirus 12 particles. Eur. J. Biochem. 92: 53 60.
149. Rosenwirth, B.,, and H. J. Eggers. 1982. Biochemistry and pathogenicity of echovirus 9. I. Characterization of the virus particles of strains Barty and Hill. Virology 123: 102 112.
150. Rossmann, M. G. 1989. The canyon hypothesis. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 14587 14590.
151. Rossman, M. G.,, C. Abad-Zapatero,, M. A. Hermodson,, and J. W. Erickson. 1983. Subunit interactions in southern bean mosaic virus. J. Mol. Biol. 166: 37 83.
152. Rossman, M. G.,, and J. E. Johnson. 1989. Icosahedral RNA virus structure. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58: 533 573.
153. Rueckert, R. R., 1990. Picornaviridae and their replication, p. 507 548. In B. N. Fields,, D. M. Knipe,, R. M. Chanock,, M. S. Hirsch,, J. L. Melnick,, R. T. P. Morath,, and B. Roizman (ed.), Virology. Raven Press, New York.
154. Schaffer, C. E.,, and L. H. Frommhagen. 1965. Similarities of biophysical properties of several human enteroviruses as shown by density gradient ultracentrifugation of mixtures of the viruses. Virology 25: 662 664.
155. Schaffer, C. E.,, and F. L. Schwerdt. 1955. Some physical and chemical properties of purified poliomyelitis virus preparations. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 61: 740 750.
156. Schaffer, C. E.,, and F. L. Schwerdt. 1959. Purification and properties of poliovirus. Adv. Virus Res. 6: 159 204.
157. Scharff, M. D.,, and L. Levintow. 1963. Quantitative study of the formation of poliovirus antigens in infected HeLa cells. Virology 17: 491 500.
158. Skern, T.,, W. Sommergruber,, D. Blaas,, P. Gruendler,, F. Fraundorfer,, C. Pieler,, I. Fogy,, and E. Kuechler. 1985. Human rhi-novirus 2: complete nucleotide sequence and proteolytic processing signals in the capsid protein region. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 2111 2126.
159. Skinner, M. S.,, S. Halperen,, and J. C. Harkin. 1968. Cytoplasmic membrane-bound vesicles in echovirus 12-infected cells. Virology 36: 241 253.
160. Sprunt, K.,, I. M. Mountain,, W. M. Redman,, and H. E. Alexander. 1955. Production of poliomyelitis virus with combined antigenic characteristics of type I and type II. Virology 1: 236 249.
161. Sprunt, K.,, W. M. Redman,, and H. E. Alexander. 1958. Combination of antigenic traits of type 1 and type 2 poliovirus. J. Immunol. 82: 232 240.
162. Su, R. T.,, and M. W. Taylor. 1976. Morphogenesis of picornaviruses: characterization and assembly of bovine enterovirus subviral particles. J. Gen. Virol. 30: 317 328.
163. Summers, D. P.,, and J. V. Maizel. 1968. Evidence for large precursor proteins in poliovirus synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59: 966 971.
164. Summers, D. P.,, J. V. Maizel,, and J. E. Darnell. 1965. Evidence for virus-specific non-capsid proteins in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 54: 505 513.
165. Takegami, T.,, B. L. Semler,, C. W. Anderson,, and E. Wimmer. 1983. Membrane fractions active in poliovirus RNA replication contain VPg precursor polypeptides. Virology 126: 33 47.
166. Toyoda, H.,, M. J. H. Nicklin,, M. G. Murray,, C. W. Anderson,, J. J. Dunn, R W. Sudier, and E. Wimmer. 1986. A second virus-encoded proteinase involved in proteolytic processing of poliovirus polyprotein. Cell 45: 761 770.
167. Trautman, R., and R Sutmoller. 1971. Detection and properties of a genomic masked viral particle consisting of foot-and-mouth disease virus nucleic acid in bovine enterovirus protein capsid. Virology 44: 537 545.
168. Van Elsen, A.,, and A. Boeye. 1966. Disruption of type 1 poliovirus under alkaline conditions: role of pH, temperature and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Virology 28: 481 483.
169. Vrijsen, R.,, P. Brioen,, and A. Boeye. 1980. Identification of poliovirus precursor proteins by immunoprecipitation. Virology 107: 567 569.
170. Watanabe, Y.,, K. Watanabe,, and Y. Hinuma. 1962. Synthesis of poliovirus specific proteins in HeLa cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 61: 976 977.
171. Wecker, E.,, and G. Lederhilger. 1964. Genomic masking produced by double infection of HeLa cells with heterotypic polioviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 52: 705 709.
172. Wery, J.-P.,, V. S. Reddy,, M.V. Hosur,, and J. E. Johnson. 1994. The refined three dimensional structure of an insect virus at 2.8A resolution. J. Mol. Biol. 235: 565 586.
172a. Wimmer, E.,, C. U. T. Hellen,, and X. Cao. 1993. Poliovirus genetics. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27: 353 436.
173. Yamazaki, S.,, K. Natori,, and R. Kono. 1974. Purification and biophysical properties of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus. J. Virol. 14: 1357 1360.
174. Yeates, T. O.,, D. H. Jacobson,, A. Martin,, C. Wychowski,, M. Girard,, D. J. Filman,, and J. M. Hogle. 1991. Three-dimensional structure of a mouse-adapted type 2/type 1 poliovirus chimera. EMBO J. 10: 2331 2341.
175. Yin, F. H. 1977. Involvement of viral procapsid in the RNA synthesis and maturation of poliovirus. Virology 82: 299 307.
176. Yoneyama, T.,, A. Hagiwara,, and I. Tagaya. 1980. Structural proteins of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses. Intervirology 13: 130 132.
177. Ypma-Wong, M.-P.,, P. G. Dewalt,, V. H. Johnson,, J. G. Lamb,, and B. L. Semler. 1988. Protein 3CD is the major proteinase responsible for cleavage of the P1 capsid precursor. Virology 166: 265 270.
178. Ypma-Wong, M. P.,, D. J. Filman,, J. M. Hogle,, and B. L. Semler. 1988. Structural domains of the poliovirus polyprotein are major determinants for proteolytic cleavage at Gln-Gly pairs. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 17846 17856.
179. Ypma-Wong, M.-P.,, and B. L. Semler. 1987. In vitro molecular genetics as a tool for determining the differential cleavage specificities of the poliovirus 3C proteinase. Nucleic Acids Res. 15: 2069 2088.
180. Zhong, W.,, R. Dasgupta,, and R. Rueckert. 1992. Evidence that the packaging signal for nodaviral RNA2 is a bulged stem-loop. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 11146 11150.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Physical properties of enterovirus virions

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Proteolytic cleavage sites within P1 structural protein precursor of enteroviruses

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 3

Amino acid sequence similarity between capsid proteins of poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) and other enteroviruses and rhinoviruses

Citation: Hellen C, Wimmer E. 1995. Enterovirus Structure and Assembly, p 155-174. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error