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Chapter 27 : Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus

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Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Leslie and Gardner reported in 1931 that could grow in any of four different phases (phases I to IV). These phases were distinguished by colony morphology, hemolysis, and antigenic profile. Subsequent reports differed on the exact number and nature of the phases of . By 1983 the biochemical characterization of had defined several virulence-associated proteins. Pertussis toxin, perceived to be one of the most important, had been purified, characterized biochemically, and shown to be an ADP-ribosylating toxin with host GTP-binding proteins as cellular targets. Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), believed to be important in the specific adherence that demonstrates to the ciliated epithelium, had also been purified. It was also known that made fimbriae and a novel toxin, the extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase toxin. The original DNA sequence predicted the presence of three fevg-encoded polypeptides, two of which shared significant sequence similarity with a large family of bacterial regulatory proteins commonly called "two-component" systems. The and operons are distinguished from other -regulated genes by their ability to respond to the presence of BvgA and BvgS in . The gene products function as transcriptional activators that control the expression of several loci, including the structural gene for an alternative sigma factor, sigma F. Sigma F then activates late genes which include the flagellin locus. is the first-characterized example of an auxiliary regulatory locus within the regulon.

Citation: Stibitz S, Miller J. 1994. Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, p 407-422. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch27

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Bacterial Proteins
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Transcription Start Site
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Adenylate Cyclase Toxin
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Features of the BvgA and BvgS proteins. The portion of BvgS between the two hydrophobic transmembrane sequences (TM) is located in the periplasm, while the remainder of BvgS and BvgA are cytoplasmic. The conserved histidine (H) and ATP-binding motif present in transmitter modules are indicated along with the conserved aspartate residues (D) found in receiver modules. The BvgS linker is the site at which signal-insensitive mutations map. The alanine- and proline-rich sequences (A/P #1, A/P #2) connecting the transmitter, receiver, and C-terminal domains are likely to be confor-mationally flexible, allowing interdomain interactions. The C-terminal region of BvgA contains a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif, aa, amino acids.

Citation: Stibitz S, Miller J. 1994. Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, p 407-422. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch27
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Model for the BvgS-BvgA phosphorylation cascade. The linker (L), transmitter (T), receiver (R), and C-terminal (C) domains of BvgS are indicated, it is proposed that BvgS autophosphorylates at the conserved histidine (H) of the transmitter. Phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate (D) in the BvgS receiver is then required for phosphotransfer to the receiver of BvgA. Phosphorylated BvgA is then able to activate or repress regulated promoters. HTH, helix-turn-helix motif; CM, cytoplasmic membrane. Adapted from reference .

Citation: Stibitz S, Miller J. 1994. Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, p 407-422. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch27
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Model for the regulation of ( ). Transcription of the operon initiates in the Bvg phase from the promoter. In the Bvg+ phase, BvgA (A) is able to direct RNA polymerase (RNAP) to activate transcription of the operons at the and promoters. Relative levels of transcription are represented by arrow thickness. Locations of inverted and direct repeats in the and intergenic regions are illustrated by small numbered arrows, and the sequences of these repeats are given at the bottom of the figure. Sites of BvgA-dependent protection from DNase I digestion are indicated by the hatched rectangles ( ).

Citation: Stibitz S, Miller J. 1994. Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, p 407-422. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch27
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

BvgAS-mediated biphasic alteration of and In the Bvg phase, both species express a variety of adhesins and toxins encoded by -activated genes and operons. In the Bvg- phase, which results from modulation or null mutations in the locus, -activated virulence factors are no longer expressed and loci and flagellar genes are induced.

Citation: Stibitz S, Miller J. 1994. Coordinate Regulation of Virulence in Bordetella pertussis Mediated by the vir (bvg) Locus, p 407-422. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch27
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References

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