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Chapter 9 : Type 4 Pili in the Families and

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews studies on type 4 pili from the species , , and of the family Moraxellaceae and , , and of the family . was originally classified as and was then transferred to the new genus Kingella within the family in 1976. Further studies with , , and confirmed the association between the "spreading-corroding" (SC) colony type and piliation. Researchers studied thin sections of in the electron microscope and concluded that the pili were distributed peritrichously around the cell. When Epp63 was propagated on 5% sheep blood agar, one N-type and six distinct piliated colony types were observed. Thus, pellicle formation can be used as an enrichment procedure to isolate the often rare variants switching from the nonpiliated to the piliated state. The competence for DNA transformation in piliated has also been demonstrated. Further studies on the function and genetics of type 4 pili may lead to a better understanding of the roles that they play in so many bacterial species.

Citation: Marrs C. 1994. Type 4 Pili in the Families and , p 127-143. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch9

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Figure 1

SC and N colony types of on bovine blood agar (A) or GC agar medium (B). (A) The SC colonies exhibit a “fried egg” appearance, while the N colony is relatively featureless. (B) The SC colonies are small and domed, while the N colony is much larger.

Citation: Marrs C. 1994. Type 4 Pili in the Families and , p 127-143. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch9
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

(A) Diagram of the pilin gene inversion region in orientation 1, with in the expression locus. Parentheses represent the sites of inversion, and lines beneath the map show the direction of transcription (dashed lines indicate genes for which we have no evidence of transcription). (B) The same region in orientation 2, with in the expression locus.

Citation: Marrs C. 1994. Type 4 Pili in the Families and , p 127-143. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch9
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Figure 3

Comparison of the pilin gene inversion regions of and . The hatched region of represents the portion of the gene present in but absent from .

Citation: Marrs C. 1994. Type 4 Pili in the Families and , p 127-143. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch9
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

(A) Diagram of the arrangement of two pilin genes and a hemagglutinin gene from the type strain ATCC 23834. (B) Similar genes from 31745. The region past does not contain a gene equivalent to the hemagglutinin gene found in the type strain. The arrows below the genes show the directions of transcription.

Citation: Marrs C. 1994. Type 4 Pili in the Families and , p 127-143. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch9
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