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Chapter 1 : Global Burden of Tuberculosis

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews the current epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. Although the authors concentrate on the number of new cases of deaths from this disease, they also aim at presenting the exact numbers of new cases of TB and deaths from TB that occur each year. The ability of the tuberculin skin test to detect the presence of infection can be used to measure the prevalence of infection. The annual risk of infection is the probability that any individual will be infected with in 1 year. It is estimated that about 1,700 million people are infected with . Primary resistance is defined as the presence of drug resistance to at least one anti-TB drug in a TB patient who has never received prior treatment. Without recognition of the TB crisis confronting the world and prompt, effective action, the TB epidemic can be expected to worsen for several reasons. First, demographic forces are at work. Children born in past decades in regions with high population growth rates are now reaching the ages at which morbidity and mortality for TB are high. Second, famine, war, and natural disasters that create large populations of displaced, malnourished people in crowded living conditions may cause increases in TB case rates. Third, age-specific TB incidence rates can be expected to rise in those areas of the world where immunity of the population is seriously challenged by HIV infection.

Citation: Snider, Jr. D, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1994. Global Burden of Tuberculosis, p 3-11. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch1
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Estimated global distribution of adults who have been infected with HIV and TB, as of mid-1993. Source of data is WHO Tuberculosis Programme.

Citation: Snider, Jr. D, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1994. Global Burden of Tuberculosis, p 3-11. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch1
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Numbers of expected and observed cases of TB in the United States from 1980 through 1992. Table is from the CDC ( ).

Citation: Snider, Jr. D, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1994. Global Burden of Tuberculosis, p 3-11. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch1
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References

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1. Cauthen, G. M.,, and H. G. Ten Dam. 1988. Annual risk of tuberculosis infection. Geneva: W.H.O. /TB 88:154.
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18. World Health Organization. 1993. Global Programme on AIDS. The HIV/AIDS pandemic: 1993 overview. WHO/EP A/CNP/E VA/93.1.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Estimated annual risk of TB and trends in developing countries, 1985 to 1990

Citation: Snider, Jr. D, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1994. Global Burden of Tuberculosis, p 3-11. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Estimated global TB incidence and mortality in 1992

Citation: Snider, Jr. D, Raviglione M, Kochi A. 1994. Global Burden of Tuberculosis, p 3-11. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch1

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