Chapter 13 : Plasmids

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Plasmids, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap13-2.gif


This chapter reviews what is known concerning plasmids of the genus . It includes methods for plasmid isolation, analysis of plasmid distribution, and identification of plasmid-encoded genes. It also discusses the background for use of mycobacterial plasmids as vectors. There are several obstacles to isolation and characterization of mycobacterial plasmids. The first is the slow growth rate of most mycobacteria. Second, all mycobacterial cells are difficult to lyse, making efficient isolation of intact circular plasmid DNA difficult. Third, mycobacterial cell walls contain complex lipids and polysaccharides that can contaminate DNA preparations, rendering them unsuitable for molecular biologic techniques. The demonstration of related plasmids in different , , and strains suggests that mycobacterial plasmids are capable of horizontal transfer. The permeability barrier of mycobacteria that results in resistance to antibiotics, intracellular killing by macrophages, and environmental stresses is likely to limit the ability of DNA to traverse the cell wall and membrane. Introduction of kanamycin resistance or other antibiotic resistance genes into various mycobacterial plasmids and the use of electroporation to introduce the plasmids into other strains may allow analysis of plasmid functions.

Citation: Falkinham J, Crawford J. 1994. Plasmids, p 185-198. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch13
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Baulard, A.,, C. Jourdan,, A. Mercenier,, and C. Locht. 1992. Rapid mycobacterial plasmid analysis by elec-troduction between Mycobacterium spp. and Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:4105.
2. Birnboim, H. C.,, and J. Doly. 1979. A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 7:15131523.
3. Cirillo, J. D.,, T. R. Weisbrod,, and W. R. JacobsJr.. 1993. Efficient electro-transformation of M. smegmatis. BioRad Tech. Bull. 1360.
4. Cooksey, R. C.,, J. T. Crawford,, W. R. JacobsJr.,, and T. M. Shinnick. 1993. A rapid method for screening antimicrobial agents for activity against a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis expressing firefly luciferase. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:13481352.
5. Crawford, J. T.. Unpublished data.
6. Crawford, J. T.,, and J. H. Bates. 1979. Isolation of plasmids from mycobacteria. Infect. Immun. 24:979981.
7. Crawford, J. T.,, and J. H. Bates. 1984. Restriction endonuclease mapping and cloning of Mycobacterium intracellular plasmid pLR7. Gene 27:331333.
8. Crawford, J. T.,, and J. H. Bates. 1986. Analysis of plasmids in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare isolates from persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 134:659661.
9. Crawford, J. T.,, M. D. Cave,, and J. H. Bates. 1981a. Characterization of plasmids from strains of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Rev. Infect. Dis. 3:949951.
10. Crawford, J. T.,, M. D. Cave,, and J. H. Bates. 1981b. Evidence for plasmid-mediated restriction-modification in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. J. Gen. Microbiol. 127:333338.
11. Crawford, J. T.,, and J. O. Falkinham HI,. 1990. Plasmids of the Mycobacterium avium complex, p. 97119. In J. McFadden (ed.), Molecular Biology of the Mycobacteria. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, London.
12. David, M.,, S. Lubinsky-Mink,, A. Ben-Zvi,, S. Ulitzur,, J. Kuhn,, and M. Suissa. 1992. A stable E. coli-Mycobacterium smegmatis plasmid shuttle vector containing the mycobacteriophage D29 origin. Plasmid 28:267271.
13. Erardi, F. X.,, M. L. Failla,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1987. Plasmid-encoded copper resistance and precipitation by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:19511954.
14. Falkinham, J. O.III. Unpublished data.
15. Franzblau, S. G.,, T. Takeda,, and M. Nakamura. 1986. Mycobacterial plasmids: screening and possible relationship to antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare. Microbiol. Immunol. 30:903907.
16. Fry, K. L.,, P. S. Meissner,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1986. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. VI. Identification and use of epidemiologic markers for studies of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 134:3943.
17. Gangadharam, P. R. J.,, V. K. Perumal,, J. T. Crawford,, and J. H. Bates. 1988. Association of plasmids and virulence of Mycobacterium avium complex. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 137:212214.
18. Gheorghiu, M. 1990. The present and future role of BCG vaccine in tuberculosis control. Biologicals 18:135141.
19. Gicquel-Sanzey, B.,, J. Moniz-Pereira,, M. Gheorghiu,, and J. Rauzier. 1989. Structure of pALSOOO, a plasmid from M. fortuitum and its utilization in transformation of mycobacteria. Acta Leprol. 7(Suppl.1):208211.
20. Gilhot, C.,, B. Gicquel,, and C. Martin. 1992. Temperature-sensitive mutants of the Mycobacterium plasmid pAL5000. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 98:181186.
21. Gormley, E. P.,, and J. Davies. 1991. Transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by conjugation from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces lividans and Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Bacterial. 173:67056708.
22. Goto, Y.,, H. Taniguchi,, T. Udou,, Y. Mizuguchi,, and T. Tokunaga. 1991. Development of a new host vector system in mycobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 83:277282.
23. Hellyer, T. J.,, I. N. Brown,, J. W. Dale,, and C. S. F. Easmon. 1991. Plasmid analysis of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) isolated in the United Kingdom from patients with and without AIDS. J. Med. Microbiol. 34:225231.
24. Hermans, J.,, J. G. Boschloo,, and J. A. M. de Bont. 1990. Transformation of Mycobacterium aurum by electroporation: the use of glycine, lysozyme and isonicotinic acid hydrazide in enhancing transformation efficiency. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 72:221224.
25. Hermans, J.,, C. Martin,, G. N. M. Huijberts,, T. Goosen,, and J. A. M. de Bont. 1991. Transformation of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis with the broad host-range Gram-negative cosmid vector pJRD215. Mol. Microbiol. 5:15611566.
26. Hinshelwood, S.,, and N. G. Stoker. 1992. An Escherichia coli-Mycobacterium shuttle cosmid vector, pMSCl. Gene 110:115118.
27. Hull, S. I.,, R. J. Wallace,, D. G. Bolbey,, K. E. Price,, R. A. Goodhines,, J. M. Swenson,, and V. A. Silcox. 1984. Presence of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase and plasmid in Mycobacterium fortuitum, lack of correlation with intrinsic aminoglycoside resistance. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 129:614618.
28. Humphreys, G. O.,, G. A. Willshaw, and £. S. Anderson. 1975. A simple method for the preparation of large quantities of pure plasmid DNA. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 383:457463.
29. Jacobs, W. R.Jr.,, G. V. Kalpana,, J. D. Cirillo,, L. Pascopella,, S. B. Snapper,, R. A. Udani,, W. Jones,, R. G. Barletta,, and B. R. Bloom. 1991. Genetic systems for mycobacteria. Methods Enzymol. 204:537555.
30. Jacobs, W. R.Jr.,, S. B. Snapper,, L. Lugosi,, A. Jekkel,, R. E. Melton,, T. Kieser,, and B. R. Bloom. 1989. Development of genetic systems for the mycobacteria. Acta Leprol. 7(Suppl. l):203207.
31. Jacobs, W. R.Jr.,, M. Tuckman,, and B. R. Bloom. 1987. Introduction of foreign DNA into mycobacteria using a shuttle plasmid. Nature (London) 327: 532535.
32. Jensen, A. G-, J. Brennedsen, and W. T. Rosdahl. 1989. Plasmid profiles of Mycobacterium avium/ intracellular isolated from patients with AIDS or cervical lymphadenitis and from environmental samples. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 21:645649.
33. Jucker, M. T. 1991. Ph.D. dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
34. Jucker, M. T.,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1990. Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria. IX. Evidence for two DNA homology groups among small plasmids in M. avium, M. intracellular, and M. scrofulaceum. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 142:858862.
35. Kado, C. I.,, and S. T. Liu. 1981. Rapid procedure for detection and isolation of large and small plasmids. J. Bacterial. 145:13651373.
36. Konicek, J.,, M. Konickova-Radochova,, and M. Slosarek. 1991. Gene manipulation in mycobacteria. Folia Microbiol. 36:411422.
37. Kunze, Z. M.,, and J. J. McFadden. Personal communication.
38. Labidi, A.,, C. Dauget,, K. S. Goh,, and H. L. David. 1984. Plasmid profiles of Mycobacterium fortuitum complex isolates. Curr. Microbiol. 11:235240.
39. Labidi, A.,, H. L. David,, and D. Roulland-Dussoix. 1985a. Restriction endonuclease mapping and cloning of Mycobacterium fortuitum vat fortuitum plasmid pAL5000. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. 136B:209215.
40. Labidi, A.,, H. L. David,, and D. Roulland-Dussoix. 1985b. Cloning and expression of mycobacterial plasmid DNA in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 30:221225.
41. Labidi, A.,, E. Mardis,, B. A. Roe,, and R. J. WallaceJr.. 1992. Cloning and DNA sequence of the Mycobacterium fortuitum var. fortuitum plasmid pAL5000. Plasmid 27:130140.
42. Lazraq, R.,, S. Clavel-Seres,, H. L. David,, and D. Roulland-Dussoix. 1990. Conjugative transfer of a shuttle plasmid from Escherichia coli to Mycobacterium smegmatis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 69:135138.
43. Lazraq, R.,, M. Houssaini-Iraqui,, S. Clavel-Seres,, and H. L. David. 1991. Cloning and expression of the origin or replication of mycobacteriophage D29 in Mycobacterium smegmatis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 80:117120.
44. Lee, M. H.,, L. Pascopella,, W. R. JacobsJr.,, and G. F. Hatfull. 1991. Site-specific integration of mycobacteriophage L5: integration-proficient vectors for Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and badile Calmette-Guérin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:31113115.
45. Maniatis, T.,, E. F. Fritsch,, and J. Sambrook. 1982. Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.
46. Masaki, S.,, T. Konishi,, G. Sugimori,, A. Okamoto,, Y. Hayashi,, and F. Kuze. 1989. Plasmid profiles of Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from swine. Microbiol Immunol. 33:429433.
47. Meissner, P. S.,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1984. Plasmid-encoded mercuric reductase in Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. J. Bacterio!. 157:669672.
48. Meissner, P. S.,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1986. Plasmid DNA profiles as epidemiological markers for clinical and environmental isolates of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum. J. Infect. Dis. 153:325331.
49. Mizuguchi, Y.,, and T. Tokunaga. 1970. Method for isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 104:10201021.
50. Pethal, M. L.,, and J. O. Falkinham III. 1989. Plasmid-influenced changes in Mycobacterium avium catalase activity. Infect. Immun. 57:17141718.
51. Radford, A. J.,, and A. L. M. Hodgson. 1991. Construction and characterization of a Mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector. Plasmid 25:149153.
52. Ranes, M. G.,, J. Rauzier,, M. LaGranderie,, M. Gheorghiu,, and B. Gicquel. 1990. Functional analysis of pAL5000, a plasmid from Mycobacterium fortuitum: construction of a "mini" mycobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector. J. Bacterial. 172:27932797.
53. Rastogi, N.,, and H. L. David. 1981. Ultrastructural and chemical studies on wall-deficient forms, sphero-plasts and membrane vesicles from Mycobacterium aurum. J. Gen. Microbiol. 124:7179.
54. Rauzier, J.,, J. Moniz-Pereira,, and B. Gicquel-Sanzey. 1988. Complete nucleotide sequence of pAL5000, a plasmid from Mycobacterium fortuitum. Gene 71:315321.
55. Snapper, S. B.,, L. Lugosi,, A. Jekkel,, R. E. Melton,, T. Kieser,, B. R. Bloom,, and W. R. JacobsJr.. 1988. Lysogeny and transformation in mycobacteria: stable expression of foreign genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:69876991.
56. Snapper, S. B.,, R. E. Melton,, S. Mustafa,, T. Kieser,, and W. R. JacobsJr.. 1990. Isolation and characterization of efficient plasmid transformation mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Mol. Microbiol. 4:19111919.
57. Stover, C. K.,, V. F. de la Cruz,, T. R. Fuerst,, J. E. Burlein,, L. A. Benson,, L. T. Bennett,, G. P. Bansal,, J. F. Young,, M. H. Lee,, G. F. Hatfull,, S. B. Snapper,, R. G. Barletta,, W. R. JacobsJr.,, and B. R. Bloom. 1991. New use of BCG for recombinant vaccines. Nature (London) 351:456460.
58. Villar, C. A.,, and J. Benitez. 1992. Functional analysis of pAL5000 plasmid in Mycobacterium fortuitum. Plasmid 28:166169.
59. Zainuddin, Z. F.,, and J. W. Dale. 1990. Does Mycobacterium tuberculosis have plasmids? Tubercle 71(l):4349.
60. Zainuddin, Z. F.,, Z. M. Kunze,, and J. W. Dale. 1989. Transformation of Mycobacterium smegmatis with E. coli plasmids carrying a selectable resistance marker. Mol. Microbiol. 3:2934.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error