1887

Chapter 22 : Membrane Permeability and Transport in

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Membrane Permeability and Transport in , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap22-2.gif

Abstract:

As in other mycobacterial species, cells of are covered by a lipid-rich cell wall. What is most striking in the cell wall is the presence of a large amount of mycolic acids, most of which are covalently linked to the underlying arabinogalactan, which in turn is covalently linked to the peptidoglycan. There are significant differences in drug susceptibility among mycobacteria, and some mycobacterial species other than are more resistant to some of the traditional antimycobacterial agents. By using the Zimmermann-Rosselet procedure, the permeability of cell wall to small nutrient molecules was estimated. It was assumed that the nutrients cross the cell wall by a simple diffusion process and then are taken up by the active transport systems located in the cytoplasmic membrane. The mechanisms of inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion are found in organisms that use phosphotransferase system (PTS) transport and demonstrate an ordered hierarchy of carbon source utilization, usually headed by glucose. It is possible to measure the relative contributions of the proton and electrochemical gradients to the activated membrane state.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Modified Minnikin model of the mycobacterial cell wall.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Flexibility of linkages between sugars, with galactosyl-galactose linkages shown as examples. In all formulae, bonds separating the two sugar rings are shown as thick lines. (A) The glycosidic linkage in α-galactopyranosyl-(l-3)-galactopyranose allows only very limited flexibility because of steric hindrance between the rigid, large pyranose rings. (B) The linkage in α-galactopyranosyl-(l-6)-galactopyranose has more flexibility because the two pyranose rings are one bond length farther away from each other. (C) Flexibility is maximized in α-galactofuranosyl-(l-6)-galactofuranose because separation between the sugar rings has been increased by one more bond length. The galactose residues in the main chain of mycobacterial arabinogalactan are connected in this manner ( ).

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Comparison of bilayer leaflets composed of various lipids. (A) Glycerophospholipid leaflets allow easy entry of lipophilic solutes from the medium because transient lacunae can be created readily by lipid molecules moving away from each other (arrows on top) and by hydrocarbon chains bending in a fluid environment (arrows at bottom). (B) Creation of such lacunae becomes more difficult in LPS leaflet, because neighboring LPS molecules interact more strongly with each other and because there is less bending of the hydrocarbon chains, as these chains are saturated and therefore produce a tightly packed, nearly crystalline domain. (C) In a leaflet composed of arabinogalactan mycolate, the principles seen with the LPS leaflet have been pushed to their extreme, and it becomes extremely difficult for any solute to gain entry into the hydrocarbon domain in this structure.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Insertion of "single channels" of 59-kDa protein into a black lipid film. From Trias et al. ( ) with permission.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Measurement of cell wall permeability by the Zimmermann-Rosselet method. The net entry rate of cephalosporins across cell wall (V1) is defined by Fick's first law of diffusion and is equal to the product of permeability coefficient (P), area of the cell surface per unit weight of cells (A), and the difference between outside (Co) and inside (Ci) concentrations of the drug. The rate of hydrolysis of the cephalosporin in the space between the cell wall and cell membrane ("periplasm" in gram-negative bacteria) (V2) is determined by the kinetic constants, Vmax and of the β-lactamase as well as by the concentration of the cephalosporin in this space (Ci). Since at steady state V1 = V2, these equations can be combined and solved to determine the value of

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Permeability of cell wall in comparison to that of and outer membranes. Modified from ).

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Efficacy of various tetracycline derivatives in and Hydrophobicity values are the logarithms of the apparent octanol-water coefficients. data are from Blackwood and English ( ). data points show MICs for 30% of strains as determined with 59 strains ( ); this unusual choice of endpoint was dictated by the fact that the collection included many strains that were very highly resistant. The original publication gives the actual population distribution, and it is clearly seen that minocycline is more effective than doxycycline, which in turn is much more effective than tetracycline. The three drugs used with represented by triangles from left to right, are tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Lipophilicity and efficacy of fluoroquinolones. Hydrophobicity values are the logarithms of apparent octanol-water coefficients determined at pH 7.4 by Furet et al. ( ). Thus, WIN57273 partitions into the organic phase more than 100-fold better than norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Efficacies against are the extent of growth inhibition at 1.25 µg/ml determined by Franzblau and White ( ) using the BACTEC 460 system.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818357.chap22
1. Asano, A.,, N. S. Cohen,, R. F. Baker,, and A. F. Brodie. 1973. Orientation of the cell membrane in ghosts and electron transport particles of Mycobacterium phlei. J. Biol. Chem. 248: 3386 3397.
2. Barclay, R.,, and C. Ratledge. 1988. Mycobactins and exochelins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bo-vis, M. africanum, and other related species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 771 776.
3. Barrow, W. W.,, E. L. Wright,, K. S. Goh,, and N. Rastogi. 1993. Activities of fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and aminoglycoside drugs combined with inhibitors of glycosylation and fatty acid and peptide biosynthesis against Mycobacterium avium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 652 661.
4. Bavoil, P.,, H. Nikaido,, and K. von Meyenburg. 1977. Pleiotropic transport mutants of Escherichia coli lack porin, a major outer membrane protein. Mol. Gen. Genet. 158: 23 33.
5. Berger, E. D.,, and L. A. Heppel. 1975. Different mechanisms of energy coupling for the shock-sensitive and shock-resistant amino acid permeases of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7747 7755.
6. Bisson, L. F.,, and D. G. Fraenkel. 1983. Transport of 6-deoxyglucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 155: 995 1000.
7. Blackwood, R. K.,, and A. R. English. 1970. Structure-activity relationships in the tetracycline series. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 13: 237 266.
8. Brown, K. A.,, and C. Ratledge. 1975. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: ferimycobactin reductase [NAD(P)H: ferimycobactin oxidoreductase], the enzyme releasing iron from its carrier. FEBS Lett. 53: 262 266.
9. Casal, M. J.,, F. C. Rodriguez,, M. D. Luna,, and M. C. Benavente. 1987. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31: 132 133.
10. Collins, C. H.,, and H. C. Hutley. 1988. In-vitro activity of seventeen antimicrobial compounds against seven species of mycobacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 22: 857 861.
11. Cowan, S. W.,, T. Schirmer,, G. Rummel,, M. Steiert,, R. Ghosh,, R. A. Pauptit,, J. N. Jansonius,, and J. P. Rosenbusch. 1992. Crystal structure explains functional properties of two E. coli porins. Nature (London) 358: 727 733.
12. Daffe, M.,, P. J. Brennan,, and M. McNeil. 1990. Predominant structural features of the cell wall arabinogalactan of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as revealed through characterization of oligoglycosyl alditol fragments by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by 'H and 13C NMR analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 6734 6743.
13. David, H. L.,, and N. Rastogi. 1985. Antibacterial action of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mycobacterium aurum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 701 707.
14. De Reuse, H.,, A. Kolb,, and A. Danchin. 1992. Positive regulation of the expression of the Escherichia coli pts operon. J. Mol. Biol. 226: 623 635.
15. Dhariwal, K. R.,, A. Chander,, and T. A. Venkitasubramanian. 1976. Alterations in lipid constituents during growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis CDC 46 and Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 354. Microbios 16: 169 182.
16. Edson, N. L. 1951. The intermediary metabolism of the mycobacterium. Bacteriol. Rev. 15: 147 182.
17. Ellard, G. A.,, and P. H. Clarke. 1959. Acetate and fumarate permeases of Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 21: 338 343.
18. Fernandes, P. B.,, D. J. Hardy,, D. McDaniel,, C. W. Hanson,, and R. N. Swanson. 1989. In vitro and in vivo activities of clarithromycin against Mycobacterium avium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 1531 1534.
19. Franzblau, S. G. 1989. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium leprae in the BACTEC 460 system. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 2115 2117.
20. Franzblau, S. G.,, and R. C. Hastings. 1988. In vitro and in vivo activities of macrolides against Mycobacterium leprae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32: 1758 1762.
21. Franzblau, S.,, and K. E. White. 1990. Comparative in vitro activities of 20 fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium leprae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 229 231.
22. Furet, Y. X.,, J. Deshuisses,, and J.-C. Pechere. 1992. Transport of pefloxacin across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane in quinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. A ntimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2506 2511.
23. Gelber, R. H. 1987. Activity of minocycline in Mycobacterium leprae-mfecled mice. J. Infect. Dis. 156: 236 239.
24. Gelber, R. H.,, A. Iranmanesh,, L. Murray,, P. Siu,, and M. Tsang. 1992. Activities of various quinolone antibiotics against Mycobacterium leprae in infected mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2544 2547.
25. Gilson, E.,, G. Alloing,, T. Schmidt,, J.-P. Claverys,, R. Dudler,, and M. Hofnung. 1988. Evidence for high-affinity binding protein-dependent transport systems in Gram-positive bacteria and in mycoplasma. EMBO J. 7: 3971 3974.
26. Gorzynski, E. A.,, S. I. Gutman,, and W. Allen. 1989. Comparative antimycobacterial activities of difloxacin, temafloxacin, enoxacin, pefloxacin, reference fluoroquinolones, and a new macrolide, clarithromycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 591 592.
27. Haemers, A.,, D. C. Leysen,, W. Bollaert,, M. Zhang,, and S. R. Pattyn. 1990. Influence of N substitution on antimycobacterial activity of ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 496 497.
28. Hall, R. M.,, M. Sritharan,, A. J. M. Messenger,, and C. Ratledge. 1987. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: occurrence of iron-regulated envelope proteins as potential receptors for iron uptake. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133: 2107 2114.
29. Hancock, R. E. W. 1984. Alterations in outer membrane permeability. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 38: 237 264.
30. Heifets, L. B.,, P. J. Lindholm-Levy,, and M. A. Flory. 1990. Bactericidal activity in vitro of various rifamycins against Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 141: 626 630.
31. Higgins, C. F. 1992. ABC transporters: from microorganisms to man. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8: 67 113.
32. Higgins, C. F.,, S. C. Hyde,, M. M. Mimmack,, U. Gileadi,, D. R. GiU,, and M. P. Gallagher. 1990. Binding protein-dependent transport systems. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 22: 571 592.
33. Hirata, H.,, and A. F. Brodie. 1972. Membrane orientation and active transport of proline. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 47: 633 638.
34. Hirata, H.,, F. C. Kosmakos,, and A. F. Brodie. 1974. Active transport of proline in membrane preparations from Mycobacterium phlei. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 6965 6970.
35. Horowitz, M. Personal communication.
36. Israeli, E.,, V. K. Kalra,, and A. F. Brodie. 1977. Different binding sites for entry and exit of amino acids in whole cells of Mycobacterium phlei. J. Bacteriol. 130: 729 735.
37. Jarlier, V.,, L. Gutmann,, and H. Nikaido. 1991. Interplay of cell wall barrier and ^-lactamase activity determines high resistance to p-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium chelonae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1937 1939.
38. Jarlier, V.,, and H. Nikaido. 1990. Permeability barrier to hydrophilic solutes in Mycobacterium chelonae. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1418 1423.
39. Jayanthi Bai, N.,, M. Ramachandra Pai,, P. Suriyanarayana Murthy,, and T. A. Venkitasubramanian. 1978. Uptake and transport of hexoses in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Indian J . Biochem. Biophys. 15: 369 372.
40. Kumar, G.,, R. Deves,, and A. F. Brodie. 1979. Active transport of calcium in membrane vesicles from Mycobacterium phlei. Eur. J. Biochem. 100: 365 375.
41. Lee, S.-H.,, and A. F. Brodie. 1978. A model proteoliposomal system for proline transport using a purified proline carrier protein from Mycobacterium phlei. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85: 788 794.
42. Lee, S.-H.,, N. S. Cohen,, A. J. Jacobs,, and A. F. Brodie. 1979. Isolation, purification, and reconstitution of a proline carrier protein from Mycobacterium phlei. Biochemistry 18: 2232 2238.
43. Lee, S.-H.,, V. K. Kalra,, and A. F. Brodie. 1979. Resolution and reconstitution of active transport of calcium by a protein(s) from Mycobacterium phlei. J. Biol. Chem. 254: 6861 6864.
44. Lin, E. C. C. 1976. Glycerol dissimilation and its regulation in bacteria. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 30: 535 578.
45. Lyon, R. H.,, W. H. Hall,, and C. Costas-Martinez. 1970. Utilization of amino acids during growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rotary cultures. Infeet. Immun. 1: 513 520.
46. Macham, L. P.,, C. Ratledge,, and J. C. Norton. 1975. Extracellular iron acquisition by mycobacteria: role of the exochelins and evidence against the participation of mycobactin. Infect. Immun. 12: 1242 1251.
47. McNeil, M.,, M. Daffe,, and P. J. Brennan. 1991. Location of the mycolyl ester substituents in the cell walls of mycobacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 13217 13223.
48. Meadow, N. D.,, D. K. Fox,, and S. Roseman. 1990. The bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59: 497 542.
49. Minnikin, D. E., 1982. Lipids: complex lipids, their chemistry, biosynthesis and roles, , p. 95 184. In C. Ratledge, and J. Stanford (ed.), The Biology of the Mycobacteria, vol. 1. Academic Press, London.
50. Mizuguchi, Y.,, M. Ogawa,, and T. Udou. 1985. Morphological changes induced by β-lactam antibiotics in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 541 547.
51. Naik, S.,, and R. Ruck. 1989. In vitro activities of several new macrolide antibiotics against Mycobacterium avium complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 1614 1616.
52. Nikaido, H., 1990. Permeability of the lipid domains of bacterial membranes, p. 165 190. In R. C. Aloia,, C. C. Curtain,, and L. M. Gordon (ed.), Advances in Membrane Fluidity, vol. 4. Membrane Transport and Information Storage. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.
53. Nikaido, H. 1992. Porins and specific channels of bacterial outer membranes. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 435 442.
54. Nikaido, H.,, and V. Jarlier. 1991. Permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall. Res. Microbiol. 142: 437 443.
55. Nikaido, H.,, S.-H. Kim,, and E. Y. Rosenberg. 1993. Physical organization of lipids in the cell wall of Mycobacterium chelonae. Mol. Microbiol. 8: 1025 1030.
56. Nikaido, H.,, and S. Normark. 1987. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to various β-lactams is determined by the interplay of outer membrane permeability and degradation by periplasmic β-Iactamases: a quantitative predictive treatment. Mol. Microbiol. 1: 29 36.
57. Nikaido, H.,, and E. Y. Rosenberg. 1983. Porin channels in Escherichia coli: studies with liposomes reconstituted from purified proteins. J. Bacteriol. 153: 241 252.
58. Nikaido, H.,, and D. G. Thanassi. 1993. Penetration of lipophilic agents of multiple protonation sites into bacterial cells: tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones as examples. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1393 1399.
59. Nikaido, H.,, and M. Vaara. 1985. Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability. Microbiol. Rev. 49: 1 32.
60. Pao, G. M.,, L.-F. Wu,, K. D. Johnson,, H. Hofte,, M. J. Chrispeels,, G. Sweet,, N. N. Sandal,, and M. H. Saier, Jr. 1991. Evolution of the MIP family of integral membrane transport proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 33 37.
61. Perego, M.,, C. F. Higgins,, S. R. Pearce,, M. P. Gallagher,, and J. A. Hoch. 1991. The oligopeptide transport system of Bacillus subtilis plays a role in the initiation of sporulation. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 173 185.
62. Plesiat, P.,, and H. Nikaido. 1992. Outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria are permeable to steroid probes. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 1323 1333.
63. Prasad, R.,, V. K. Kalra,, and A. F. Brodie. 1976. Different mechanisms of energy coupling for transport of various amino acids in cells of Mycobacterium phlei. J. Biol. Chem. 251: 2493 2498.
64. Ramasesh, N.,, J. L. Krahenbuhl,, and R. C. Hastings. 1989. In vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on Mycobacterium leprae in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 657 662.
65. Rastogi, N.,, K. S. Goh,, and H. L. David. 1990. Enhancement of drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium by inhibitors of cell envelope synthesis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 759 764.
66. Rastogi, N.,, K. S. Goh,, and V. Labrousse. 1992. Activity of clarithromycin compared with those of other drugs against Mycobacterium paraluberculosis and further enhancement of its extracellular and intracellular activities by ethambutol. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2843 2846.
67. Rastogi, N.,, B. Moreau,, M.-L. Capmau,, K.-S. Goh,, and H. L. David. 1988. Antibacterial action of amphipathic derivatives of isoniazid against the Mycobacterium avium complex. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. A 268: 456 462.
68. Ratledge, C., 1982. Nutrition, growth and metabolism, p. 186 212. In C. Ratledge, and J. Stanford (ed.), The Biology of the Mycobacteria, vol. 1. Academic Press, London.
69. Ratledge, C.,, and B. J. Marshall. 1972. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: the role of mycobactin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 279: 58 74.
70. Richey, D. P.,, and E. C. C. Lin. 1972. Importance of facilitated diffusion for effective utilization of glycerol by Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 112: 784 790.
71. Romano, A. H. 1986. Microbial sugar transport systems and their importance in biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. 4: 207 213.
72. Romano, A. H.,, S. J. Eberhard,, S. L. Dingle,, and T. D. McDowell. 1970. The distribution of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase in bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 104: 808 813.
73. Rosenberg, E. Y.,, and H. Nikaido. Unpublished data.
74. Saier, M. H., Jr. 1985. Mechanisms and Regulation of Carbohydrate Transport in Bacteria. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
75. Snow, G. A. 1970. Mycobactins: iron-chelating growth factors from mycobacteria. Bacteriol. Rev. 34: 99 125.
76. Stahl, D. A.,, and J. W. Urbance. 1990. The division between fast- and slow-growing species corresponds to natural relationships among the mycobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 172: 116 124.
77. Stein, W. D. 1967. The Movement of Molecules across Cell Membranes. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
78. Stephenson, M. ., , and C. Ratledge. 1979. Iron transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis: uptake of iron from ferriexochelin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 110: 193 202.
79. Stephenson, M. C, and C. Ratledge. 1980. Specificity of exochelins for iron transport in three species of mycobacteria. J. Gen. Microbiol. 116: 521 523.
80. Stock, J. B.,, A. J. Ninfa,, and A. M. Stock. 1989. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 53: 450 490.
81. Sweet, G.,, C. Gandor,, R. Voegele,, N. Wittekindt,, J. Beuerle,, V. Truniger,, E. C. C. Lin,, and W. Boos. 1990. Glycerol facilitator of Escherichia coli: cloning of glpF and identification of the glpF product. J. Bacteriol. 172: 424 430.
82. Tarn, R.,, and M. H. Saier, Jr. 1993. Structural, functional and evolutionary relationship among extracellular solute-binding receptors in bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 57: 320 246.
83. Tomioka, H.,, H. Saito,, K. Fujii,, K. Sato,, and T. Hidaka. 1993. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoxazinorifamycin, KRM-1648, against Mycobacterium avium complex, determined by the radiometric method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 67 70.
84. Trias, J.,, and R. Benz. 1993. Characterization of the channel formed by the mycobacterial porin in lipid bilayer membranes. Demonstration of voltage gating and of negative point charges at the channel mouth. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 6234 6240.
85. Trias, J.,, and R. Benz. Permeability of the cell wall of Mycobacterium smegmatis . Mol. Microbiol., in press.
86. Trias, J.,, V. Jarlier,, and R. Benz. 1992. Porins in the cell wall of mycobacteria. Science 258: 1479 1481.
87. Truniger, V.,, W. Boos,, and G. Sweet. 1992. Molecular analysis of the glpFKX regions of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6981 6991.
88. Tuckman, D.,, and N. Connell. Unpublished data.
89. Voegele, R. T.,, G. D. Sweet,, and W. Boos. 1993. Glycerol kinase of Escherichia coli is activated by interaction with the glycerol facilitator. J. Bacteriol. 175: 1087 1094.
90. Wallace, R. J., Jr.,, J. R. Dalovisio,, and G. A. Pankey. 1979. Disk diffusion testing of susceptibility of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonei to antibacterial agents. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 16: 611 614.
91. Weston, L. A.,, and R. J. Kadner. 1988. Role of uhp genes in expression of the Escherichia coli sugar-phosphate transport system. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3375 3383.
92. Yabu, K. 1967. The uptake of D-glutamic acid by Mycobacterium avium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 135: 181 183.
93. Yabu, K. 1970. Amino acid transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Bacteriol. 102: 6 13.
94. Yabu, K. 1971. Aspartic acid transport in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Jpn. J. Microbiol. 15: 449 455.
95. Yang, Y. L.,, D. Goldrick,, and J. S. Hong. 1988. Identification of the products and nucleotide sequences of two regulatory genes involved in the exogenous induction of phosphoglycerate transport in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 170: 4299 4303.
96. Young, D. B.,, S. H. E. Kaufman,, P. W. M. Hermans,, and J. E. R. Thole. 1992. Mycobacterial protein antigens: a compilation. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 133 145.
97. Zimmermann, W.,, and A. Rosselet. 1977. The function of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli as a permeability barrier to B-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 12: 368 372.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Estimated permeability coefficients of mycobacterial cell wall to nutrients

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error