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Chapter 22 : Membrane Permeability and Transport in

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Abstract:

As in other mycobacterial species, cells of are covered by a lipid-rich cell wall. What is most striking in the cell wall is the presence of a large amount of mycolic acids, most of which are covalently linked to the underlying arabinogalactan, which in turn is covalently linked to the peptidoglycan. There are significant differences in drug susceptibility among mycobacteria, and some mycobacterial species other than are more resistant to some of the traditional antimycobacterial agents. By using the Zimmermann-Rosselet procedure, the permeability of cell wall to small nutrient molecules was estimated. It was assumed that the nutrients cross the cell wall by a simple diffusion process and then are taken up by the active transport systems located in the cytoplasmic membrane. The mechanisms of inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion are found in organisms that use phosphotransferase system (PTS) transport and demonstrate an ordered hierarchy of carbon source utilization, usually headed by glucose. It is possible to measure the relative contributions of the proton and electrochemical gradients to the activated membrane state.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 1

Modified Minnikin model of the mycobacterial cell wall.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 2

Flexibility of linkages between sugars, with galactosyl-galactose linkages shown as examples. In all formulae, bonds separating the two sugar rings are shown as thick lines. (A) The glycosidic linkage in α-galactopyranosyl-(l-3)-galactopyranose allows only very limited flexibility because of steric hindrance between the rigid, large pyranose rings. (B) The linkage in α-galactopyranosyl-(l-6)-galactopyranose has more flexibility because the two pyranose rings are one bond length farther away from each other. (C) Flexibility is maximized in α-galactofuranosyl-(l-6)-galactofuranose because separation between the sugar rings has been increased by one more bond length. The galactose residues in the main chain of mycobacterial arabinogalactan are connected in this manner ( ).

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 3

Comparison of bilayer leaflets composed of various lipids. (A) Glycerophospholipid leaflets allow easy entry of lipophilic solutes from the medium because transient lacunae can be created readily by lipid molecules moving away from each other (arrows on top) and by hydrocarbon chains bending in a fluid environment (arrows at bottom). (B) Creation of such lacunae becomes more difficult in LPS leaflet, because neighboring LPS molecules interact more strongly with each other and because there is less bending of the hydrocarbon chains, as these chains are saturated and therefore produce a tightly packed, nearly crystalline domain. (C) In a leaflet composed of arabinogalactan mycolate, the principles seen with the LPS leaflet have been pushed to their extreme, and it becomes extremely difficult for any solute to gain entry into the hydrocarbon domain in this structure.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 4

Insertion of "single channels" of 59-kDa protein into a black lipid film. From Trias et al. ( ) with permission.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 5

Measurement of cell wall permeability by the Zimmermann-Rosselet method. The net entry rate of cephalosporins across cell wall (V1) is defined by Fick's first law of diffusion and is equal to the product of permeability coefficient (P), area of the cell surface per unit weight of cells (A), and the difference between outside (Co) and inside (Ci) concentrations of the drug. The rate of hydrolysis of the cephalosporin in the space between the cell wall and cell membrane ("periplasm" in gram-negative bacteria) (V2) is determined by the kinetic constants, Vmax and of the β-lactamase as well as by the concentration of the cephalosporin in this space (Ci). Since at steady state V1 = V2, these equations can be combined and solved to determine the value of

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 6

Permeability of cell wall in comparison to that of and outer membranes. Modified from ).

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 7

Efficacy of various tetracycline derivatives in and Hydrophobicity values are the logarithms of the apparent octanol-water coefficients. data are from Blackwood and English ( ). data points show MICs for 30% of strains as determined with 59 strains ( ); this unusual choice of endpoint was dictated by the fact that the collection included many strains that were very highly resistant. The original publication gives the actual population distribution, and it is clearly seen that minocycline is more effective than doxycycline, which in turn is much more effective than tetracycline. The three drugs used with represented by triangles from left to right, are tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Figure 8

Lipophilicity and efficacy of fluoroquinolones. Hydrophobicity values are the logarithms of apparent octanol-water coefficients determined at pH 7.4 by Furet et al. ( ). Thus, WIN57273 partitions into the organic phase more than 100-fold better than norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin. Efficacies against are the extent of growth inhibition at 1.25 µg/ml determined by Franzblau and White ( ) using the BACTEC 460 system.

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Estimated permeability coefficients of mycobacterial cell wall to nutrients

Citation: Connell N, Nikaido H. 1994. Membrane Permeability and Transport in , p 333-352. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch22

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