1887

Chapter 28 : Mechanisms of Pathogenesis in Tuberculosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mechanisms of Pathogenesis in Tuberculosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap28-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818357/9781555819101_Chap28-2.gif

Abstract:

In the 1890s, Robert Koch observed that a primary infection of guinea pigs with in the skin produced a nonhealing lesion and that reinoculation of the animals after several weeks produced only a firm, red nodule that necrosed and finally healed. These observations first suggested the existence of immunity to tuberculosis infection. While T-cell-derived lymphokines and the activated macrophage represent a necessary condition for protection, it is certainly not the whole story even in the mouse. A large proportion of human peripheral blood γδ T cells, even from PPD-negative donors, will proliferate in response to mycobacteria. Recent experiments involving infection of transgenic mice are providing new and interesting information on the role of some lymphokines and cytokines. In many chronic infections or inflammatory diseases, there is a permanent or transient switch from a Th1 pattern of response to Th2. Such a switch appears to occur, for example, in schistosomiasis and syphilis patients. The tissue-damaging responses are evoked by tuberculin, which is a very crude culture supernatant from old autolysing bacterial cultures precipitated by trichloroacetic acid or ammonium sulfate. Such supernatants contain fragments of essentially all the antigens of . The known capacity of mycobacterium containing adjuvants (Freund's complete adjuvant) to facilitate experimental induction of autoimmunity and evidence that mycobacterial disease can be accompanied by a sterile arthropathy have reawakened speculation that some autoimmune syndromes may be cryptic infections or may be triggered by past encounters with mycobacterium-like organisms.

Citation: Rook G, Bloom B. 1994. Mechanisms of Pathogenesis in Tuberculosis, p 485-502. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch28
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818357.chap28
1. Ainslie, G. M.,, J. A. Solomon,, and E. D. Bateman. 1992. Lymphocyte and lymphocyte subset numbers in blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage and pleura) fluid in various forms of human pulmonary tuberculosis at presentation and during recovery. Thorax 47: 513 518.
2. Al Attiyah, R.,, C. Moreno,, and G. A. W. Rook. 1992. TNF-alpha-mediated tissue damage in mouse footpads primed with mycobacterial preparations. Res. Immunol. 143: 601 610.
3. Anderson, M. C. 1891. On Koch's treatment. Lancet i: 651 652.
4. Armstrong, J. A.,, and P. D. Hart. 1975. Phagosome-lysosome interactions in cultured macrophages infected with virulent tubercle bacilli: reversal of the usual nonfusion pattern and observations on bacterial survival. J. Exp. Med. 142: 1 16.
5. Barnes, D. J.,, S. Naraqi,, P. Temu,, and J. R. Turtle. 1989a. Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Thorax 44: 422 424.
6. Barnes, P. F.,, J. S. Abrams,, S. Lu,, P. A. Sieling,, T. H. Rea,, and R. L. Modlin. 1993. Patterns of cytokine production by mycobacterium-reactive human T cell clones. Infect. Immun. 61: 197 203.
7. Barnes, P. F.,, S.-J. Fong,, P. J. Brennan,, P. E. Twomey,, A. Mazumder,, and R. L. Modlin. 1990. Local production of tumor necrosis factor and IFN-gamma in tuberculous pleuritis. J. Immunol. 145: 149 154.
8. Barnes, P. F.,, C. L. Grisso,, J. S. Abrams,, H. Band,, T. H. Rea,, and R. L. Modlin. 1992. Gamma delta T lymphocytes in human tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 506 512.
9. Barnes, P. F.,, S. D. Mistry,, C. L. Cooper,, C. Pirmez,, T. H. Rea,, and R. L. Modlin. 1989b. Compartmen-talization of a CD4+ T lymphocyte subpopulation in tuberculous pleuritis. J. Immunol. 142: 1114 1119.
10. Blauer, K. L.,, M. Poth,, W. M. Rogers,, and E. W. Bern ton. 1991. Dehydroepiandrosterone antagonises the suppressive effects of dexamethasone on lymphocyte proliferation. Endocrinology 129: 3174 3179.
11. Bloom, B. R.,, R. L. Modlin,, and P. Sálgame. 1992. Stigma variations: observations on suppressor T cells and leprosy. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10: 453 488.
12. Bocart, D.,, D. Lecossier,, A. de Lassence,, D. Valeyre,, J.-P. Battesti,, and A. Hance. 1992. A search for mycobacterial DNA in granulomatous tissues from patients with sarcoidosis using the polymerase chain reaction. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145: 1142 1148.
13. Bordet, P. 1931. Contribution à l'étude de l'allergie. C.R. Soc. Biol. 107: 622 623.
14. Cadranel, J.,, M. Garabedian,, B. Milleron,, H. Guillozo,, G. Akoun,, and A. J. Hance. 1990. l,25(OH)2 D3 production by T lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages recovered by lavage from normocalcaemic patients with tuberculosis. J. Clin. Invest. 85: 1588 1593.
15. Carswell,. A.,, L. J. Old,, R. L. Kassei,, S. Green,, W. Fiore,, and B. Williamson. 1975. An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumours. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 3666 3670.
16. Chan, J.,, Y. Xing,, R. S. Magliozzo,, and B. R. Bloom. 1992. Killing of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis by reactive nitrogen intermediates produced by activated murine macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 175: 1111 1122.
17. Cohen, I. R.,, and D. B. Young. 1991. Autoimmunity, microbial immunity and the immunological homunculus. Immunol. Today 12: 105 110.
18. Cooper, A. M.,, D. K. Dalton,, T. A. Stewart,, J. P. Griffin,, D. G. Russell,, and I. M. Orme. 1993. Disseminated tuberculosis in interferon-7 gene-disrupted mice. J. Exp. Med. 178: 2242 2248.
19. Crowle, A. J. 1990. Intracellular killing of mycobacteria. Res. Microbiol. 141: 231 236.
20. Dalton, D. K.,, A. Pitts-Meek,, S. Keshaw,, I. S. Figari,, A. Bradley,, and T. A. Stewart. 1993. Multiple defects of immune cell function in mice with disrupted interferon-gamma genes. Science 259: 1739 1742.
21. Dannenberg, A. M., Jr. 1968. Cellular hypersensitivity and cellular immunity in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis: specificity, systemic and local nature, and associated macrophage enzymes. Bacterio!. Rev. 32: 85 102.
22. Dannenberg, A. M. 1990. Killing intracellular bacteria: dogmas and realities. Res. Microbiol. 141: 193 196.
23. Dannenberg, A. M. 1991. Delayed-type hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immunity in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Immunol. Today 12: 228 233.
24. Daynes, R. A.,, B. A. Araneo,, T. A. Dowell,, K. Huang,, and D. Dudley. 1990. Regulation of murine lympho-kine production in vivo. III. The lymphoid tissue microenvironment exerts regulatory influences over T helper cell function. J. Exp. Med. 171: 979 996.
25. Daynes, R. A.,, A. W. Meikle,, and B. A. Araneo. 1991. Locally active steroid hormones may facilitate compartmentalization of immunity by regulating the types of lymphokines produced by helper T cells. Res. Immunol. 142: 40 45.
26. De Graeff-Meeder, E. R.,, R. van der Zee,, G. T. Rijkers,, H. J. Schuurman,, W. Kuis,, J. W. Bijlsma,, B. J. Zegers,, and W. van Eden. 1991. Recognition of human 60 kD heat shock protein by mononuclear cells from patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Lancet 337: 1368 1372.
27. Denis, M. 1991a. Interferon-gamma-treated murine macrophages inhibit growth of tubercle bacilli via the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates. Cell. Immunol. 132: 150 157.
28. Denis, M. 1991b. Killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human monocytes: activation by cytokines and calcitriol. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 84: 200 206.
29. Ellis, M. E.,, and F. Tayoub. 1986. Adrenal function in tuberculosis. Br. J. Dis. Chest 80: 7 12.
30. Ellner, J. J.,, and R. S. Wallis. 1989. Immunologic aspects of mycobacterial infections. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11( Suppl. 2): S455 S459.
31. Fidler, H. M.,, G. A. W. Rook,, N. M. Johnson,, and J. McFadden. 1993. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in tissue affected by sarcoidosis. Br. Med. J. 306: 546 549.
32. Filley, E. A.,, H. A. Bull,, P. M. Dowd,, and G. A. W. Rook. 1992. The effect of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the susceptibility of human cells to the stimulatory and toxic effects of tumour necrosis factor. Immunology 77: 505 509.
33. Filley, E. A.,, and G. A. W. Rook. 1991. Effect of mycobacteria on sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor. Infect. Immun. 59: 2567 2572.
34. Fine, P. E. M. 1989. The BCG story: lessons from the past and implications for the future. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11( Suppl. 2): S353 S359.>
35. Fine, P. E. M., 1994. Immunities in and to tuberculosis: implications for pathogenesis and vaccination, p. 53 74. In K. P. W. J. McAdam, and J. D. H. Porter (ed.), Tuberculosis: Back to the Future: Proceedings of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine 3rd Annual Public Health Forum. John Wiley, Chichester.
36. Fine, P. E. M.,, J. M. Ponnighaus,, N. Maine,, J. A. Clarkson,, and L. Bliss. 1986. The protective efficacy of BCG against leprosy in northern Malawi. Lancet ii: 499 502.
37. Fischer, A.,, and W. Konig. 1991. Influence of cytokines and cellular interactions on the glucocorticoid-induced Ig (E, G, A, M) synthesis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Immunology 74: 228 233.
38. Fitzgerald, T. J. 1992. The TH1/TH2 switch in syphilitic infection: is it detrimental? Infect. Immun. 60: 3475 3479.
39. Flesch, I. E. A.,, and S. H. E. Kaufmann. 1990. Activation of tuberculostatic macrophage functions by gamma interferon, interleukin-4, and tumor necrosis factor. Infect. Immun. 58: 2675 2677.
40. Flynn, J. L.,, J. Chan,, K. J. Triebold,, D. K. Dalton,, T. A. Steward,, and B. R. Bloom. 1993. An essential role for IFN-7 in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J. Exp. Med. 178: 2249 2254.
41. Flynn, J. L.,, M. M. Goldstein,, K. J. Triebold,, B. Roller,, and B. R. Bloom. 1992. Major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells are required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 12013 12017.
42. Flynn, J. L.,, K. Pfeffer,, R. Schreiber,, K. J. Triebold,, M. M. Goldstein,, T. W. Mak,, and B. R. Bloom. TNF-a is necessary for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice. Submitted for publication.
43. Foley, N.,, C. Lambert,, M. McNicol,, N. M. I. Johnson,, and G. A. W. Rook. 1990. An inhibitor of the toxicity of tumour necrosis factor in the serum of patients with sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and Crohn's disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 80: 395 399.
44. Freudenberg, M. A.,, and C. Galanos. 1991. Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates lethal activity of killed gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in D-galactosamine-treated mice. Infect. Immun. 59: 2110 2115.
45. Gordon, A. H.,, P. D'Arcy Hart,, and M. R. Young. 1980. Ammonia inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages. Nature (London) 286: 79 81.
46. Grzych, J. M.,, E. Pearce,, A. Cheever,, Z. A. Caulada,, P. Caspar,, S. Henry,, F. Lewis,, and A. Sher. 1991. Egg deposition is the stimulus for the production of TH2 cytokines in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. J. Immunol. 146: 1322 1340.
47. Haanen, J.,., R. de Waal-Malefijt,, P. C. Res,, E. M. Kraakman,, T. H. Ottenhoff,, R. R. de Vries,, and H. Spits. 1991. Selection of a human T helper type 1-like T cell subset by mycobacteria. J. Exp. Med. 174: 583 592.
48. Hermann, E.,, A. W. Lohse,, R. Van der Zee,, W. Van Eden,, W. J. Mayet,, P. Probst,, T. Poralla,. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde, and B. Fleischer. 1991. Synovial fluid-derived Yersinia-reactive T cells responding to human 65-kDa heat-shock protein and heat-stressed antigen-presenting cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 21: 2139 2143.
49. Kabelitz, D.,, A. Bender,, S. Schondelmaier,, B. Schoei,, and S. H. E. Kaufmann. 1990. A large fraction of human peripheral blood gamma/delta positive T cells is activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not by its 65-kD heat shock protein. J. Exp. Med. 171: 667 679.
50. Kaplan, G. 1993. Therapy trials in tuberculosis patients. Robert-Koch-Symposium 1993 on Progress in Tuberculosis Research, Berlin. (Abstract.).
51. Kardjito, T.,, J. S. Beck,, J. M. Grange,, and J. L. Stanford. 1986. A comparison of the responsiveness to four new tuberculins among Indonesian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy subjects. Eur. J. Respir. Dis. 69: 142 145.
52. Kaufmann, S. H. E. 1988. CD8+ T lymphocytes in intracellular microbial infections. Immunol. Today 9: 168 174.
53. Kindier, V.,, A.-P. Sappino,, G. E. Grau,, P.-F. Piguet,, and P. Vassalli. 1989. The inducing role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of bacterial granulomas during BCG infection. Cell 56: 731 740.
54. Koch, R. 1891. Fortsetzung iiber ein Heilmittel gegen Tuberculose. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 17: 101 102.
55. Koga, T.,, A. Wand-Wurttenberger,, J. DeBruyn,, M. E. Munk,, B. Schoei,, and S. H. Kaufmann. 1989. T cells against a bacterial heat shock protein recognise stressed macrophages. Science 245: 1112 1115.
56. Lurie, M. B. 1964. Resistance to Tuberculosis: Experimental Studies in Native and Acquired Defensive Mechanisms. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
57. Mackaness, G. B. 1968. The immunology of antituber-culous immunity. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 97: 337 344.
58. Maggi, E.,, P. Parronchi,, R. Manetti,, C. Simonelli,, M. P. Piccinni,, F. S. Rugui,, M. De Carli,, M. Ricci,, and S. Romagnani. 1992. Reciprocal regulatory effects of IFN-gamma and IL-4 on the in vitro development of human TH1 and TH2 clones. J. Immunol. 148: 2142 2147.
59. McDonough, K. A.,, Y. Kress,, and B. R. Bloom. 1993. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis: interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with macrophages. Infect. Immun. 61: 2763 2773.
60. Meikle, A. W.,, R. W. Dorchuck,, B. A. Araneo,, J. D. Stringham,, T. G. Evans,, S. L. Spruance,, and R. A. Daynes. 1992. The presence of a dehydroepiandrosterone-specific receptor-binding complex in murine T cells. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 42: 293 304.
61. Moreno, C.,, J. Taverne,, A. Mehlert,, C. A. Bate,, R. J. Brealey,, A. Meager,, G. A. W. Rook,, and J. H. L. Playfair. 1989. Lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces the production of tumour necrosis factor from human and murine macrophages. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 76: 240 245.
62. Mosmann, T. R.,, and K. W. Moore. 1991. The role of IL-10 in crossregulation of TH1 and TH2 responses. Immunol. Today 12( 3): A49 A53.
63. Myrvik, Q. N.,, E. S. Leake,, and M. J. Wright. 1984. Disruption of phagosomal membranes of normal alveolar macrophages by the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a correlate of virulence. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 129: 322 328.
64. Nagao, S.,, and A. Tanaka. 1985. Necrotic inflammatory reaction induced by muramyl dipeptide in guinea-pigs sensitized by tubercle bacilli. J. Exp. Med. 162: 401 412.
65. Nathan, C. F.,, and J. B. Hibbs, Jr. 1991. Role of nitric oxide synthesis in macrophage antimicrobial activity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 3: 65.
66. Onyebujoh, P.,, and G. A. W. Rook. 1991. Letter. Lancet 338: 1534.
67. Orme, I. M.,, E. S. Miller,, A. D. Roberts,, S. K. Furney,, J. P. Griffin,, K. M. Dobos,, D. Chi,, B. Rivoire,, and P. J. Brennan. 1992. T lymphocytes mediating protection and cellular cytolysis during the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: evidence for different kinetics and recognition of a wide spectrum of protein antigens. J. Immunol. 148: 189 196.
68. Ottenhoff, T. H.,, K. Ab,, J. D. van Embden,, J. E. Thole,, and R. Kiessling. 1988. The recombinant 65kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin/M. tuberculosis is a target molecule for CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that lyse human monocytes. J. Exp. Med. 168: 1947 1952.
69. Palmer, E.,, and M. W. Long. 1966. Effects of infection with atypical mycobacteria on BCG vacination and tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 94: 553 568.
70. Pancholi, P.,, A. Mirza,, N. Bhardwaj,, and R. M. Steinman. 1993. Sequestration from immune CD4+ T cells of mycobacteria growing in human macrophages. Science 260: 984 986.
71. Phipps, R. P.,, S. H. Stein,, and R. L. Roper. 1991. A new view of prostaglandin E regulation of the immune response. Immunol. Today 12: 349 352.
72. Polla, S. 1991. Heat shock proteins in host-parasite interactions. Immunol. Today 12( 3): A38 A41.
73. Romagnani, S. 1991. Human TH1 and TH2 subsets: doubt no more. Immunol. Today 12: 256 257.
74. Rook, G. A. W. 1988. The role of vitamin D in tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 138: 768 770. (Editorial.)
75. Rook, G. A. W. 1991. Mobilising the appropriate T-cell subset: the immune response as taxonomist. Tubercle 72: 253 254.
76. Rook, G. A. W., et al. Unpublished data.
77. Rook, G. A. W.,, and R. AÍ Attiyah. 1991. Cytokines and the Koch phenomenon. Tubercle 72: 13 20.
78. Rook, G. A. W.,, B. R. Champion,, J. Steele,, A. M. Varey,, and J. L. Stanford. 1985. I-A restricted activation by T cell lines of anti-tuberculosis activity in murine macrophages. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 59: 414 420.
79. Rook, G. A. W.,, P. M. Lydyard,, and J. L. Stanford. 1993a. A reappraisal of the evidence that rheumatoid arthritis, and several other idiopathic diseases, are slow bacterial infections. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 52( Suppl. 1): S30 S38.
80. Rook, G. A. W.,, P. Onyebujoh,, and J. L. Stanford. 1993b. TH1→TH2 switch and loss of CD4 cells in chronic infections; an immuno-endocrinological hypothesis not exclusive to HIV. Immunol. Today 14: 568 569.
81. Rook, G. A. W.,, P. Onyebujoh,, E. Wilkins,, H. M. Ly,, R. AI Attiyah,, G. M. Bahr,, T. Corrah,, H. Hernandez,, and J. L. Stanford. 1994. A longitudinal study of % agalactosyl IgG in tuberculosis patients receiving chemotherapy, with or without immunotherapy. lmmunology 81: 149 154.
82. Rook, G. A. W.,, J. Steele,, M. Ainsworth,, and B. R. Champion. 1986a. Activation of macrophages to inhibit prpliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: comparison of the effects of recombinant gamma-interferon on human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Immunology 59: 333 338.
83. Rook, G. A. W.,, J. Steele,, L. Fraher,, S. Barker,, R. Karmali,, J. O'Riordan,, and J. Stanford. 1986b. Vitamin D3, gamma interferon, and control of proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by human monocytes. Immunology 57: 159 163.
84. Rook, G. A. W.,, J. Taverne,. Leveton, and J. Steele. 1987. The role of gamma-interferon, vitamin D3 metabolines and tumor necrosis factor in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Immunology 62: 229 234.
85. Rothstein, J.,, and H. Schreiber. 1988. Synergy between tumor necrosis factor and bacterial products causes hemorrhagic necrosis and lethal shock in normal mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 607 611.
86. Salgame, P. R.,, J. S. Abrams,, C. Clayberger,, H. Goldstein,, R. L. Modlin,, J. Convit,, and B. R. Bloom. 1991. Differing lymphokine profiles of functional subsets of human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science 254: 279 282.
87. Sampaio, E. P.,, E. N. Samo,, R. Galilly,, Z. A. Cohn,, and G. Kaplan. 1991. Thalidomide selectively inhibits TNFa production by stimulated human monocytes. J. Exp. Med. 173: 699 703.
88. Sarma, G. R.,, I. Chandra,, G. Ramachandran,, P. V. Krishnamurthy,, V. Kumaraswami,, and R. Prabhakar. 1990. Adrenocortical function in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Tubercle 71: 277 282.
89. Scott, G. M.,, P. G. Murphy,, and M. E. Gemidjioglu. 1990. Predicting deterioration of treated tuberculosis by corticosteroid reserve and C-reactive protein. J. Infect. 21: 61 69.
90. Shands, J. W.,, and V. C. Senterfitt. 1972. Endotoxin-induced hepatic damage in BCG-infected mice. Am. J. Pathol. 67: 23 40.
91. Shepard, C. 1958. A comparison of the growth of selected mycobacteria in HeLa, monkey kidney, and human amnion cells in tissue culture. J. Exp. Med. 107: 237 246.
92. Shoenfeld, Y.,, and D. A. Isenberg. 1988. Mycobacteria and autoimmunity. Immunol. Today 9: 178 182.
93. Shwartzman, G. 1937. Phenomenon of Local Tissue Reactivity and Its Immunological, Pathological, and Clinical Significance, p. 461. Paul B. Hoeber, New York.
94. Silva, L.,, and L. H. Faccioli. 1988. Tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) mediates induction of cachexia by cord factor from mycobacteria. Infect. Immun. 56: 3067 3071.
95. Silva, L.,, and D., Lowrie. A single mycobacterial protein (hsp60) expressed by a transgenic antigenpresenting cell vaccinates mice against tuberculosis. Immunology, in press.
96. Singhal, M.,, J. N. Banavalikar,, S. Sharma,, and K. Saha. 1989. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with tuberculosis and the effect of chemotherapy. Tubercle 70: 171 178.
97. Stanford, J. L. 1987. Much's granules revisited. Tubercle 68: 241 242.
98. Stuehr, D. J.,, H. J. Cho,, N. S. Kwon,, M. F. Weise,, and C. F. Nathan. 1991. Purification and characterization of the cytokine-induced macrophage nitric oxide synthase: an FAD- and FMN-containing flavoprotein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 7773 7777.
99. Sturgill-Koszycki, S.,, P. H. Schlesinger,, P. Chakraborty,, P. L. Haddix,, H. L. Collins,, A. K. Fok,, R. D. Allen,, S. L. Gluck,, J. Heuser,, and D. G. Russell. Mycobacterium phagosomes fail to acidify through exclusion of the vesicular proton-ATPase. Science, in press.
100. Suzuki, T.,, N. Suzuki,, R. A. Daynes,, and E. G. Engleman. 1991. Dehydroepiandrosterone enhances IL2 production and cytotoxic effector function of human T cells. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 61: 202 211.
101. Takashima, T.,, C. Ueta,, I. Tsuyuguchi,, and S. Kishimoto. 1990. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha by monocytes from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 58: 3286 3292.
102. Thompson, N. J.,, J. L. Glassroth,, D. E. Snider, Jr.,, and L. S. Farer. 1979. The booster phenomenon in serial tuberculin testing. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 119: 587 597.
103. Uyemura, K.,, R. J. Deans,, H. Band,, J. Ohmen,, G. Panchamoorthy,, T. Morita,, T. H. Rea,, and R. L. Modlin. 1991. Evidence for clonal selection of gamma/delta T cells in response to a human pathogen. J. Exp. Med. 174: 683 692.
104. Valone, S. E.,, E. A. Rich,, R. S. Wallis,, and J. J. Ellner. 1988. Expression of tumor necrosis factor in vitro by human mononuclear phagocytes stimulated with whole Mycobacterium bovis BCG and mycobacterial antigens. Infect. Immun. 56: 3313 3315.
105. van Eden, W.,, J. E. R. Thole,, R. van der Zee,, A. Noordzy,, J. D. A. van Embden,, E. J. Yamamura,, E. J. Hensen,, and I. R. Cohen. 1988. Cloning of the mycobacterial epitope recognised by T lymphocytes in adjuvant arthritis. Nature (London) 331: 171 173.
106. Wilson, G. S.,, H. Schwabacher,, and I. Maier. 1940. The effect of the desensitisation of tuberculous guinea-pigs. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 50: 89 109.
107. Wisniewski, T. L.,, C. W. Hilton,, E. V. Morse,, and F. Svec. 1993. The relationship of serum DHEA-S and Cortisol levels to measures of immune function in human immunodeficiency virus-related illness. Am. J. Med. Sci. 305: 79 83.
108. Xu, S.,, S. Sturgill-Koszycki,, T. van Heyningen,, A. Cooper,, D. Chatterjee,, I. Orme,, P. Allen,, and D. G. Russell. Intracellular trafficking and the Mycobacterium-infected macrophage. J. Immunol., in press.
109. Yamamura, Y.,, Y. Ogawa,, H. Maeda,, and Y. Yamamura. 1974. Prevention of tuberculous cavity formation by desensitization with tuberculin-active peptide. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 109: 594 601.
110. Young, D. B. 1992. Heat-shock proteins: immunity and autoimmunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 4: 396 400.
111. Young, R. A.,, and T. J. Elliott. 1989. Stress proteins, infection, and immune surveillance. Cell 59: 5 8.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error