1887

Chapter 1 : Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

The introduction of cholera into Latin America during 1991 and 1992 has underscored the need for public health and clinical microbiologists worldwide to be familiar with methods for the isolation and characterization of . This chapter summarizes basic laboratory techniques for cholera and is intended to provide a reference for the microbiologist who has not specialized in these procedures. Isolates of serogroups other than O1 or O139 are occasionally associated with sporadic diarrheal illness, limited outbreaks of diarrhea, and extraintestinal infection. Fecal specimens (stool or rectal swabs) should be collected as early as possible in the illness, as the number of O1 in the stool begins to decrease soon after the onset of symptoms. Alkaline peptone water (APW) is a simple and inexpensive medium that has been used for transport as well as enrichment of specimens for . Although V cholerae O1 grows on a variety of commonly used agar media, isolation from fecal specimens is more easily accomplished by use of a selective plating medium. Typically, strains of ferment glucose and sucrose without producing gas. Fermentation tests should be read at 24 h but if negative may be incubated for up to 7 days. Blood agar plates containing 5 to 10% sheep blood may be used to test O1 for hemolysis.

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Clinical and Public Health
0.99084044
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
0.6271123
Culture Methods
0.42072093
Molecular Techniques
0.41807488
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4176703
0.99084044
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Overnight colonies of on TCBS agar are yellow because of sucrose fermentation. The colonies are typically large (2 to 4 mm in diameter), circular, smooth, glistening, and slightly flattened.

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

On TTGA, colonies of are gray, flattened, and surrounded by a cloudy zone caused by the production of gelatinase.

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Procedure for recovery of from fecal specimens. , If the APW cannot be streaked after 6 to 8 h of incubation, subculture at 18 h or sooner to a fresh tube of APW, incubate for 6 to 8 h, and then streak to TCBS.

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

The string test is a simple method for differentiating species, which are almost always positive, from species, which are negative.

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

will grow in nutrient broth without added NaCl (0% NaCl; tube B), but growth of this species is stimulated by the addition of 1 % NaCl (tube A). V. parahaemolyticus and other halophilic vibrios will not grow in nutrient broth with 0% NaCl (tube C).

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818364.chap1
1. Abbott, S.,, W. K. Cheung,, B. Portoni,, and J. M. Janda. 1992. Isolation of vibriostatic agent O/129-resistant Vibrio cholerae non-Ol from a patient with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1598 1599.
2. Adams, L. B.,, M. C. Henk,, and R. J. Siebeling. 1988. Detection of Vibrio cholerae with monoclonal antibodies specific for serovar Ol lipopolysaccharide. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 1801 1809.
3. Adams, L. B.,, and R. J. Siebeling. 1984. Production of Vibrio cholerae Ol and non-Ol typing sera in rabbits immunized with polysaccharide-protein carrier conjugates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 181 186.
4. Albert, M. J.,, A. K. Siddique,, M. S. Islam,, A. S. G. Faruque,, M. Ansaruzzaman,, S. M. Faruque,, and R. B. Sack. 1993. Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae non-Ol in Bangladesh. Lancet 341: 704.
5. Aim, R. A.,, and P. A. Manning. 1990. Biotype-specific probe for Vibrio cholerae serogroup Ol. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 823 824.
6. Almeida, R. J.,, D. N. Cameron,, W. L. Cook,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Vibriophage VcA-3 as an epidemic strain marker for the U.S. Gulf Coast Vibrio cholerae O1 clone. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 300 304.
7. Almeida, R. J.,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, E. G. Sowers,, N. D. Puhr,, J. J. Farmer III,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1990. Comparison of a latex agglutination assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cholera toxin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 128 130.
8. Arita, M.,, T. Honda,, T. Miwatani,, K. Ohmori,, T. Takao,, and Y. Shimonishi. 1991. Purification and characterization of a new heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae non-Ol serogroup Hakata. Infect. Immun. 59: 2186 2188.
9. Bagchi, K.,, P. Echeverria,, J. D. Arthur,, O. Sethabutr,, O. Serichantalergs,, and C. W. Hoge. 1993. Epidemic of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae non-Ol that produced heat-stable toxin among Khmers in a camp in Thailand. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1315 1317.
10. Barrett, T. J.,, and P. A. Blake. 1981. Epidemiological usefulness of changes in hemolytic activity of Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor during the seventh pandemic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 126 129.
11. Barrett, T. J.,, D. N. Cameron,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Molecular typing of Vibrio cholerae Ol by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, Abstr. C-198. Abstr. 92nd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1992.
12. Barry, A. L.,, and C. Thornsberry,. 1991. Susceptibility tests: diffusion test procedures, p. 1117 1125. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
13. Barua, D., 1974. Laboratory diagnosis of cholera, p. 85 126. In D. Barua, and W. Burrows (ed.), Cholera. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
14. Barua, D.,, and C. Z. Gomez. 1967. Observations on some tests commonly employed for the characterization of El Tor vibrios. Bull. W.H.O. 37: 800 803.
15. Barua, D.,, and A. C. Mukherjee. 1963. Direct bacterial haemagglutination test for differentiating El Tor vibrios from V. cholerae. Bull. Calcutta Sch. Trop. Med. 11: 85 86.
16. Barua, D.,, and A. C. Mukherjee. 1965. Haemagglutinating activity of El Tor vibrios and its nature. Indian J. Med. Res. 53: 399 404.
17. Barua, D.,, A. Wake,, C. Z. Gomez,, A. Pagubo,, J. C. Azurin,, J. J. Dizon,, R. Ramos,, and V. Cordova. 1967. Some observations on the detection of cholera carriers. Bull. W.H.O. 37: 804 806.
18. Basu, S.,, and S. Mukerjee. 1968. Bacteriophage typing of Vibrio el tor. Experientia 24: 299 300.
19. Basu, S.,, and S. Mukerjee. 1970. A specific phage for pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, biotype El tor (phage H74/64). Bull. W.H.O. 43: 509 512.
20. Baumann, P.,, A. L. Furniss,, and J. V. Lee,. 1984. Genus I. Vibrio Pacini 1854, 411 AL, p. 518 538. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
21. Baumann, P.,, and R. H. W. Schubert,. 1984. Family II. Vibrionaceae Veron 1965, 5245 AL, p. 516 550. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
22. Benenson, A. S.,, M. R. Islam,, and W. B. Greenough HI. 1964. Rapid identification of Vibrio cholerae by darkfield microscopy. Bull. W.H.O. 30: 827 831.
23. Bhaskaran, K.,, and R. H. Gorrill. 1957. A study of antigenic variation in Vibrio cholerae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 16: 721 729.
24. Bhattacharya, F. K. 1975. Vibrio cholerae flagellar antigens: a serodiagnostic test, functional implications of H-reactivity and taxonomic importance of cross-reactions within the Vibrio genus. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 162: 29 41.
25. Bhattacharya, M. K.,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, S. Garg,, P. K. Saha,, D. Dutta,, G. B. Nair,, B. C. Deb,, and K. P. Das. 1993. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae non-Ol in India and Bangladesh. Lancet 341: 1346 1347.
26. Cary, S. G.,, and E. G. Blair. 1964. New transport medium for shipment of clinical specimens. I. Fecal specimens. J. Bacteriol. 88: 96 98.
27. Chatterjee, B. D.,, P. K. De,, and T. Sen. 1977. Sucrose teepol tellurite agar: a new selective indicator medium for isolation of Vibrio species. J. Infect. Dis. 135: 654 658.
28. Chattopadhyay, D. J.,, B. L. Sarkar,, M. Q. Ansari,, B. K. Chakrabarti,, M. K. Roy,, A. N. Ghosh,, and S. C. Pal. 1993. New phage typing scheme for Vibrio cholerae Ol biotype El Tor strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1579 1585.
29. Chen, E.,, G. M. Evins,, W. L. Cook,, R. Almeida,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, and K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Genetic diversity among toxigenic and non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol isolated from the Western Hemisphere. Epidemiol. Infect. 107: 225 233.
30. Chester, B.,, and E. G. Poulos. 1980. Rapid presumptive identification of vibrios by immobilization in distilled water. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11: 537 539.
31. Colwell, R. R.,, J. A. K. Hasan,, A. Huq,, L. Loomis,, R. J. Seibeling,, M. Torres,, S. Galvez,, S. Islam,, and D. Bernstein. 1992. Development and evaluation of a rapid, simple, sensitive, monoclonal antibody-based co-agglutination test for direct detection of Vibrio cholerae Ol. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 97: 215 220.
32. Cook, W. L.,, K. Wachsmuth,, S. R. Johnson,, K. A. Birkness,, and A. R. Samadi. 1984. Persistence of plasmids, cholera toxin genes, and prophage DNA in classical Vibrio cholerae O1. Infect. Immun. 45: 222 226.
33. Datta-Roy, K.,, K. Banerjee,, S. P. De,, and A. C. Ghose. 1986. Comparative study of expression of hemagglutinins, hemolysins, and enterotoxins by clinical and environmental isolates of non-Ol Vibrio cholerae in relation to their enteropathogenicity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 875 879.
34. De, S. N.,, C. R. Ghosh,, and B. Mukherjee. 1965. Interesting variation observed in a strain of Vibrio cholerae. J. Indian Med. Assoc. 44: 520 524.
35. Desmarchelier, P.,, and J. L. Reichelt. 1981. Phenotypic characterization of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Australia. Curr. Microbiol. 5: 123 127.
36. DeWitt, W. E.,, E. J. Gangarosa,, I. Huq,, and A. Zarifi. 1971. Holding media for the transport of Vibrio cholerae from field to laboratory. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20: 685 688.
37. Donovan, T. J.,, and A. L. Furniss. 1982. Quality of antisera used in the diagnosis of cholera. Lancet ii: 866 868.
38. Drozhevkina, M. S.,, and Y. I. Arutyunov. 1971. Phage-typing of Vibrio cholerae using a new collection of phages. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 23: 340 347.
39. Feeley, J. C. 1962. Isolation of cholera vibrios by positive-recognition plating procedures. J. Bacteriol. 84: 866 867.
40. Feeley, J. C. 1965. Classification of Vibrio cholerae (Vibrio comma), including El Tor vibrios, by intrasubspecific characteristics. J. Bacteriol. 89: 665 670.
41. Feeley, J. C.,, and M. Pittman. 1963. Studies on the haemolytic activity of El Tor vibrios. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 347 356.
42. Felsenfeld, O. 1963. S ome observations on the cholera (El Tor) epidemic in 1961-62. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 289 296.
43. Finch, M. J.,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, J. Kaviti,, W. Kagwanja,, and M. M. Levine. 1988. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistant cholera in Kenya and east Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 39: 484 490.
44. Finkelstein, R. A.,, and C. Z. Gomez. 1963. Comparison of methods for the rapid recognition of cholera vibrios. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 327 332.
45. Finkelstein, R. A.,, and E. H. LaBrec. 1959. Rapid identification of cholera vibrios with fluorescent antibody. J. Bacteriol. 78: 886 891.
46. Finkelstein, R. A.,, and S. Mukerjee. 1963. Hemagglutination: a rapid method for differentiating Vibrio cholerae and El Tor vibrios. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112: 355 359.
47. Furniss, A. L.,, J. V. Lee,, and T. J. Donovan. 1978. The vibrios, p. 34-35. Public Health Laboratory Service monograph series. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
48. Gaines, S.,, S. U. Haque,, W. Paniom,, C. Duangmani,, S. G. Cary,, and E. B. Blair. 1965. A field trial of a new transport medium for collection of feces for bacteriologic examination. Am. J. Trop. Med. 14: 136 140.
49. Gallut, J.,, and P. Nicholle. 1963. Lysogenie et lysotypie de V. cholerae et V. EL Tor d'origines geographiques diverses. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 389 393.
50. Gangarosa, E. J.,, J. V. Bennett,, and J. R. Boring HI. 1967. Differentiation between Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor by the polymyxin B disc test: comparative results with TCBS, Monsur's, Mueller-Hinton and nutrient agar media. Bull. W.H.O. 35: 987 990.
51. Gangarosa, E. J.,, and W. E. DeWitt. 1968. Laboratory methods in cholera: isolation of Vibrio cholerae (El Tor and Classical) on TCBS medium in minimally equipped laboratories. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 62: 693 699.
52. Gangarosa, E. J.,, A. Sanati,, H. Saghari,, and J. C. Feeley. 1967. Multiple serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from a case of cholera. Lancet i: 646 648.
53. Gardner, A. D.,, and K. V. Venkatraman. 1935. The antigens of the cholera group of vibrios . J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 35: 262 282.
54. Gastrin, B.,, L. O. Kallings,, and A. Marcetic. 1968. The survival time for different bacteria in various transport media. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 74: 371 380.
55. Glass, R. I.,, I. Huq,, A. R. M. A. Alim,, and M. Yunus. 1980. Emergence of multiply antibiotic-resistant Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 939 942.
56. Gugnani, H. C.,, and S. C. Pal. 1974. Variation in polymyxin sensitivity among colonies in primary plate cultures of Vibrio eltor. J. Med. Microbiol. 7: 535 536.
57. Gustafsson, B.,, and T. Holme. 1983. Monoclonal antibodies against group- and type-specific lipopolysaccharide antigens of Vibrio cholerae O:1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 480 485.
58. Gustafsson, B.,, and T. Holme. 1985. Rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O:1 by motility inhibition and immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 291 294.
59. Han, G. K.,, and T. S. Khie. 1963. A new method for the differentiation of Vibrio comma and Vibrio El Tor. Am. J. Hyg. 77: 184 186.
60. Hendrickson, D. A.,, and M. M. Krenz,. 1991. Reagents and stains, p. 1289 1314. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
61. Hisatsune, K.,, and S. Kondo. 1980. Lipopolysaccharides of R mutants isolated from Vibrio cholerae. Biochem. J. 185: 77 81.
62. Huq, A.,, M. Alam,, S. Parveen,, and R. R. Colwell. 1992. Occurrence of resistance to vibriostatic compound O/129 in Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated from clinical and environmental samples in Bangladesh J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 219 221.
63. Huq, M. I. 1979. A simple laboratory method for the diagnosis of V. cholerae. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73: 553 556.
64. Huq, M. I.,, and M. M. Rahaman. 1983. Blotting paper strip for the transport of stool specimens for laboratory diagnosis of cholera. Indian J. Med. Res. 78: 765 768.
65. Huq, M. I.,, S. C. Sanyal,, A. R. Samadi,, and K. A. Monsur. 1983. Comparative behaviour of classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated in Bangladesh during 1982. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 1: 5 9.
66. Ito, T.,, and T. Yokota. 1987. Different types of monoclonal antibodies to Ogawa-specific and group-specific antigens of Vibrio cholerae O1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2289 2295.
67. Ito, T.,, and T. Yokota. 1988. Monoclonal antibodies to Vibrio cholerae Ol serotype Inaba. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 2367 2370.
68. Jesudason, M. V.,, C. P. Thangavelu,, and M. K. Lalitha. 1984. Rapid screening of fecal samples for Vibrio cholerae by a coagglutination technique. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 712 713.
69. Johnston, J. M.,, L. M. McFarland,, H. B. Bradford,, and C. T. Caraway. 1983. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from a human wound infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17: 918 920.
70. Kaper, J. B.,, H. B. Bradford,, N. C. Roberts,, and S. Falkow. 1982. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae in the U.S. Gulf Coast. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 129 134.
71. Karunasagar, I.,, I. Karunasagar,, and C. Nagesha. 1987. Spontaneous Mutation to 0/129 resistance in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Curr. Sci. 56: 773 775.
72. Kelly, M. T.,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, and J. J. Farmer m,. 1991. Vibrio, p. 384 395. In A. Balows,, W. J. Hausler, Jr.,, K. L. Herrmann,, H. D. Isenberg,, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
73. Kobari, K.,, C. Uylangco,, J. Vasco,, Y. Takahira,, and N. Shimizu. 1967. Observations on cholera treated orally and intravenously with antibiotics, with particular reference to the number of vibrios excreted in the stool. Bull. W.H.O. 37: 751 762.
74. Kobayashi, T.,, S. Enomoto,, R. Sakazaki,, and S. Kuwahara. 1963. A new selective isolation medium for the vibrio group; on a modified Nakanishi's medium (TCBS agar medium). Jpn. J. Bacteriol. 18: 387 392.
75. Koblavi, S.,, F. Grimont, and R A. D. Grimont. 1990. Clonal diversity of Vibrio cholerae Ol evidenced by rRNA gene restriction patterns. Res. Microbiol. 141: 645 657.
76. Lam, S. Y. S. 1983. A rapid test for the identification of Vibrio cholerae in stools. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 1: 87 89.
77. Lee, J. V.,, and A. L. Furniss,. 1981. The phage typing of Vibrio cholerae serovar 01, p. 119 122. In T. Holme,, J. Holmgren,, M. H. Merson,, and R. Molby (ed.), Acute Enteric Infections in Children: New Prospects for Treatment and Prevention. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
78. Liu, R. V. 1959. Studies on the haemolysin of Vibrio cholerae. J. Infect. Dis. 104: 238 252.
79. Matsushita, S.,, Y. Kudoh,, and M. Ohashi. 1984. Transferable resistance to vibriostatic agent 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (0/129) in Vibrio cholereae. Microbiol. Immunol. 28: 1159 1162.
80. Mhalu, F. S.,, R. W. Mmari,, and J. Ijumba. 1979. Rapid emergence of El Tor Vibrio cholerae resistant to antimicrobial agents during first six months of fourth cholera epidemic in Tanzania. Lancet i: 345 347.
81. Minami, A.,, S. Hashimoto,, H. Abe,, M. Arita,, T. Taniguchi,, T. Honda,, T. Miwatani,, and M. Nishibuchi. 1991. Cholera enterotoxin production in Vibrio cholerae Ol strains isolated from the environment and from humans in Japan. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 2152 2157.
82. Monsur, K. A. 1961. A highly selective gelatin-taurocholate-tellurite medium for the isolation of Vibrio cholerae. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55: 440 442.
83. Monsur, K. A. 1963. Bacteriological diagnosis of cholera under field conditions. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 387 389.
84. Morris, G. K.,, W. E. DeWitt,, E. J. Gangarosa,, and W. M. McCormack. 1976. Enhancement by sodium chloride of the selectivity of thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar for isolating Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 133 136.
85. Morris, G. K.,, and J. Heck. 1978. Quality of Cary-Blair transport medium after aging nineteen months. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8: 616 617.
86. Morris, G. K.,, M. H. Merson,, I. Huq,, A. K. M. G. Kibrya,, and R. Black. 1979. Comparison of four plating media for isolating Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 79 83.
87. Morris, J. G., Jr.,, J. L. Picardi,, S. Lieb,, J. V. Lee,, A. Roberts,, M. Hood,, R. A. Gunn,, and P. A. Blake. 1984. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O group 1 from a patient with severe gastrointestinal disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 296 297.
88. Mukerjee, S. 1963. The bacteriophage-susceptibility test in differentiating Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio el tor. Bull. W.H.O. 28: 333 336.
89. Mukerjee, S.,, D. K. Guha,, and U. Guha Roy. 1957. Studies on typing of cholera by bacteriophage. I. Phage typing of Vibrio cholerae from Calcutta epidemics. Ann. Biochem. Exp. Med. 17: 161 176.
90. Mundy, L. S.,, C. J. Shanholtzer,, K. E. Willard,, and L. R. Peterson. 1991. An evaluation of three commercial fecal transport systems for the recovery of enteric pathogens. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 96: 364 367.
91. 90a. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 1992. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests, 4th ed. Approved standard. NCCLS document M100-54. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Villanova, Pa..
91. Newman, F. S.,, and A. Eisenstark. 1964. Phage-host relationships in Vibrio cholerae. J. Infect. Dis. 114: 217 225.
92. Nicholls, K. M.,, J. V. Lee,, and T. J. Donovan. 1976. An evaluation of commercial thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS). J. Appl. Bacteriol. 41: 265 269.
93. O'Brien, M.,, and R. Colwell. 1985. Modified taurocholate-tellurite-gelatin agar for improved differentiation of Vibrio species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 22: 1011 1013.
94. O'Grady, E.,, M. J. Lewis,, and N. J. Pearson. 1976. Global surveillance of antibiotic sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae. Bull. W.H.O. 54: 181 185.
95. Olsvik, Ø.,, E. Skjerve,, E. Homes,, R. Rimstad,, Y. Wasteson,, A. Lund,, and C. Black,. 1992. Magnetic separation and PCR in clinical microbiology, p. 207 221. In J. T. Kemshead (ed.), Magnetic Separation Techniques Applied to Cellular and Molecular Biology. Wordsmith, Somerset, England.
96. Olsvik, Ø.,, J. Wahlberg,, B. Petterson,, M. Uhlen,, T. Popovic,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, and P. I. Fields. 1993. Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae Ol strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 22 25.
97. Pal, S. C., 1992. Laboratory diagnosis, p. 229 251. In D. Barua, and W. B. Greenoughm (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.
98. Pal, S. C.,, H. D. Gugnani,, B. S. Misra,, and J. B. Shrivastav. 1973. Variants of Vibrio cholerae in Delhi. Indian J. Med. Res. 61: 649 652.
99. Pal, S. C.,, G. V. S. Murty,, C. G. Pandit,, D. K. Murty,, and J. B. Shrivastav. 1967. A comparative study of enrichment media in the bacteriological diagnosis of cholera. Indian J. Med. Res. 55: 318 324.
100. Paul, B. M. 1960. A gist on the principles of a rapid method of diagnosis of bacterial infections by culture. Indian Med. J. 51: 1 2.
101. Pollitzer, R. 1959. Cholera. Monograph no. 43. World Health Organization, Geneva.
102. Popovic, T.,, C. Bopp, 0. Olsvik, and K. Wachsmuth. 1993. Epidemiologic Application of a standardized ribotype scheme for Vibrio cholerae 01. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2474 2482.
103. Rahman, M.,, D. A. Sack,, S. Mahmood,, and A. Hossain. 1987. Rapid diagnosis of cholera by coagglutination test using 4-hour fecal enrichment cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2204 2206.
104. Ramamurthy, T.,, S. Garg,, R. Sharma,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, G. B. Nair,, T. Shimada,, T. Takeda,, T. Karasawa,, H. Kurazano,, A. Pal,, and Y. Takeda. 1993. Emergence of a novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet 341: 703 704.
105. Ramamurthy, T.,, A. Pal,, S. C. Pal,, and G. B. Nair. 1992. Taxonomical implications of the emergence of high frequency of occurrence of 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae from clinical cases of cholera in Calcutta, India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 742 743.
106. Redmond, J. W. 1978. The 4-amino sugars present in the lipopolysaccharides of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 542: 378 384.
107. Reichelt, J. L.,, and P. Baumann. 1974. Effect of sodium chloride on growth of heterotrophic marine bacteria. Arch. Microbiol. 97: 329 345.
108. Rennets, M. B.,, M. M. Levine,, V. Daya,, P. Angle,, and C. Young. 1980. Selective vs. nonselective media and direct plating vs. enrichment technique in isolation of Vibrio cholerae: recommendations for clinical laboratories. J. Infect. Dis. 142: 328 331.
109. Rizvi, S.,, and A. S. Benenson. 1966. Phage resistance in Vibrio cholerae. Bull. W.H.O. 35: 675 680.
110. Rizvi, S.,, M. I. Huq,, and A. S. Benenson. 1965. Isolation of hemagglutinative non-El Tor cholera vibrio. J. Bacteriol. 89: 910 912.
111. Roy, C.,, K. Mridha,, and S. Mukerjee. 1965. Action of polymyxin of cholera vibrios: techniques of determination of polymyxin-sensitivity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 119: 893 896.
112. Sack, R. B.,, and C. E. Miller. 1969. Progressive changes in Vibrio serotypes in germ-free mice infected with Vibrio cholerae. J. Bacteriol. 99: 688 695.
113. Sakazaki, R.,, and K. Tamura. 1971. Somatic antigen variation in Vibrio cholerae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 24: 93 100.
114. Sakazaki, R.,, K. Tamura,, and M. Murase. 1971. Determination of the haemolytic activity of V. cholerae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 24: 83 91.
115. Sechter, I.,, C. H. B. Gerichter,, and D. Cahan. 1975. Method for detecting small numbers of Vibrio cholerae in very polluted substrates. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 814 818.
116. Shaffer, N.,, E. S. do Santos,, R-A. Andreason,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1989. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of cholera in the field. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 83: 119 120.
117. Sheehy, T. W.,, H. Sprinz,, W. S. Augerson,, and S. B. Formal. 1966. Laboratory Vibrio cholerae infection in the United States. JAMA 197: 99 104.
118. Shimada, T.,, G. B. Nair,, B. C. Deb,, M. J. Albert,, R. B. Sack,, and Y. Takeda. 1993. Outbreak of Vibrio cholerae non-Ol in India and Bangladesh. Lancet 341: 1346 1347.
119. Shimada, T.,, and R. Sakazaki. 1973. R antigen of Vibrio cholerae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 26: 155 160.
120. Shimada, T.,, and R. Sakazaki. 1977. Additional serovars and inter-0 antigenic relationships of Vibrio cholerae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 30: 275 277.
121. Shimada, T.,, R. Sakazaki,, S. Fujimura,, K. Niwano,, M. Mishina,, and K. Takizawa. 1990. A new selective differential agar medium for isolation of Vibrio cholerae Ol: PMT (polymyxin mannose-tellurite agar). Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 43: 37 41.
122. Shimada, R.,, R. Sakazaki,, and M. Oue. 1987. A bioserogroup of marine vibrios possessing somatic antigen factors in common with Vibrio cholerae Ol. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62: 453 456.
123. Shirai, H.,, M. Nishibuchi,, T. Ramamurthy,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, S. C. Pal,, and Y. Takeda. 1991. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 2517 2521.
124. Smith, H. L., Jr. 1970. A presumptive test for vibrios: the "string" test. Bull. W.H.O. 42: 817 818.
125. Smith, H. L., Jr.,, R. Freter,, and F. J. Sweeney, Jr. 1961. Enumeration of cholera vibrios in fecal samples. J. Infect. Dis. 109: 31 34.
126. Smith, H. L., Jr.,, and K. Goodner. 1958. Detection of bacterial gelatinases by gelatin-agar plate methods. J. Bacteriol. 76: 662 665.
127. Stuart, R. D.,, S. R. Toshach,, and T. M. Patsula. 1954. The problem of transport of specimens for culture of gonococci. Can. J. Public Health 45: 73 83.
128. Sugiyama, J.,, F. Gondaira,, J. Matsuda,, M. Soga,, and Y. Terada. 1987. New method for serological typing of Vibrio cholerae 1:O using a monoclonal antibody-sensitized latex agglutination test. Microbiol. Immunol. 31: 387 391.
129. Sundaram, S.,, and K. Murthy. 1983. Occurrence of 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine resistance of human isolates of Vibrio cholerae. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 115 117.
130. Swanson, R. W.,, and J. D. Gillmore. 1964. Biochemical characteristics of recent cholera isolates in the far east. Bull. W.H.O. 31: 422 425.
131. Tamura, K.,, S. Shimada,, and L. M. Prescott. 1971. Vibrio agar: a new plating medium for isolation of V. cholerae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 24: 125 127.
132. Tassin, M. G.,, R. J. Siebeling,, N. C. Roberts,, and A. D. Larson. 1983. Presumptive identification of Vibrio species with H antiserum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 400 407.
133. Venkatraman, K. V.,, and C. S. Ramakrishnan. 1941. A preserving medium for the transmission of specimens for the isolation of Vibrio cholerae. Indian J. Med. Res. 29: 681 684.
134. Wachsmuth, I. K.,, G. M. Evins,, P. I. Fields,, 0. Olsvik,, T. Popovic,, C. A. Bopp,, J. G. Wells,, C. Carrillo,, and P. A. Blake. 1993. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. J. Infect. Dis. 167: 621 626.
135. World Health Organization. 1993. Guidelines for Cholera Control. World Health Organization, Geneva.
136. Yam, W. C.,, M. L. Lung,, and M. H. Ng. 1991. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains associated with a cholera outbreak in Hong Kong. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 1058 1059.
137. Yam, W. C.,, M. L. Lung,, and M. H. Ng. 1992. Evaluation and optimization of a latex agglutination assay for detection of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2518 2520.
138. Zafari, Y.,, A. Zarifi,, and F. Zomorodi. 1968. A comparative study of sea-salt water and Cary-Blair media for transportation of stool specimens. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 178 179.
139. Zinnaka, Y.,, S. Shimodori,, and K. Takeya. 1964. Haemagglutinating activity of Vibrio comma. Jpn. J. Microbiol. 8: 97 103.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Characteristics of

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2

Serotypes of serogroup O1

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 3

Differential characteristics of selected members of the and

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 4

Differentiation of classical and El Tor biotypes of serogroup Ol

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 5

Hemolytic activity of Ol classical and El Tor biotypes

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 6

Zone size interpretative standards for the for selected antimicrobial disks (not validated for O1)

Citation: Kay B, Bopp C, Wells J. 1994. Isolation and Identification of O1 from Fecal Specimens, p 3-25. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error