1887

Chapter 14 : Animal Models in Cholera Research

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Animal Models in Cholera Research, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap14-2.gif

Abstract:

Our current knowledge of cholera and the highly effective oral treatment of the disease could not have been attained without the use of animal models and human volunteers. Ever since the discovery of the etiologic agent of cholera, there have been attempts to develop suitable animal models for studying the interactions of with its accidental human niche. The major animal models that have been employed in cholera research and some examples of the valuable information provided by these models have been discussed in this chapter. Finkelstein clearly demonstrated the presence of classical exo-enterotoxin (CT) (choleragen) and proceeded to work on purification of the material from Syncase medium, using infant rabbits as his biological assay. Concomitant with toxin purification, attempts were made to derive mutants of that would produce altered toxins or natural toxoids. Colonization studies are largely dependent on animal models, because the complex interactions between the two dynamic living systems are impossible to duplicate in vitro. The standard measure of vaccine efficacy was usually determined by the mouse protection assay. For all of the remarkable advances that have been made in cholera research at the bench, the real answers will have to be provided by in its normal environmental niche and in its transient home away from home, the intestines of humans and experimental animals.

Citation: Richardson S. 1994. Animal Models in Cholera Research, p 203-226. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Immune Systems
0.5094729
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.49995065
Peyer's Patches
0.47120056
Small Intestine
0.4692615
Type IV Pili
0.4537487
Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue
0.44043624
0.5094729
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818364.chap14
1. Aziz, K. M. S.,, A. K. M. Mohsin,, W. K. Hare,, and R. A. Phillips. 1968. Using the rat as a cholera "model." Nature (London) 220:814815.
2. Barua, D.,, and W. B. Greenough III (ed.). 1992. Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.
3. Baselski, V. S.,, S. Upchurch,, and C. D. Parker. 1978. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of virulence deficient mutants of Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 22:181188.
4. Basu, S.,, R. L. Robinson,, and M. J. Pickett. 1970. Preliminary studies on the bioassay of anticholera vaccines in chinchillas. J. Infect. Dis. 121:S56S57.
5. Baudry, B.,, A. Fasano,, J. Ketley,, and J. B. Kaper. 1992. Cloning of a gene (zot) encoding a new toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae. Infect Immun. 60:428434.
6. Betley, M. J.,, V. L. Miller,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1986. Genetics of bacterial enterotoxins. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 40:577605.
7. Bromander, A.,, J. Holmgren,, and N. Lycke. 1991. Cholera toxin stimulates IL-1 production and enhances antigen presentation by macrophages in vitro. J. Immunol. 146:29082914.
8. Burnet, F. M.,, and J. D. Stone. 1947. Desquamation of intestinal epithelium by V. cholerae filtrates. Characterization of mucinase and tissue disintegrating enzymes. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 25:219226.
8a. Bushnell, O. A.,, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.). 1965. Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
9. Callahan, L. T., III,, and S. H. Richardson. 1973. Biochemistry of Vibrio cholerae virulence, III. Nutritional requirements for toxin production and the effects of pH on toxin elaboration in chemically defined media. Infect. Immun. 7:567572.
10. Callahan, L. T., III,, R. C. Ryder,, and S. H. Richardson. 1971. Biochemistry of Vibrio cholerae virulence. II. Skin permeability factor-cholera enterotoxin production in a chemically defined medium. Infect. Immun. 4:611618.
11. Chedid, M.,, and S. B. Mizel. 1990. Involvement of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in the signal transduction pathway for interleukin-1. Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:38243827.
12. Chisari, F. V.,, and R. S. Northrup. 1974. Pathophysiologic effects of lethal and immunoregula-tory doses of cholera enterotoxin in the mouse. J. Immunol. 113:740749.
13. Chisari, F. V.,, R. S. Northrup,, and L. C. Chen. 1974. The modulating effect of cholera enterotoxin on the immune response. J. Immunol. 113:729739.
14. Colwell, R. R.,, and W. M. Spira,. 1992. The ecology of Vibrio cholerae, p. 107127. In D. Barua, and W. B. Greenough III, (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.
15. Craig, J. P. 1965. A permeability factor (toxin) found in cholera stools and culture filtrates and its neutralization by convalescent cholera sera. Nature (London) 207:614616.
16. Craig, J. P., 1965. The effect of cholera stool and culture filtrates on the skin of guinea pigs and rabbits, p. 153158. In O. A. Bushnell, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.), Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.
17. Craig, J. P., 1971. Cholera toxins, p. 189254. In S. Kadis,, T. C. Montie,, and S. J. Ajl (éd.), Microbial Toxins, vol. IIA. Academic Press, New York.
18. De, S.N. 1959. Enterotoxicity of bacteria-free culture-filtrate of Vibrio cholerae. Nature (London) 183:15331534.
19. De, S.N. 1959. False reaction in ligated loop of rabbit intestine. Indian J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 2:121128.
20. De, S. N.,, M. L. Ghose,, and J. Chandra. 1962. Further observations on choiera enterotoxin. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 3:241245.
21. De, S. N.,, M. L. Ghose,, and A. Sen. 1960. Activities of bacteria-free preparations from Vibrio cholerae. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 79:373380.
22. DiRita, V. J. 1992. Co-ordinate expression of virulence genes by ToxR in Vibrio cholerae. Mol. Microbiol. 6:451458.
23. Donta, S. T.,, and M. King. 1973. Induction of steroidogenesis in tissue culture by cholera enterotoxin. Nature (London) 243:246247.
24. Dragunsky, E. M.,, E. Rivera,, W. Aaronson,, T. M. Dolgaya,, H. D. Hochstein,, W. H. Habig,, and I. S. Levenbook. 1992. Experimental evaluation of antitoxic protective effect of new cholera vaccines in mice. Vaccine 10:735736.
25. Dutta, N. K.,, and M. K. Habbu. 1955. Experimental cholera in infant rabbits: a method for che-motherapeutic investigation. Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother. 10:153159.
26. Dutta, N. K.,, M. V. Panse,, and D. R. Kulkarni. 1959. Role of cholera toxin in experimental cholera. J. Bacteriol. 78:594595.
27. Elson, C. O.,, and W. Ealding. 1984. Generalized systemic and mucosal immunity in mice after mucosal stimulation with cholera toxin. J. Immunol. 132:27362741.
28. Evans, D. J. 1968. Characterization of an ion translocase inhibitor from Vibrio cholerae, p. 1172. Ph.D. dissertation, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, N.C.
29. Evans, D. J., Jr.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1968. ta vitro production of choleragen and vascular permeability factor by Vibrio cholerae. J. Bacteriol. 96:126130.
30. Fasano, A.,, B. Baudry,, D. W. Pumplin,, S. S. Wasserman,, B. D. Tall,, J. M. Ketley,, and J. B. Kaper. 1991. Vibrio cholerae produces a second enterotoxin, which affects intestinal tight junctions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:52425246.
31. Feeley, J. C.,, and M. Pittman. 1962. A mouse protection test for assay of cholera vaccine, p. 9294. In SEATO Conference on Cholera. Post Publishing Co., Bangkok, Thailand.
32. Field, M. 1971. Intestinal secretion: effect of cyclic AMP and its role in cholera. N. Engl. J. Med. 284:11371144.
33. Field, M.,, G. R. Piotkin,, and W. Silen. 1968. Effects of vasopressin, theophylline and cyclic adenosine monophosphate on short-circuit current across isolated rabbit ileal mucosa. Nature (London) 217:469471.
34. Finkeistein, R. A. 1970. Monospecific equine antiserum against cholera exo-enterotoxin. Infect. Immun. 2:691697.
35. Finkeistein, R. A. 1973. Cholera. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 2:553623.
36. Finkeistein, R. A., 1976. Progress in the study of cholera and related enterotoxins, p. 5384. In A. Bernheimer (ed.), Mechanisms in Bacterial Toxicology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
37. Finkeistein, R. A., 1988. Structure of the cholera enterotoxin (choleragen) and the immunologically related ADP-ribosylating heat-labile enterotoxins, p. 138. In M. C. Hardegree,, W. H. Habig,, and A. Tu (ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, vol. II. Bacterial Toxins. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
38. Finkeistein, R. A., 1988. Cholera, the cholera enterotoxins, and the cholera enterotoxin-related enterotoxin family, p. 85101. In P. Owen, and T. J. Foster (ed.), Immunochemical and Molecular Genetic Analysis of Bacterial Pathogens. Elsevier/North Holland Science Publishing, Amsterdam.
39. Finkeistein, R. A., 1992. Cholera enterotoxin (choleragen): a historical perspective, p. 155187. In D. Barua, and W. G. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.
40. Finkeistein, R. A.,, M. Boesman,, S. H. Neon,, M. K. LaRue,, and R. Delaney. 1974. Dissociation and recombinations of the subunits of the cholera enterotoxin (choleragen). J. Immunol. 113:145150.
41. Finkeistein, R. A.,, and C. E. Lankford. 1955. Nutrient requirements of Vibrio cholerae, p. 49. Bacteriol. Proc. 1955.
42. Finkeistein, R. A.,, and J. J. LoSpalluto. 1969. Pathogenesis of experimental cholera: preparation and isolation of choleragen and choleragenoid. J. Exp. Med. 130:185202.
43. Finkeistein, R. A.,, J. J. LoSpaUuto. 1970. Production of highly purified choleragen and choleragenoid. J. Infect. Dis. 121:(Suppl):S63S72.
44. Finkeistein, R. A.,, and S. Mukerjee. 1963. Hemagglutination: a rapid method for differentiating Vibrio cholerae and El Tor vibrios. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112:355359.
45. Finkeistein, R. A.,, M. L. Vasil,, and R. K. Holmes. 1974. Studies on toxinogenesis in Vibrio cholerae. I. Isolation of mutants with altered toxinogenicity. J. Infect. Dis. 129:117123.
46. Formal, S. B.,, D. Kundel,, H. Schneider,, N. Kunev,, and H. Sprinz. 1961. Studies with Vibrio cholerae in the ligated loop of the rabbit intestine. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 42:504510.
47. Fréter, R. 1956. Coproantibody and bacterial antagonism as protective factors in experimental enteric cholera. J. Exp. Med. 104:419426.
48. Fréter, R. 1974. Interactions between mechanisms controlling the intestinal flora. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27:14091416.
49. Fréter, R.,, and P. C. M. O'Brien. 1981. Role of chemotaxis in the association of motile bacteria with intestinal mucosa: fitness and virulence of nonche-motactic Vibrio cholerae mutants in infant mice. Infect. Immun. 34:222233.
50. Fréter, R.,, P. C. M. O'Brien,, and M. S. Macsal. 1981. Role of chemotaxis in the association of motile bacteria with intestinal mucosa: in vivo studies. Infect. Immun. 34:234240.
51. Fujita, K.,, and R. A. Finkelstein. 1972. Antitoxic immunity in experimental cholera: comparison of immunity induced perorally and parenterally in mice. J. Infect. Dis. 125:647655.
52. Galen, J.,, A. Fasano,, J. Ketley,, and S. Richardson. 1990. The role of neuraminidase in Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis, p. 41. Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1990.
52a. Galen, J.,, and J. Kaper. Personal communication.
53. Galen, J. E.,, J. M. Ketley,, A. Fasano,, S. H. Richardson,, S. S. Wasserman,, and J. B. Kaper. 1992. Role of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase in the function of cholera toxin. Infect. Immun. 60:406415.
54. Gill, D. M. 1976. The arrangement of subunits in cholera toxin. Biochemistry 15:12421248.
55. Goldberg, M. B.,, V. J. DiRita,, and S. B. Calder-wood. 1990. Identification of an iron-regulated virulence determinant in Vibrio cholerae, using TnphoA mutagenesis. Infect. Immun. 58:5560.
56. Greenough, W. B., III,, N. F. Pierce,, and M. Vaughn. 1970. Titration of cholera enterotoxin and antitoxin in isolated fat cells. J. Infect. Dis. 121:S111S113.
57. Guerrant, R. L.,, L. L. Brunton,, T. C. Schnait-man,, L. I. Rebbun,, and A. G. Gilman. 1974. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and alteration of Chinese hamster ovary cell morphology: a rapid, sensitive in vitro assay for the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 10:320327.
58. Guptka, R. K.,, S. C. Szu,, R. A. Finkelstein,, and J. B. Robbins. 1992. Synthesis characterization, and some immunological properties of conjugates composed of the detoxified lipopolysaccharide of Vibrio cholera Ol serotype Inaba bound to cholera toxin. Infect. Immun. 60:32013208.
59. Hill, S. J.,, and J. L. Ebersole. 1991. Cholera toxin synergizes LPS and IL-1 beta-induced PGE2 release: potential amplification systems in cholera. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 10:445449.
60. Hochstein, H. D.,, J. C. Feeley,, and S. H. Richardson. 1970. Titration of cholera antitoxin levels by passive hemagglutination tests using fresh and formalinized sheep erythrocytes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133:120124.
61. Holmgren, J.,, I. Lonnroth,, and L. Svennerholm. 1973. Tissue receptor for cholera exotoxin: postulated structure from studies with GM1 ganglioside and related glycolipids. Infect. Immun. 8:208214.
62. Honda, T.,, and R. A. Finkelstein. 1979. Selection and characteristics of a novel Vibrio cholerae mutant lacking the A (ADP-ribosylating) portion of the cholera enterotoxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:20522056.
63. Huber, G. S.,, and R. A. Phillips. 1962. Cholera and the sodium pump, p. 3740. In SEATO Conference on Cholera. Post Publishing Co., Bangkok, Thailand.
64. Jenkin, C. R.,, and D. Rowley. 1959. Possible factors in the pathogenesis of cholera. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 40:474482.
65. Kaper, J. B.,, and M. M. Levine. 1990. Recombinant attenuated Vibrio cholerae strains used as live oral vaccines. Res. Microbiol. 141:901906.
66. Kennedy, J. R.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1969. Fine structure of Vibrio cholerae during toxin production. J. Bacteriol. 100:13931401.
67. Kennedy, J. R.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1972. Effects of cholera permeability factor on guinea pig skin. An electron microscopic study. Lab. Invest. 26:409418.
68. King, C. A.,, and W. E. van Heyningen. 1973. Deactivation of cholera toxin by a sialidase-resistant monosialosyl ganglioside. J. Infect. Dis. 127:639647.
69. Koonìn, E. V. 1992. The second cholera toxin, Zot, and its plasmid-encoded and phage-encoded homologues constitute a group of putative ATPases with an altered purine NTP-binding motif. FEBS Lett. 312:36.
70. Kothary, M. H.,, E. E Claverie,, J. M. Madden,, and S. H. Richardson. 1991. Purification and characterization of a Vibrio hollisae toxin which elongates chínese hamster ovary cells, p. 5358. Proc. 27th Joint Conf. Cholera Related Diarrheal Dis.
71. Kothary, M. H.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1987. Fluid accumulation in infant mice caused by Vibrio hollisae and its extracellular enterotoxin. Infect. Immun. 55:626630.
72. Kuhn, R. E.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1984. A study on the genetic and cellular basis of sensitivity to cholera toxin in the SAM model, p. 221. Abstr. Joint Meet. R. Am. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
73. LaBrec, E. H.,, H. Sprinz,, H. Schneider,, and S. Formal,. 1965. Localization of vibrios in experimental cholera: a fluorescent antibody study in guinea pigs, p. 272276. In O. A. Bushnell, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.), Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
74. Lange, S.,, I. Lonnroth,, and H. Nygren. 1984. Intestinal resistance to cholera toxin in mouse. Antitoxic antibodies and desensitization of adenylate cyclase. Int. Arch. Allergy Appi. Immunol. 74:221225.
75. Lankford, C. E. 1960. Factors of virulence of Vibrio cholerae. Ann. N.Y.Acad. Sci. 88:12031212.
76. Lankford, C. E.,, and U. Legsomburana,. 1965. Virulence factors of choleragenic vibrios, p. 109120. In O. A. Bushnell, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.), Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
77. Leitch, G. J. 1988. Cholera enterotoxin-induced mucus secretion and increase in the mucus blanket of the rabbit ileum in vivo. Infect. Immun. 56:28712875.
78. Levine, M. M.,, and J. B.. Kaper. 1993. Live oral vaccines against cholera: an update. Vaccine 11:207212.
79. Levine, M. M.,, J. B. Kaper,, R. E. Black,, and M. L. Clements. 1983. New knowledge on pathogenesis of bacterial enteric infection as applied to vaccine development. Microbiol. Rev. 47:510550.
80. Levine, M. M.,, and N. F. Pierce,. 1992. Immunity and vaccine development, p. 285327. In D. Barua, and W. B. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.
81. Lewis, A. C.,, and S. H. Richardson. 1974. Properties of cholera enterotoxin from chemically defined media, p. 8292. In Proceedings of the Ninth Joint Cholera Conference. Department of State publication no. 8762. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
82. Lewis, A. C.,, S. H. Richardson,, and B. Sheridan. 1976. Biochemistry of Vibrio cholerae virulence: purification of cholera enterotoxin by preparative disc electrophoresis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:288293.
83. Lockwood, D.,, S. H. Richardson,, and M. Aiken. 1982. In vivo biologic activities of Vibrio fluvialis and its toxic products, p. 31. Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1982.
84. Lockwood, D. E.,, A. S. Kreger,, and S. H. Richardson. 1982. Detection of toxins produced by Vibrio fluvialis. Infect. Immun. 35:702708.
85. Lönnroth, I.,, and J. Holmgren. 1973. Subunit structure of cholera toxin. J. Gen. Microbiol. 76:417427.
86. Lycke, N.,, A. K. Bromander,, L. Ekman,, U. Karlsson,, and J. Holmgren. 1989. Cellular basis of immunomodulation by cholera toxin in vitro with possible association to the adjuvant function in vivo. J. Immunol. 142:2027.
87. Manan, M. J.,, J. M. Slauch,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1993. Selection of bacterial virulence genes that are specifically induced in host tissues. Science 259:686688.
88. Mekalanos, J. J. 1985. Cholera toxin: genetic analysis, regulation and role in pathogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 118:97118.
89. Mekalanos, J. J. 1992. Environmental signals controlling expression of virulence determinants in bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 174:17.
90. Mekalanos, J. J.,, R. J. Collier,, and W. R. Romig. 1978. Purification of cholera toxin and its sub-units: new methods of preparation and the use of hypertoxinogenic mutants. Infect. Immun. 20:552558.
91. Mekalanos, J. J.,, R. J. Collier,, and W. R. Romig. 1978. Affinity filters, a new approach to the isolation of tox mutants of Vibrio cholerae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:941945.
91a. Mekalanos, J. J.,, and M. H. Kothary. Personal communication.
92. Mekalanos, J. J.,, S. L. Moseley,, J. R. Murphy,, and S. Falkow. 1982. Isolation of enterotoxin structural gene deletion mutations in Vibrio cholerae induced by two mutagenic vibriophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 79:151155.
93. Miller, J. F.,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and S. Falkow. 1989. Coordinate regulation and sensory transduction in the control of bacterial virulence. Science 243:916922.
94. Miller, V. L.,, R. K. Taylor,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1987. Cholera toxin transcriptional activator ToxR is a transmembrane DNA binding protein. Cell 48:271279.
95. Moyenuddin, M.,, K. Wachsmuth,, S. H. Richardson,, and W. L. Cook. 1992. Enteropatho-genicity of non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol for adult mice. Microb. Pathog. 12:451458.
96. Nelson, E. T.,, J. D. Clements,, and R. A. Finkeistein. 1976. Vibrio cholerae adherence and colonization in experimental cholera: electron microscopic studies. Infect. Immun. 14:527547.
97. Northrup, R. S.,, and F. V. Chisari. 1972. Response of monkeys to immunization with cholera toxoid, toxin, and vaccine: reversion of cholera toxoid. J. Infect. Dis. 125:471479.
98. Northrup, R. S.,, and A. S. Fauci. 1972. Adjuvant effect of cholera enterotoxin on the immune response of the mouse to sheep red blood cells. J. Infect. Dis. 125:672673.
99. Ohtomo, N.,, T. Muraoka,, A. Tashiro,, Y. Zin-naka,, and K. Amako. 1976. Size and structure of the cholera toxin molecule and its subunits. J. Infect. Dis. 133(Suppl):S31S40.
100. Osek, J.,, A. M. Svennerholm,, and J. Holmgren. 1992. Protection against Vibrio cholerae El Tor infection by specific antibodies against mannose-binding hemagglutinin pili. Infect. Immun. 60: 49614964.
101. Owen, R. L.,, N. F. Pierce,, R. T. Apple,, and W. C. Cray, Jr. 1986. M cell transport of Vibrio cholerae from the intestinal lumen into Peyer's patches: a mechanism for antigen sampling and for microbial transepithelial migration. J. Infect. Dis. 153:11081118.
102. Parker, C.,, D. Gauthier,, A. Tate,, K. Richardson,, and W. R. Romig. 1979. Extended linkage map of Vibrio cholerae. Genetics 91:191214.
103. Parsot, C.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1991. Expression of ToxR, the transcriptional activator of the virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, is modulated by the heat shock response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:98989902.
104. Patel, P.,, C. F. Marrs,, J. S. Mattick,, W. M. Ruehl,, R. K. Taylor,, and M. Koomey. 1991. Shared antigenicity and immunogenicity of type 4 pilins expressed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mor-axella bovis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Dichelobacter nodosus, and Vibrio cholerae. Infect. Immun. 59:46744676.
105. Pearson, G. D. N.,, V. J. DiRita,, M. B. Goldberg,, S. A. Boyko,, S. B. Calderwood,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1990. New attenuated derivatives of Vibrio cholerae. Res. Microbiol. 14:893899.
106. Peterson, J. W.,, J. J. LoSpalluto,, and R. A. Finkelstein. 1972. Localization of cholera toxin in vivo. J. Infect. Dis. 126:617628.
107. Peterson, J. W.,, and L. G. Ochoa. 1989. Role of prostaglandins and cAMP in the secretory effects of cholera toxin. Science 245:857859.
108. Peterson, K. M.,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1988. Characterization of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR regulen: identification of novel genes involved in intestinal colonization. Infect. Immun. 56:28222829.
109. Phillips, R. A., 1965. Pathophysiology of cholera, p. 8284. In O. A. Bushnell, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.), Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
110. Pierce, N. F. 1973. Differential inhibitory effects of cholera toxoids and ganglioside on the enterotoxins of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. J. Exp. Med. 137:10091023.
111. Pierce, N. F. 1978. The role of antigen form and function in the primary and secondary intestinal immune responses to cholera toxin and toxoid in rats. J. Exp. Med. 145:195206.
112. Pierce, N. F.,, and J. L. Gowans. 1975. Cellular kinetics of the intestinal immune response to cholera toxoid in rats. J. Exp. Med. 142:15501563.
113. Pierce, N. E.,, J. B. Kaper,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and W. C. Cray, Jr. 1985. Role of cholera toxin in enteric colonization by Vibrio cholerae Ol in rabbits. Infect. Immun. 50:813816.
114. PolUtzer, R. 1959. Cholera. Monograph no. 43. World Health Organization, Geneva.
115. Rappaport, R. S.,, and G. Bonde. 1981. Development of a vaccine against experimental cholera and Escherichia coli diarrheal disease. Infect. Immun. 32:534542.
116. Rappaport, R. S.,, G., Bonde,, T. McCann, B. A. Rubin, and H. Tint. 1974. Development of a purified cholera toxoid. II. Preparation of a stable, antigenic toxoid by reaction of purified toxin with glu-taraldehyde. Infect. Immun. 9:304317.
117. Rappaport, R. S.,, B. A. Rubin,, and H. Tint. 1974. Development of a purified cholera toxoid. I Purification of toxin. Infect. Immun. 9:294303.
118. Richardson, K. 1991. Roles of motility and flagellar structure in pathogenity of Vibrio cholerae: analysis of motility mutants in three animal models. Infect. Immun. 59:27272736.
119. Richardson, S. H. 1966. Inhibition of intestinal ion translocase enzymes by culture filtrates of Vibrio cholerae. J. Bacteriol. 91:13841386.
120. Richardson, S. H. 1968. An ion translocase system from rabbit intestinal mucosa. Preparation and properties of the (Na+K+)-activated ATPase. Bio-chim. Biophys. Acta 150:572577.
121. Richardson, S. H. 1969. Factors influencing in vitro skin permeability factor production by Vibrio cholera. J. Bacteriol. 100:2734.
122. Richardson, S. H.,, and D. J. Evans, Jr., 1965. The effects of Vibrio cholerae extracts on membrane transport mechanisms, p. 139144. In O.A. Bushnell, and C. S. Brookhyer (ed.), Proceedings of the Cholera Research Symposium, Honolulu, 1965. U.S. Public Health Service publication no. 1328. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
123. Richardson, S. H.,, and D. J. Evans, Jr. 1968. Isolation of cholera toxins by dextran sulfate precipitation. J. Bacteriol. 96:14431445.
124. Richardson, S. H.,, J. Giles,, and K. S. Kruger. 1983. H-2 modulation of cholera enterotoxin effects in SAM (sealed adult mice), p. 28 Abstr. Anna. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 1983.
125. Richardson, S. H.,, J. C. Giles,, and K. S. Kruger. 1984. Sealed adult mice: new model for enterotoxin evaluation. Infect. Immun. 43:482486.
126. Richardson, S. H.,, and R. E. Kuhn. 1986. Studies on the genetic and cellular control of sensitivity to enterotoxins in the sealed adult mouse model. Infect. Immun. 54:522528.
127. Richardson, S. H.,, W. McKenzie,, E. Daves,, D. J. Evans,, and D. G. Evans,. 1975. Trans-missibility of the plasmid controlling vascular permeability factor (PF) and heat labile enterotoxin (LT) in E. coli from patients with "cholera-like" diarrhea, p. 3744. In H. Fukumi, and M. Ohashi (ed.), Symposium on Cholera Kyoto 1974. Japanese Cholera Panel, Tokyo.
128. Richardson, S. H.,, and K. A. Noftie. 1970. Purification and properties of permeability factor/cholera enterotoxin from complex and synthetic media. J. Infect. Dis. 121:S73S79.
129. Roomi, N.,, M. Laburthe,, N. Fleming,, R. Crovrther,, and J. Forstner. 1984. Cholera-induced mucin secretion from rat intestine: lack of effect of cAMP, cycloheximide, VIP and colchicine. Am. J. Physiol. 247:G140G148.
130. Sack, R. B.,, C. C. J. Carpenter,, R. W. Steenburg,, and N. F. Pierce. 1966. Experimental cholera: a canine model. Lancet 7456:206207.
131. Sack, R. B.,, and C. E. Miller. 1969. Progressive changes of vibrio serotypes in germ-free mice infected with Vibrio cholerae. J. Bacteriol. 99:688695.
132. Savage, D. C. 1978. Factors involved in colonization of the gut epithelial surface. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 31:S131S135.
133. Savage, D. C., 1980. Adherence of normal flora to mucosal surfaces, p. 3359. In E. H. Beachey (ed.), Bacterial Adherence. Chapman & Hall, London.
134. Schrank, G. D.,, and W. F. Verwey. 1976. Distribution of cholera organisms in experimental Vibrio cholerae infections: proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibacterial immunity. Infect. Immun. 13:195203.
135. Sciortino, C. V. 1989. Protection against infection with Vibrio cholerae by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies to outer membrane antigens. J. Infect. Dis. 160:248252.
136. Sengupta, D. K.,, T. K. Sengupta,, and S. C. Ghose. 1992. Major outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae and their role in induction of protective immunity through inhibition of intestinal colonization. Infect. Immun. 60:48484855.
137. Spangier, B. D. 1992. Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin. Microbiol. Rev. 56:622647.
138. Spira, W. M.,, and P. J. Fedorka-Cray. 1984. Purification of enterotoxins from Vibrio mimicus that appear to be identical to cholera toxin. Infect. Immun. 45:679684.
139. Spira, W. M.,, R. B. Sack,, and J. L. Froehlich. 1981. Simple adult rabbit model for Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea. Infect. Immun. 32:739747.
140. Spyrides, G. J.,, and J. C. Feeley. 1970. Concentration and purification of cholera exotoxin by absorption on aluminum compound gels. J. Infect. Dis. 121(Suppl):S96S99.
141. Sun, D.,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and R. K. Taylor. 1990. Antibodies directed against the toxin-co-regulated pilus isolated from Vibrio cholerae provide protection in the infant mouse experimental cholera model. J. Infect. Dis. 161:12311236.
142. Sun, D.,, J. M. Seyer,, J. Kovari,, R. A. Sumrada,, and R. K. Taylor. 1991. Localization of protective epitopes within the pilin subunit of the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus. Infect. Immun. 59:114118.
143. Svennerholm, A. M.,, and J. Holmgren. 1976. Synergistic protective effect in rabbits of immunization with Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide and toxin/toxoid. Infect. Immun. 13:735740.
144. Tannenbaum, C. S.,, and T. A. Hamilton. 1989. Lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression in murine peritoneal macrophages is selectively suppressed by agents that elevate intracellular cAMP. J. Immunol. 142:12741280.
145. Taylor, R. K.,, V. L. Miller,, D. B. Furlong,, and J. J. Mekalanos. 1987. Use of phoA gene fusions to identify a pilus colonization factor coordinately regulated with cholera toxin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:28332837.
146. Trucksis, M.,, J. E. Galen,, J. Michalski,, A. Fasano,, and J. B. Kaper. 1993. Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), the third member of a Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 52675271.
147. Ujiiye, A.,, A. Nakatomi,, K. Utsunomiya,, K. Mitsui,, S. Segarne,, M. Iwanaga,, and K. Kobari. 1968. Experimental cholera in mice. I. First report on the oral infection. Trop. Med. (Nagasaki University) 10:6571.
148. van Heyningen, W. E. Personal communication.
149. van Heyningen, W. E.,, C. C. J. Carpenter,, N. F. Pierce,, and W. B. Greenough III. 1971. Deactivation of cholera toxin by ganglioside. J. Infect. Dis. 124:415418.
150. van Heyningen, W. E.,, and J. R. Seal. 1983. Cholera. The American Scientific Experience 1947-80. Westview Press, Boulder, Colo.
151. Vasil, J. L.,, R. K. Holmes,, and R. A. Finkeistein. 1975. Conjugal transfer of a chromosomal gene determining production of enterotoxin in Vibrio cholerae. Science 187:849850.
152. Vaughan, M.,, N. F. Pierce,, and W. B. Greenough III. 1970. Stimulation of glycerol production in fat cells by cholera toxin. Nature (London) 226:658659.
153. Weston, L.,, H. Drexler,, and S. H. Richardson. 1973. Characterization of vibriophage VA-1 J. Gen. Virol. 21:155158.
154. Winner, L. III,, J. Mack,, R. Weltzin,, J. J. Mekalanos,, J. Kraehenbuhl,, and M. Neutra. 1991. New model for analysis of mucosal immunity: intestinal secretion of specific monoclonal immunoglobulin A from hybridoma tumors protects against Vibrio cholerae infection. Infect. Immun. 59:977982.
155. Yamamoto, T.,, and T. Yokota. 1989. Vibrio cholerae Ol adherence to human small intestinal cells in vitro. 7. Infect. Dis. 160:168169.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Major animal models in cholera research

Citation: Richardson S. 1994. Animal Models in Cholera Research, p 203-226. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch14

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error