Chapter 2 : Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap02-2.gif


Large numbers of are discharged in the feces of infected individuals. Inadequate sewage treatment allows water systems to become contaminated. When water becomes contaminated with toxigenic strains of O1 and is then used by other individuals for drinking or in food preparation, the result is often widespread disease. Cholera was one of the first epidemic diseases to be controlled by public health measures in the 19th century. In the large epidemics that have occurred during the last century, contaminated water has undoubtedly been the major vehicle of transmission, with food playing a lesser but significant role in the spread of the disease. The transmission of cholera by ingestion of contaminated food has been documented in numerous instances discussed in this chapter. Methods of enhancing the isolation of 01 have been developed and optimized, primarily by taking advantage of the organism's rapid generation time under certain conditions and its tolerance to alkali. Ol is relatively easy to isolate from water samples if the contamination is recent. Filtration techniques for examining known quantities of water and estimating the amount of contamination have been developed. Since food and water are intimately involved in transmission, people must be taught hygienic practices that limit fecal-oral transmission. Disinfection of water supplies would also prevent a great many cases, and disinfection of the home water supply may be economically feasible.

Citation: Kaysner C, Hill W. 1994. Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water, p 27-39. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Latex Agglutination Test
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Albert, M. J.,, A. K. Siddique,, M. S. Islam,, A. S. G. Faruque,, M. Ansaruzzaman,, S. M. Faruque,, and R. B. Sack. 1993. Large outbreak of clinical cholera due to Vibrio cholerae non-01 in Bangladesh. Lancet 341:704.
2. Almeida, R. J.,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, E. G. Sowers,, N. D. Puhr,, J. J. Farmer III,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1990. Comparison of a latex agglutination assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting cholera toxin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:128130.
3. Baine, W. B.,, M. Mazzotti,, D. Greco,, E. Izzo,, A. Zampieri,, G. Angioni,, M. DiGrola,, E. J. Gangarosa, and F. Pocchiari. 1974. Epidemiology of cholera in Italy in 1973. Lancet ii:13701374.
4. Baumann, P.,, and R. H. W. Schubert,. 1984. Section 5. Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods, Family II. Vibrionaceae, p. 516550. In J. G. Holt, and N. R. Krieg (ed.), hergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
5. Blake, P. A.,, D. T. Allegra,, J. D. Snyder,, T. J. Barrett,, L. McFarland,, C. T. Caraway,, J. C. Feeley,, J. P. Craig,, J. V. Lee,, N. D. Puhr,, and R. A. Feldman. 1980. Cholera—a possible endemic focus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 6:305309.
6. Blake, P. A.,, M. L. Rosenberg,, J. B. Costa,, P. S. Ferreira,, C. L. Guimaraes,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1977. Cholera in Portugal. I. Modes of Transmission. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:337343.
7. Blake, P. A.,, M. L. Rosenberg,, J. Florencia,, J. B. Costa,, L. D. P. Quintino,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1977. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:344348.
8. Bourke, A. T. C.,, Y. N. Cossins,, B. R. W. Gray,, T. J. Lunney,, N. A. Rostron,, R. V. Holmes,, E. R. Griggs,, D. J. Larsen,, and V. R. Kelk. 1986. Investigation of cholera acquired from the riverine environment in Queensland. Med. J. Aust. 144:229234.
9. Boutin, B. K.,, J. G. Bradshaw,, and W. H. Stroup. 1982. Heat processing of oysters naturally contaminated with Vibrio cholerae serotype Ol. J. FoodProt. 45:169171.
10. Bradford, H. B., Jr., 1984. An epidemiological study of V. cholerae in Louisiana, p. 5972. In R. R. Colwell (ed.), Vibrios in the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
11. Cameron, J. M.,, K. Hester,, W. L. Smith,, E. Caviness,, T. Hosty,, and F. S. Wolf. 1977. Vibrio cholerae—Alabama. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 26:159160.
12. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol infection acquired in Colorado. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 38:1920.
13. Centers for Disease Control. 1990. Cholera-worldwide, 1989. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 39:365367.
14. Centers for Disease Control. 1991. New York, 1991. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 40:516518.
15. Centers for Disease Control. 1991. Cholera associated with imported frozen coconut milk—Maryland, 1991. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 40:844845.
16. Centers for Disease Control. 1992. Cholera associated with an international airline flight, 1992. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 41:134135.
17. Centers for Disease Control. 1992. Cholera associated with international travel, 1992. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 41:664667.
18. Chevalier, M.,, and M. Vandekerkove. 1980. Experimental studies on the survival of Vibrio cholerae in untreated seawater. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 73:364371. (In French.)
19. Clesceri, L. S.,, A. F. Greenberg,, and R. R. Trussel (ed.). 1989. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Part 9000. Microbiological Examination of Water, 17th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington D.C.
20. Colwell, R. R.,, R. J. Siedler,, J. Kaper,, S. W. Joseph,, S. Garges,, H. Lockman,, D. Maneval,, H. Bradford,, N. Roberts,, E. Remmers,, I. Huq,, and A. Huq. 1981. Occurrence of Vibrio cholerae serotype 01 in Maryland and Louisiana estuaries. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:555558.
21. Davey, G. R.,, J. K. Prendergast,, and M. J. Eyles. 1982. Detection of Vibrio cholerae in oysters, water and sediment from the Georges River. Food Technol. Aust. 34:334336.
22. De, S. N. 1961. Cholera. Its Pathology and Pathogenesis. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.
23. Dean, A. G.,, Y. Ching,, R. G. Williams,, and L. B. Harden. 1972. Test for Escherichia coli enterotoxin using infant mice: application in a study of diarrhea in children in Honolulu. J. Infect. Dis. 125:407411.
24. DePaola, A. 1981. Vibrio cholerae in marine foods and environmental waters: a literature review. J. FoodSci. 46:6670.
25. DePaola, A.,, G. M. Capers,, M. L. Motes,, O. Olsvik,, P. I. Fields,, J. Wells,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, T. A. Cebula,, W. H. Koch,, F. Khambaty,, M. H. Kothary,, W. L. Payne,, and B. A. Wentz. 1992. Isolation of Latin American epidemic strain of Vibrio cholerae Ol from U.S. Gulf Coast. Lancet. 339:624.
26. DePaola, A.,, C. A. Kaysner,, and R. M. McPhearson. 1987. Elevated temperature method for recovery of Vibrio cholerae from oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:11811182.
27. Desmarchelier, P. M.,, and J. L. Reichelt. 1981. Phenotypic characterization of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Australia. Curr. Microbiol. 5:123127.
28. Dutt, A. K.,, S. Alwi,, and T. Velauthan. 1971. A shellfish-borne cholera outbreak in Malaysia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65:815816.
29. Elliot, E. L.,, C. A. Kaysner,, and M. L. Tam-plin. 1992. Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and other Vibrio spp., p. 111140. In Food and Drug Administration, Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 7th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Va.
30. Epstein, P. R. 1992. Cholera and the environment. Lancet 339:11671168.
31. Feldman, R. A. 1992. Transmission of cholera: modes of spread and vehicles. Microbiol. Dig. 9:3741.
32. Felsenfeld, 0. 1965. Notes on food, beverages and fomites contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bull. W.H.O. 33:725734.
33. Fields, P. I.,, T. Popovic,, K. Wachsmuth,, and 0. Olsvik. 1992. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:21182121.
34. Garay, E.,, A. Arnau,, and C. Amaro. 1985. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:426430.
35. Glass, R. I.,, M. Libel,, and A. D. Brandling-Bennett. 1992. Epidemic cholera in the Americas. Science 256:15241525.
36. Hill, W. E.,, A. R. Datta,, P. Feng,, K. A. Lampel,, and W. L. Payne. 1992. Identification of food-borne bacterial pathogens by gene probes, p. 383418. In Food and Drug Administration, Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Va.
37. Hill, W. E.,, S. P. Keasler,, M. W. Trucksess,, P. Feng,, C. A. Kaysner,, and K. A. Lampel. 1991. Polymerase chain reaction identification of Vibrio vulnificus in artificially contaminated oysters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:707711.
38. Hood, M. A.,, G. E. Ness,, and G. E. Rodrick. 1981. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype Ol from the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:559560.
39. Hood, M. A.,, G. E. Ness,, G. E. Rodrick,, and N. J. Blake. 1983. Distribution of Vibrio cholerae in two Florida estuaries. Microb. Ecol. 9:6575.
40. Huq, A.,, R. R. Colwell,, R. Rahman,, A. AH,, M. A. R. Chowdhury,, S. Parveen,, D. A. Sack,, and E. Russek-Cohen. 1990. Detection of Vibrio cholerae Ol in the aquatic environment by fluorescent-monoclonal antibody and culture methods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:23702373.
41. Johnston, J. M.,, D. L. Martin,, J. Perdue,, L. M. McFarland,, C. T. Caraway,, E. C. Lippey,, and P. A. Blake. 1983. Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig. N. Engl. J. Med. 309:523526.
42. Joseph, P. R.,, J. F. Tamayo,, W. H. Mosley,, M. G. Alvero,, J. J. Dizon,, and D. A. Henderson. 1965. Studies of cholera El Tor in the Philippines. 2. A retrospective investigation of an explosive outbreak in Bacolod City and Talisay, November 1961. Bull. W.H.O. 33:637640.
43. Kaper, J.,, H. Lockman,, R. R. Colwell,, and S. W. Joseph. 1979. Ecology, serology, and enterotoxin production of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37:91103.
44. Kaper, J.,, E. F. Remmers,, and R. R. Colwell. 1980. A presumptive medium for identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J. Food Prot. 43:956958.
45. Kaysner, C. A.,, C. Abeyta, Jr.,, M. M. Wekell,, A. DePaola, Jr.,, R. F. Stott,, and J. M. Leitch. 1987. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae from estuaries of the United States west coast. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:13441348.
46. Klontz, K. C.,, R. V. Tauxe,, W. L. Cook,, W. H. Riley,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1987. Cholera after consumption of raw oysters. Ann. Intern. Med. 107:846848.
47. Kobayashi, T.,, S. Enomoto,, and R. Sakazaki. 1963. A new selective isolation medium for the vibrio group on a modified Nakanishi's medium (TCBS agar medium). Jpn. J. Bacteriol. 18:387392.
48. Koch, W. H.,, W. L. Payne,, B. A. Wentz,, and T. A. Cebula. 1993. Rapid polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Vibrio cholerae in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:556560.
49. Kolvin, J. L.,, and D. Roberts. 1982. Studies on the growth of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor and bio-type classical in foods. J. Hyg. (Cambridge) 89:243252.
50. Kozicki, M.,, R. Steffen,, and M. Schar. 1985. "Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it": does this rule prevent travelers diarrhoea? Int. J. Epidemiol. 14:169172.
51. Lee, J. V.,, D. J. Bashford,, T. J. Donovan,, A. L. Furniss,, and P. A. West. 1982. The incidence of Vibrio cholerae in water, animals and birds in Kent, England. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 52:281291.
52. Lin, F. C.,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, J. B. Kaper,, T. Gross,, J. Michalski,, C. Morrison,, J. P. Li-bonati,, and E. Israel. 1986. Persistence of cholera in the United States: Isolation of Vibrio cholerae Ol from a patient with diarrhea in Maryland. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23:624626.
53. Lockman, H.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1983. Nucleotide sequence analysis if the A2 and B subunits of Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin. J. Biol. Chem. 258:1372213726.
54. Madden, J. M.,, B. A. McCardeU,, and J. G. Morris, Jr., 1989. Vibrio cholerae, p. 525542. In M. P. Doyle (ed.), Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel Dekker, New York.
55. Madden, J. M.,, B. A. McCardeU,, and R. B. Read, Jr. 1982. Vibrio cholerae in shellfish from U.S. coastal waters. Food Technol. 36:9396.
56. Makukutu, C. A.,, and R. F. Guthrie. 1986. Behavior of Vibrio cholerae in hot foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:824831.
57. Massad, G.,, and J. D. Oliver. 1987. New selective and differential medium for Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:22622264.
58. McCarthy, S. A.,, R. M. McPhearson,, A. M. Guarino,, and J. L. Gaines. 1992. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Ol and cargo ships entering Gulf of Mexico. Lancet 339:624625.
59. McNicol, L. A.,, and R. M. Doetsch. 1983. A hypothesis accounting for the origin of pandemic cholera: a retrograde analysis. Perspect. Biol. Med. 26:547552.
60. Merson, M. H.,, W. T. Martin,, J. P. Craig,, G. K. Morris,, P. A. Blake,, G. F. Craun,, J. C. Feeley,, J. C. Camacho,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1977. Cholera on Guam, 1974. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:349351.
61. Monsur, K. A. 1961. A highly selective gelatin-taurocholate-tellurite medium for the isolation of Vibrio cholerae. Trans. R. Soc. Med. Hyg. 55:440442.
62. Moore, B. 1948. The detection of paratyphoid carriers in towns by means of sewage examination. Mon. Bull. Minist. Health. Public Health Lab. Serv. 7:241248.
63. Odugbo, M. O.,, S. I. Onuorah,, and A. A. Ade-siyun. 1990. Survival and multiplication of Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa in reconstituted infant milk. J. Food Prot. 53:10711072.
64. Olsvik, O.,, T. Popovic,, and P. I. Fields,. 1992. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxin genes in strains of Vibrio cholerae Ol, p. 573583. In D. H. Persing,, F. C. Tenover,, T. F. Smith,, and T. J. White (ed.) Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
65. Pan American Health Organization. 1991. Risks of Transmission of Cholera by Food, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C.
66. Pan American Health Organization. 1993. Cholera in the Americas. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C.
67. Pavia, A. T.,, J. F. Campbell,, P. A. Blake,, J. D. Smith,, T. W. McKinley,, and D. I. Martin. 1987. Cholera from raw oysters shipped interstate. JAMA 258:2374.
68. Pollitzer, R. 1959. Cholera. Monograph no. 43. World Health Organization, Geneva. Switzerland.
69. Prescott, L. M.,, and N. K. Bhattacharjee. 1969. Viability of El Tor Vibrios in common foodstuffs found in an endemic cholera area. Bull. W.H.O. 40:980982.
70. Ramamurthy, T.,, S. Garg,, R. Sharma,, S. K. Bhattacharya,, G. B. Nair,, T. Shimada,, T. Takeda,, T. Karasawa,, H. Kurazano,, A. Pal,, and Y. Takeda. 1993. Emergence of a novel strain of Vibrio cholerae with epidemic potential in southern and eastern India. Lancet 341:703704.
71. Rippey, S. R. 1991. Shellfish Borne Disease Outbreaks. Food and Drug Administration, North Kingstown, R.I.
72. Roberts, D. 1992. Growth and survival of Vibrio cholerae in foods. Microbiol. Dig. 9:2431.
73. Roberts, N. C.,, R. J. Seibeling,, J. B. Kaper,, and H. B. Bradford, Jr. 1982. Vibrios in the Louisiana Gulf Coast environment. Microb. Ecol. 8:299312.
74. Saiki, R. K.,, D. H. Gelfand,, S. Stoffel,, S. J. Scharf,, R. Higuchi,, G. T. Horn,, K. B. Mullis,, and H. A. Erlich. 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 239:487491.
75. Saiki, R. K.,, S. Scharf,, F. Faloona,, K. B. Mullis,, G. T. Horn,, and H. A. Erlich. 1985. Enzymatic amplification of beta-globin genomic sequence and restriction analysis for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia. Science 230:13501354.
76. Schoenberg, B. E. 1974. Snow on the water of London. Mayo Clin. Proc. 49:680684.
77. Shandera, W. X.,, B. Hafkin,, D. L. Martin,, J. P. Taylor,, D. L. Maserang,, J. G. Wells,, M. Kelly,, K. Ghandi,, J. B. Kaper,, J. V. Lee,, and P. A. Blake. 1983. Persistence of cholera in the United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32:812817.
78. Shewan, J. M.,, W. Hodgkiss,, and J. Listen. 1954. A method for the rapid identification of certain non-pathogenic, asporogenous bacilli. Nature (London) 173:208209.
79. Singleton, F. L.,, R. Attwell,, S. Jangi,, and R. R. Colwell. 1982. Effects of temperature and salinity on Vibrio cholerae growth. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44:10471058.
80. Smith, H. L. 1970. A presumptive test for Vibrios: the "string" test. Bull. W.H.O. 42:817818.
81. St. Louis, M. E.,, J. D. Porter,, A. Helal,, K. Drame,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, J. G. Wells,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1990. Epidemic cholera in West Africa: the role of food handling and high-risk foods. Am. J. Epidemiol. 131:719728.
82. Tamplin, M. L.,, and C. C. Parodi. 1991. Environmental spread of Vibrio cholerae in Peru. Lancet 338:12161217.
83. Tauxe, R. V.,, and P. A. Blake. 1992. Epidemic cholera in Latin America. JAMA 267:13881390.
84. Weissman, J. B.,, W. E. DeWitt,, J. Thompson,, C. N. Muchnick,, B. L. Portnoy,, J. C. Feeley,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1974. A case of cholera in Texas, 1973. Am. J. Epidemiol. 100:487490.
85. West, P. A. 1992. The ecology and survival of Vibrio cholerae in natural aquatic environments. Microbiol. Dig. 9:2023.
86. Xu, H-S.,, N. Roberts,, F. L. Singleton,, R. W. Attwell,, D. J. Grimes,, and R. R. Colwell. 1982. Survival and viability of nonculturable Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae in the estuarine and marine environment. Microb. Ecol. 8:313323.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Food products recently associated with cholera in the United States

Citation: Kaysner C, Hill W. 1994. Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water, p 27-39. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

Factors influencing survival of V. cholerae in food and the environment

Citation: Kaysner C, Hill W. 1994. Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water, p 27-39. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Biochemical differentiation of biotypes of Ol

Citation: Kaysner C, Hill W. 1994. Toxigenic Ol in Food and Water, p 27-39. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error