Chapter 20 : Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818364/9781555810672_Chap20-2.gif


During the last 2 decades, evidence has accumulated from Australia and the United States that shows that both of these countries have environmental reservoirs for toxigenic O1. Australia recorded cholera for the first time in 1832, just 15 years after the first pandemic began in India. The association of cholera cases with river water led to extensive studies of rivers in Queensland. New methods that have become more and more capable of reproducibly subtyping O1 strains have been developed. Cholera was first recognized in the United States in June 1832, when it appeared in New York, having crossed the Atlantic soon after its extension from Asia into Europe in 1829. Several factors may contribute to the relative unimportance of oysters in causing cholera in the United States. The new subtyping methods used on the Australian strains have also been applied to strains from the United States. Endemic cholera in Australia and the United States is characterized in both countries by reservoirs in water, hemolytic strains that are unique to each country, occurrence during the summer and fall, and very few detected cases. Although Australia and the United States have the strongest evidence for environmental reservoirs of toxigenic O1, similar reservoirs may exist in many countries.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Rivers in eastern Australia associated with cholera cases in nine persons, 1977 to 1987.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Indigenous cases of infection with the Gulf Coast strain of toxigenic O1, United States, 1970 to 1992.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Almeida, R. J.,, D. N. Cameron,, W. L. Cook,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Vibriophage VcA-3 as an epidemic strain marker for the U.S. Gulf Coast Vibrio cholerae O1 clone. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:300304.
2.Anonymous. 1911. The cholera situation—New York. Public Health Rep. 26:1133.
3.Anonymous. 1980. Cholera in Queensland. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 80/3:1.
4.Anonymous. 1981. Cholera—New South Wales. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 81/6:7.
5.Anonymous. 1981. Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 in the Georges River estuary—New South Wales. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 81/18:2.
6.Anonymous. 1983. Indigenous cholera—Queensland. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 83/2:2.
7.Anonymous. 1983. Cholera surveillance—Queensland. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 83/5:6.
8.Anonymous. 1984. Indigenous cholera—Queensland. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 84/8:1.
9.Anonymous. 1987. A cholera case—Queensland. Communicable Dis. Intell. Bull. 87/12:7.
10. Azurin, J. C.,, K. Kobari,, D. Barua,, M. Alvero,, C. Z. Gomez,, J. J. Dizon,, E.-I. Nakano,, R. Sup-lido,, and L. Ledesma. 1967. A long-term carrier of cholera: Cholera Dolores. Bull. W.H.O. 37:745749.
11. Baine, W. B.,, A. Zampieri,, M. Mazzotti,, G. Angioni,, D. Greco,, M. Di Gioia,, E. Izzo,, E. J. Gangarosa,, and F. Pocchiari. 1974. Epidemiology of cholera in Italy in 1973. Lancet ii:13701381.
12. Barrett, T. J.,, and P. A. Blake. 1981. Epidemiologic usefulness of changes in hemolytic activity of Vibrio cholerae El Tor during the seventh cholera pandemic. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:126129.
13. Barrett, T. J.,, P. A. Blake,, G. K. Morris,, N. D. Puhr,, H. B. Bradford,, and J. G. Wells. 1980. Use of Moore swabs for isolating Vibrio cholerae from sewage. J. Clin. Microbiol. 11:385388.
14. Barua, D., 1992. History of cholera, p. 136. In D. Barua, and W. B. Greenough in (ed.), Cholera. Plenum, New York.
15. Blake, P. A.,, D. T. Allegra,, J. D. Snyder,, T. J. Barrett,, L. McFarland,, C. T. Caraway,, J. C. Feeley,, J. P. Craig,, J. V. Lee,, N. D. Puhr,, and R. A. Feldman. 1980. Cholera—a possible endemic focus in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 302:305309.
16. Blake, P. A.,, M. L. Rosenberg,, J. B. Costa,, P. S. Ferreira,, C. L. Guimaraes,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1977. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. I. Modes of transmission. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:337343.
17. Blake, P. A.,, K. Wachsmuth,, B. R. Davis,, C. A. Bopp,, B. P. Chaiken,, and J. V. Lee. 1983. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strain from Mexico identical to United States isolates. Lancet ii:912.
18. Blake, P. A.,, R. E. Weaver,, and D. G. Hollis. 1980. Diseases of humans (other than cholera) caused by vibrios. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 34:341367.
19. Bourke, A. T. C. 1978. The Queensland cholera incident—1977. Part II. A review. Aust. Health Surv. April/May:131133.
20. Bourke, A. T. C.,, Y. N. Cossins,, B. R. W. Gray,, T. J. Lunney,, N. A. Rostron,, R. V. Holmes,, E. R. Griggs,, D. J. Larsen,, and V. R. Kelk. 1986. Investigation of cholera acquired from the riverine environment in Queensland. Med. J. Aust. 144:229234.
21. Centers for Disease Control. 1983. Cholera in a tourist returning from Cancun, Mexico—New Jersey. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 32:357.
22.Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 infection acquired in Colorado. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 38:19.
23. Chen, E.,, G. M. Evins,, W. L. Cook,, R. Almeida,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, and K. Wachsmuth. 1991. Genetic diversity among toxigenic and nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolated from the Western Hemisphere. Epidemiol. Infect. 107:225233.
24. Colwell, R. R.,, and W. M. Spira,. 1992. The ecology of Vibrio cholerae, p. 107127. In D. Barua, and W. B. Greenough III (ed.), Cholera. Plenum, New York.
25. Cossins, Y. M.,, D. M. Murphy,, M. G. Leverington,, and B. R. W. Gray. 1978. The Queensland cholera incident—1977. Part III. Laboratory aspects. Aust. Health Surv. April/May:133136.
26. Davey, G. R.,, J. K. Prendergast,, and M. J. Eyles. 1982. Detection of Vibrio cholerae in oysters, water and sediment from the Georges River. Food Technol. Aust. 34:334336.
27. Desmarchelier, P. M.,, and C. R. Senn. 1989. A molecular epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae in Australia. Med. J. Aust. 150:631634.
28. Donner, V.,, and B. Domingue. 1978. Cholera. Bayou Tech. 23:10.
29. Gergatz, S. J.,, and L. M. McFarland. 1989. Cholera on the Louisiana Gulf Coast: historical notes and case report. J. La. State Med. Soc. 141:2934.
30. Giono, S.,, D. Gaytan,, I. Cortez,, and L. Gutierrez. 1993. Haemolytic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from Gulf Coast of Mexico, abstr. C-271, p. 494. Abstr. 93rd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol.
31. Glass, R. I.,, S. Becker,, M. I. Huq,, B. J. Stoll,, M. U. Khan,, M. H. Merson,, J. V. Lee,, and R. E. Black. 1982. Endemic cholera in rural Bangladesh, 1966-1980. Am. J. Epidemiol. 116:959970.
32. Gordon, A. M. 1970. Cholera in the New World. J. Ky. Med. Assoc. 68:657.
33. Hranitzky, K. W.,, A. D. Larson,, D. W. Ragsdale,, and R. J. Siebeling. 1980. Isolation of O1 serovars of Vibrio cholerae from water by serologically specific method. Science 210:10251026.
34. Johnston, J. M.,, D. L. Martin,, J. Perdue,, L. M. McFarland,, C. T. Caraway,, E. C. Lippy,, and P. A. Blake. 1983. Cholera on a Gulf Coast oil rig. N. Engl. J. Med. 309:523526.
35. Klontz, K. C.,, R. V. Tauxe,, W. L. Cook,, W. H. Riley,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1987. Cholera after the consumption of raw oysters. Ann. Intern. Med. 107:846848.
36. Kolvin, J. L.,, and D. Roberts. 1982. Studies on the growth of Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor and biotype classical in foods. 7. Hyg. (Cambridge) 89:243252.
37. Lin, F. Y. C.,, J. G. Morris, Jr.,, J. B. Kaper,, T. Gross,, J. Michalski,, C. Morrison,, J. P. Li-bonati,, and E. Israel. 1986. Persistence of cholera in the United States: isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 from a patient with diarrhea in Maryland. 7. Clin. Microbiol. 23:624626.
38. Lowry, P. W.,, A. T. Pavia,, L. M. McFarland,, B. H. Peltier,, T. J. Barrett,, H. B. Bradford,, J. M. Quan,, J. Lynch,, J. B. Mathison,, R. A. Gunn,, and P. A. Blake. 1989. Cholera in Louisiana: widening spectrum of seafood vehicles. Arch. Intern. Med. 149:20792084.
39. Mclntyre, R. C.,, T. Tira,, T. Flood,, and P. A. Blake. 1979. Modes of transmission of cholera in a newly infected population on an atoll: implications for control measures. Lancet i:311314.
40. Miller, C. J.,, R. G. Feachem,, and B. S. Drasar. 1985. Cholera epidemiology in developed and developing countries: new thoughts on transmission, seasonality and control. Lancet i:261263.
41. Olsvik, Ø.,, J. Wahlberg,, B. Petterson,, M. Uhlen,, T. Popovic,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, and P. I. Fields. 1992. Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B in Vibrio cholerae O1 strains. 7. Clin. Microbiol. 31:2225.
42. Pavia, A. T.,, J. F. Campbell,, P. A. Blake,, J. D. Smith,, T. W. McKinley,, and D. L. Martin. 1987. Cholera from raw oysters shipped interstate. JAMA 258:2374.
43. Pollitzer, R. 1959. Cholera, p. 11. World Health Organization monograph no. 43. World Health Organization, Geneva.
44. Popovic, T.,, C. A. Bopp,, O. Olsvik,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1993. Epidemiologic application of a standardized ribotype scheme for Vibrio cholerae O1.7. Clin. Microbiol. 31:24742482.
45. Popovic, T.,, O. Olsvik,, P. A. Blake,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. Cholera in the Americas: foodborne aspects. 7. Food. Prot., in press.
46. Rao, A.,, and B. A. Stockwell. 1980. The Queensland cholera incident of 1977. 1. The index case. Bull. W.H.O. 58:663664.
47. Rogers, R. C.,, R. G. C. J. Cuffe,, Y. M. Cossins,, and D. M. Murphy. 1980. The Queensland cholera incident of 1977. 2. The epidemiological investigation. Bull. W.H.O. 58:665669.
48. Salamaso, S.,, D. Greco,, B. Bonfiglio,, M. Castellani-Pastoris,, G. De Felip,, A. Bracciotti,, G. Sitzia,, A. Congiu,, G. Piu,, G. Angioni,, L. Barra,, A. Zampieri,, and W. B. Baine. 1980. Recurrence of pelecypod-associated cholera in Sardinia. Lancet ii:11241128.
49. Shandera, W. X.,, B. Hafkin,, D. L. Martin,, J. P. Taylor,, D. L. Maserang,, J. G. Wells,, M. Kelly,, K. Ghandi,, J. B. Kaper,, J. V. Lee,, and P. A. Blake. 1983. Persistence of cholera in the United States. Am. J. Drop. Med. Hyg. 32:812817.
50. Sutton, R. G. A. 1974. An outbreak of cholera in Australia due to food served in flight on an international aircraft. J. Hyg. (London) 72:441451.
51. Tacket, C. O.,, F. Brenner,, and P. A. Blake. 1984. Clinical features and an epidemiological study of Vibrio vulnificus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 149:558561.
52. Wachsmuth, I. K.,, G. M. Evins,, P. I. Fields,, Ø. Olsvik,, T. Popovic,, C. A. Bopp,, J. G. Wells,, C. Carrillo,, and P. A. Blake. 1993. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America. J. Infect. Dis. 167:621626.
53. Weber, J. T.,, W. Levine,, D. Hopkins,, and R. V. Tauxe. Cholera in the United States, 1965-1991: risks at home and abroad. Arch. Intern. Med., in press.
54. Weber, J. T.,, E. Mintz,, R. Canizares,, A. Semiglia,, I. Gomez,, R. Sempertegui,, A. Davila,, K. Greene,, N. Puhr,, D. Cameron,, T. Barrett,, N. Bean,, C. Ivey,, R. Tauxe,, and P. Blake. Epidemic cholera in Ecuador: multidrug resistance and transmission by water and seafood. Epidemiol. Infect., in press.
55. Weissman, J. B.,, W. E. DeWitt,, J. Thompson,, C. N. Muchnick,, B. L. Portnoy,, J. C. Feeley,, and E. J. Gangarosa. 1975. A case of cholera in Texas, 1973. Am. J. Epidemiol. 100:487498.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error