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Chapter 22 : Transmission of O1

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Abstract:

Infection with O1 is thought to occur only in humans and only after ingestion of the bacterium. Most of one's knowledge about the vehicles of cholera transmission stems from case-control investigations. Statistical tests can identify exposures that are reported significantly more frequently by patients than by controls, and such exposures are considered risk factors for illness. Cholera is exclusively a human disease, and no animal species has been found to be consistently infected. Municipal water systems that lack well maintained facilities for water disinfection and distribution provide a ready means of disseminating O1 to a much larger population than is usually served by a single contaminated source. Fish and shellfish have long been recognized as frequent vehicles of cholera transmission. Cooked grains and legumes support the growth of O1 quite well and have been repeatedly implicated in cholera transmission. Transmission of cholera can occur through a wide variety of food and water vehicles, and sometimes the vehicles have been items that were thought to be highly unlikely at the time, such as cooked crabs in Louisiana or bottled water in Portugal.

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22

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Figure 1

Major transmission routes of cholera. Reprinted with permission (Popovic et al., J. Food Prot. 56:811–821,1993).

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22
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Figure 2

Water as a vehicle of transmission of V. cholerae O1 by country. Numbers correspond to reference numbers in Table 1 .

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22
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Figure 3

Food as a vehicle of transmission of V. cholerae O1 by country. Numbers correspond to reference numbers in Table 2 .

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Water implicated by epidemiologic studies as vehicles of transmission of V. cholerae O1

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22
Generic image for table
Table 2

Foods implicated by epidemiologic studies as vehicles of transmission of V. cholerae O1

Citation: Mintz E, Popovic T, Blake P. 1994. Transmission of O1, p 345-356. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch22

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