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Chapter 23 : Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera

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Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter describes the newer molecular subtyping approaches as they have evolved and been applied to investigations of cholera since the 1970s. It presents specific applications of subtyping in outbreak and epidemic settings and in retrospective studies of well-defined culture collections of O1, including some preliminary information on the serogroup O139. The increasing knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of cholera has been stimulated by advances in technology and by unexpected occurrences of the disease from 1978 to 1993. In this chapter, the authors look at epidemiologically and phenotypically defined groups of isolates and discuss the use of their molecular genetic characteristics and relationships to address specific questions regarding the occurrence and spread of cholera, i.e., the molecular epidemiology of cholera. Robot-assisted DNA sequence analysis of a 460-bp polymerase chain reaction amplification product from indicated that classical biotype strains isolated from 1921 through 1970 had identical DNA sequences. The sequences of 45 O1 strains showed only three nucleotide differences among all strains, and there were three genotypes; the four classical biotype isolates belong to genotype. The multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) analysis of isolates indicated that both patient and food isolates belonged to the typical seventh-pandemic electrophoretic type (ET). Molecular subtyping of can identify specific outbreak strains and can often determine the geographic origins of strains.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23

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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic representation of numbers and sizes of chromosomal DNA dIIIfragments from human O1 strains containing etc genes. Lanes: 1, classical, Japan, 1916; 2, classical, Bangladesh, 1982; 3, El Tor, Peru, 1991; 4, El Tor, Thailand, 1990; 5, El Tor, Rwanda, 1988; 6, El Tor, Louisiana, 1978; 7, El Tor, New Jersey (Cancun), 1983; 8, El Tor, Florida, 1986.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
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Figure 2

I-digested chromosomal DNA hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled 16S and 23S rRNAs from showing relationships of ET and ribotype (RT) in classical human O1 strains. ET i, RT la, India, 1949; ET i, RT lb, Pakistan, 1959; ET i, RT 1c, India, 1941; ET i, RT Id, Bangladesh, 1972; ET i, RT 1e, India, 1960; ET i, RT If, India, 1940; ET ii, RT lb, India, 1941; ET iii, RT 1g, India, 1960.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
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Figure 3

Genetic relationships of seven ETs of 214 isolates of O1. ETs and strain designations are given in Tables 1 and 2.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
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Figure 4

I-digested chromosomal DNA hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled 16S and 23S rRNAs from showing relationships of ET and ribotype (RT) in El Tor human O1 strains. ET1, RT 9, Australia, 1984; ET1, RT 10, Australia, 1977; ET2, RT 2, Louisiana, 1978; ET3, RT 3, Philippines, 1963; ET3, RT 5, Uganda, 1992; ET3, RT 6, India, 1990; ET3, RT 8, Rwanda, 1988; ET4, RT 5, Peru, 1991.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
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Figure 5

Geographic distribution of O1 strains of different ETs.

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Allele profiles of O1

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23
Generic image for table
Table 2

Characteristics of ETs of O1

Citation: Wachsmuth K, Olsvik Ø, Evins G, Popovic T. 1994. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera, p 357-370. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch23

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